L1-education research that informs practice. Three research models applied for writing research
In this presentation I plan to present three nested models for L1-education research, which we applied and apply and further develop in our research team. The models focus respectively on task processes (and their contexts), learning processes (and their contexts) and professional development. I will demonstrate these models for writing with some bits of literary text reading processes. The three models relate to three assumptions (more about the models: http://www.rtle.nl/how.html)
1. We need to know what happens cognitively and emotionally in learners when they read and write: L1-education focus on supporting learners to improve these processes: knowledge about processes. Since 1980 we know quite a lot about writing processes, I will provide a condensed overview.
2. We need to know how we can support learners to improve these processes: knowledge about effective learning and instruction. Since Hillocks meta-analysis (1986) and the more recent reviews by Graham and colleagues, we know quite a lot about what works. I will provide five instructional design principles from the literature and our studies.
3. We need to know under what conditions effective instruction works in practice. In this respect we study the relation between teachers practices, their knowledge, beliefs and skills from a study in which we implemented a new comprehensive writing instruction program in the upper grades of primary education.
Graham, S., & Perin, D. (2007). A meta-analysis of writing instruction for adolescent students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(3), 445-476. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-06184.108.40.2065
Hillocks, G. (1986). Research on written composition: New directions for teaching. National Conference on Research in English.; ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.
Koster, M.P.; Tribushinina, E.; De Jong, Peter; van den Bergh, H.H. (2015). Journal of Writing Research, 7(2), pp. 299 – 324.
Rietdijk, S., Janssen, T., Van Weijen, D., Van den Bergh, H. & Rijlaarsdam, G. (2017). Improving writing in primary schools through a comprehensive writing program. Journal of Writing Research, 9(2), 173-225. doi: 10.17239/jowr-2017.09.02.04
Rietdijk, S., van Weijen, D., Janssen, T., van den Bergh, H., & Rijlaarsdam, G. (2018). Teaching writing in primary education: Classroom practice, time, teachers’ beliefs and skills. Journal of Educational Psychology, 110(5), 640-663. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/edu0000237
Rijlaarsdam, G. Braaksma, M., Couzijn, M., Janssen, T., Kieft, M., Broekkamp, H. & van den Bergh, H. ( 2005). Psychology and The teaching of writing in 8000 and some words. In Pedagogy – Learning for Teaching. BJEP Monograph series II(3), 127-153.
Rijlaarsdam, G., & Van den Bergh, H. (2006). Writing process theory: A functional dynamic approach. In C.A. MacArthur, S. Graham, & J. Fitzgerald (Eds.), Handbook of writing research. [41-53]. New York/London: The Guilford Press.
Rijlaarsdam, G., Braaksma, M., Couzijn, M., Janssen, T., Raedts, M., Van Steendam, E., Toorenaar, A., & Van den Bergh, H. (2008). Observation of peers in learning to write. Practise and research. Journal of Writing Research, 1(1), pp. 53-83.
Van den Bergh, H., Rijlaarsdam, G., & Van Steendam, E. (2015). Writing process theory: A functional dynamic approach. In C.A. MacArthur, S. Graham, & J. Fitzgerald (Eds.), Handbook of writing research. Second edition. [57-71]. New York/London: The Guilford Press.