ARLE 2019
Abstracts for 'Conference participation ARLE 2019'

Vasiliki Adampa
Thorkild Hanghøj
Dimitrios Koutsogiannis     
Playing with gender identities through games and literacy practices – Implications for language teaching
Juli-Anna Aerila
Merja Kauppinen     
Stories make Readers (StoRe) –project from the perspective of the StoRe-students
Ana Albuquerque
Margarida Alves Martins     
Social interactions in early literacy programmes: a research with Portuguese preschoolers
Alisa Amir
Hilla Atkin     
Domains of interest and ICT implementation in a questionnaire on writing
Luis Araujo      Early Parental Reading and Reading for Enjoyment: What Matters Most for Boys and Girls?
Olga Arias-Gundín
Mª Pilar Palomo
Raquel Fidalgo     
Use of writing strategies by undergraduate students in the performance of hybrid tasks
Carina Ascherl      Investigating Teachers' Future Digital Literacies in L1 Teaching – An Interdisciplinary and International Delphi Study
Elżbieta Awramiuk
Jana Vlčková     
SOUND FORM SIGNALIZATION IN L1 POLISH AND CZECH TEXTBOOKS: MEANS, AIMS AND FUNCTIONS
Abderrazzaq Bazar
Yamina El Kirat El Allame     
The Impact of Mother Tongue on the Learning of English: The Case of Moroccan Learners
Mounia Benjelloun
Yamina El Kirat El Allame     
The Role of Story Telling in the Development of the Child’s Lexical Richness: Case Study
Anica Betz
Lena Bocek
Joerg Jost
Michael Krelle     
How do Students Deal with Sources in Writing-from-Sources-Tasks? An Insight into Students’ Texts and Task-Solving-Processes
Dr. Tuva Bjørkvold      Spontaneous collaborative writing among students as researchers
Witold Bobinski      DO WE TEACH READING IN THE WAY WE READ BOOKS? “HUMAN” SIDE OF THE REDISCOVERY OF TEACHING
Gustav Borsgård      Fostering democracy through literature education
Bouchra BOUKLATA
Yamina El Kirat El Allame     
Textual Features of the Academic Language of Moroccan Monolingual Children’s Register at Home and at School
Yassine Boussagui
Yamina El Kirat El Allame     
Language policy and Language Revitalization or Devitalisation: The case of Amazigh in Morocco
MAUREEN BOYD
Emma Janicki-Gechoff
John Gordon
Tina Høegh     
Dialogic Pedagogy: Literature based pedagogy and purposeful teacher practices
Esther Breuer      Execution Processes in L1 and FL writing
Scott Bulfin
Nikolaj Elf
Dimitrios Koutsogiannis     
Invited SIG Technology and Literacy Education (SIG TALE) Symposium: Agency, Technology and Teaching L1
Adriana Bus
Lisa van der Sande     
Long-term effects of BookStart
Mark-Oliver Carl      Research on Poetry Reading in Secondary Education - Cognitive Models, New Studies and their Methodological Challenges
Marília Carvalho Batista
Ana Isabel Mata     
Orality in the initial training of Brazilian Portuguese Language Teachers: A Case Study
Daniel Cassany
Boris Vazquez-Calvo     
Young people’s vernacular literacy practices online: identities and language learning
Jordi Casteleyn
André Mottart     
L1 Literature education: Quintessential or perhaps inconvenient for future engineers?
Jordi Casteleyn      What can L1 classes learn from professional speaking courses?
Sungmin CHANG      Analysis of structural relationship between multiple document comprehension, argumentative writing, self-regulatory processes, and deep understanding
Wai Ming Cheung
Yanli Huang
Hiu Mei Chan
Qing Zhang     
The Effect of Guided Fantasy on the Creative Writing Ability of Linguistically Diverse Students
Mette Vedsgaard Christensen
Kristine Kabel     
Grammar teaching practices in Danish L1 classes
Eva Dam Christensen      Exploratory and Critical Dialogues as Learning and Reflection Tools
Valentina Christodoulou
Elena Ioannidou     
NEW DIGITAL PRACTICES AND EMERGING LITERACY FORMS: AN INVESTIGATION OF YOUNG PEOPLE’S LANGUAGE USE IN SOCIAL MEDIA
Rosalie Hiuyan Chung
Julie Cohen     
Analyzing the mechanisms that influence the relationship between teachers and coaches
Anthony Coppola
Glais Sales Cordeiro     
Young newcomer students’ capacities to understand and recount a tale in French, language of instruction, through a “minimal circuit of activities”
Marianne Cormier
Nicole Lirette-Pitre
Nicole Ferguson     
An exploration of the interplay of children’s literature and the Learning Cycle instructional model on students’ understanding in science, language abilities and reading comprehension.
Rosária Rodrigues Correia
Luis Araujo
Célia Folgado
Carla Sofia Sobrinho Lourenço Sampaio
Susana Franco     
Assessing oral language skills at primary school entry
Paulo Costa
Angela C. P. Balca     
(Re)building traditional narratives: writing exercises from windows and mirrors
Ana Luísa Costa
Ana CSCS Mota     
What do we put? A comma?
João Costa      Global challenges for education. Can linguists help?
Antónia Coutinho
Matilde Gonçalves
Noémia Jorge     
Text genres, discursive types and possible developmental effects
Hans Das
Barend P. van Heusden
Theo Witte
Gillis J. Dorleijn     
Students’ attitude towards poetry, the way(s) in which they read poetry and stages of poetry reading
Charlotte Dejaegher
Marine ANDRE
Patricia Schillings
Jonathan Rappe     
Teaching comprehension’s strategies in an explicit and authentic way in the earliest learnings: effects of beliefs on teachers' practices
Jeroen Dera      Literature Education as Normative Practice: the Case of the Netherlands
Fleur Diamond
Graham B. Parr
Lorna Smith
Nikki Aharonian
Scott Bulfin
simon wrigley     
L1 educators writing together in hybrid professional learning communities: International perspectives
Fleur Diamond
Scott Bulfin
Graham B. Parr
Ceridwen Owen
Kelli McGraw     
Teacher professionalism as a ‘site of struggle’: L1 teachers’ work and creating alternative understandings of professional identity
Brenton Doecke
Philip Mead     
This ‘in-between’ world of theory and practice: The role that literary knowledge plays in the teaching of literature
Yamina El Kirat El Allame      Optimal Measures for the Maintenance and/or Revival of the Amazigh Language in Morocco
Yamina El Kirat El Allame
Othmane Zakaria     
Foreign Learners of MSA and the Challenges of the Moroccan Diglossic Context
Nikolaj Elf
Jimmy H.M. van Rijt
Marloes Schrijvers     
Reflecting on the future identity of L1 - Educational Studies in Language and Literature
Ilana Elkad-Lehman      Teaching literature in a heritage language: The case of literature instruction in Hebrew for immigrant children
Per-Olof Erixon
Stanislav Štěpáník
Bill Green     
‘RETHINKING L1 EDUCATION IN THE GLOBAL ERA’
Magdalena Flores
Rut Sánchez-Rivero
Anabela Malpique     
Writing instruction in Ibero-America: national survey studies in Spanish and Portuguese
Magdalena Flores
Daphne van Weijen
Gert Rijlaarsdam     
Teachers’ beliefs about writing instruction in public secondary schools in Chile: an online national survey
Xavier Fontich      Invited SIG Eduling Symposium: Research on grammar teaching in language education: drawing on the pedagogic system as a a common ground
Carolin Führer      Approaches to the reception of graphic novels as multimodal literature – a case for new writing tasks in secondary schools
Michal Ganz-Meishar
Idit Porat
Miri Miller     
Characteristics of Literary Discourse by Co-Teaching in Elementary School
Anna-Lena Godhe
Annette Mars
Ann-Mari Edström     
Visualizing the invisible – assessing qualities in multimodal meaning-making in language education
Matilde Gonçalves
Antónia Coutinho
Noémia Jorge     
Gathering scientific community and lay people: Scientific literacy promotion project
Alejo Ezequiel González López Ledesma      Digital media in Language and Literature teaching practices: an ethnographic and historic approach to address change at school
andy goodwyn      Contesting the territory: how Mother Tongue English teachers in England and Australia are remaining resilient and creative in constraining times.
andy goodwyn      The Highly Affective teaching of L1 English: a case study in a global context
John Gordon      Understanding narrative voice through classroom literature discussion
Aslaug Fodstad Gourvennec
Heidi Höglund
Maritha Johansson
Kristine Kabel
Margrethe Sonneland     
Literature in the Nordic Curricula: a study of the concept of literature and legitimization for literary education in the curricula for lower secondary education
Aslaug Fodstad Gourvennec      Figured Worlds Among Teachers Co-Teaching Classes with Respectively Strong and Poor Literacy-Development
Marta Gràcia
Maria-Josep Jarque
Sonia Jarque
Carles Riba     
The EVALOE-SSD, a digital tool for the professional development of teachers
Anna Guzy      Ways to stimulate children's linguistic activity in the field of naming emotions
Ida Gyde
Peter Fregerslev     
L1 teachers beliefs of grammar teaching in lower secondary schools compared with teacher beliefs from L2 and L3 language teachers
Ida Gyde      Title: L1 teachers beliefs of grammar teaching in lower secondary schools compared with reasons from L2 and L3 teachers
Manar Halwani      Motivation and Engagement to learn Swedish as a Second Language by Immigrant Adult professionals
Thorkild Hanghøj      Student positioning toward writing journalism about games and game culture
Jens Jørgen Hansen      Critical analysis of didactical principles for writing instruction
Irit Haskel-Shaham      College students’ knowledge about writing a seminar paper
Sigal Hason      State-religious elementary school teachers’ perception of the reading book’s role as a source of social information
Elias Heikkonen      The relationship between textual and contextual knowledge in assessing and developing literary literacy
Ria Heilä-Ylikallio
Mindy Svenlin
Heidi Höglund
Sofia Jusslin
Anders Westerlund
Dag Skarstein
Anna Nordenstam     
Beyond, Crossing or Erasing Boundaries? An Aesthetic, Language-Strengthening and Creative Collaboration in Upper Secondary School
Ayoe Quist Henkel
Birgitte Stougaard Pedersen
Sarah Mygind     
Children’s Multisensory Reading
Lia Hermida
Marta Gràcia     
ORAL LANGUAGE TRAINING WITH THREE TEACHERS OF ECUADOR USING EVALOE-SSD DIGITAL APPLICATION: SELF-ASSESSMENT, MAKE-DECISION AND INTRODUCTION OF CHANGES IN CLASSES
Jeanette Hoffmann      Sidewalk Flowers – Primary School Children Talk, Write and Draw to Graphically Told Stories
Lieke Holdinga
Tanja Janssen
Gert Rijlaarsdam     
Writing from sources in history and philosophy courses: teachers’ practices and beliefs
Elena Ioannidou
Elisavet Kiourti     
“Write, mate! Spelling does not count”: Developing a Social Literacy Program for L1 in the Prison School in Cyprus
Julie Marie Isager      Students’ preparatory processes and conceptions of oral exams in upper-secondary Danish high schools
Dieter Isler
Claudia Hefti
Anke Börsel
Anne-Grete Kaldahl     
Teacher´s talk in different grades and across subjects
Anna Janus-Sitarz      How to Talk in the Classroom about Politically Incorrect Literary Masterpieces?
Maritha Johansson
Anna Nordenstam     
Reading Challenging Literary Texts in School An Interview Study with Swedish Teachers at the International Baccalaureate Program
Sofia Jusslin
Heidi Höglund     
Poetry teaching through dance and visual teaching pedagogies: A systematic literature review
Kristine Kabel
Jesper Bremholm
Thorkild Hanghøj     
Understanding game design activities as literacy practices in a school context: Outline for a theoretical framework
Sotiria Kalasaridou      Teaching Holocaust in literature classes in Greece: Teaching Approaches and Student Responses
Agnieszka Kania      (Mis)understanding Holocaust literature. Reception of Tadeusz Borowski and Primo Levi by Polish and Israeli readers.
Merja Kauppinen      Renewing the evaluation of learning outcomes in Finnish/Swedish as national L1s and literature – how and for what purpose?
Souhaila Khamlichi
Yamina El Kirat El Allame     
The Medium of Instruction in Morocco between the Official Discourse and the Classroom Practices
Elisavet Kiourti      “Shut the fuck up and plant the bomb fast”:Reconstructing language and identity in First Person Shooter Games
Christiane Kirmse
Anna Seeber
Florian Hesse     
Beliefs in reading autobiographies of German L1 teacher students.
Christiane Kirmse      Research on Experts’ and Novices’ literary reading processes. Teachers’ and Students’ Strategies of dealing with point of view.
Martin Klimovič
Iveta Kovalčíková     
What slow and/or innacurate readers report on how they learn from text
Grażyna M. Krasowicz - Kupis
Katarzyna Wiejak     
Assessing reading comprehension in Polish children and adolescents
Michael Krelle
Veronika Österbauer
Antonia Maria Bachinger
Gabriele von Eichhorn
Marcel Illetschko     
Text procedures in argumentative performances by 4th grade students
Karen A Krepps      Text Construction in Preschool
Ellen Krogh
Anna Nordenstam
Dag Skarstein
Ria Heilä-Ylikallio     
The emergence of the L1-research field in a Nordic perspective
Eunsun Kwon
Byeonggon Min     
The Power and Limits of Interest: Connected Learning in Adolescents' Civic Literacy Practices
Ann Sylvi Larsen      “The Catastrophe” – narrative writing in a Norwegian 10th grade
Natalie Lavoie      How does language support the production of texts by primary school boys and girls?
Sarah Levine
Karoline Trepper
Rosalie Hiuyan Chung     
Teacher and Student Uptake of an Affect-Based Approach to Literary Interpretation
Sarah Levine      Affect in the Classroom: Teaching and Learning Literary Reading and Response
Anne Lind
anne b svenkerud     
Theory meets practice. Classical texts in the primary school classroom.
Eva Lindgren      Writing in the 21st century – global educational discourses about writing
Ludmila Liptakova
Dávid Dziak     
Children´s understanding of a prosocial literary role model
Hengyi Liu      Development of Multiliteracies: Bilingual Students’ Literacy Learning in an After-School Program
DAN LIU
Michel Favriaud     
‘Ecopoetry’ as a basic part of reading learning
Elizabeth Ka Yee Loh      Self-determination theory and the facilitation of second language learning
Elizabeth Ka Yee Loh
CHAN Sing Pui Tikky     
Language, tension and agency: Teacher identity formation in Chinese as a Second Language (CSL) education for ethnic minority kindergarteners
Paula López
Raquel Fidalgo     
Effects of professional development in strategy-focused writing intervention on fourth-grade Spanish teachers and students’ outcomes
Rasmus Fink Lorentzen      Digital literacy and CODE (Code, Collaboration & Design)
Anna Ślósarz      Multimedia thematic modules (MTM) as literature teaching method
Maria Luna
Ruth Villalon
Isabel Martínez-Álvarez
María del Mar Mateos
Elena Martín     
How undergraduates use an online written guide scaffold when they need to write an argumentation?
Anna Lyngfelt      Desire manifested by young students’ multimodal text production
Marco Magirius
Sören Ohlhus
Daniel A. Scherf     
METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO THE LITERATURE CLASSROOM
Marco Magirius      Mixed Methods in L1-Educational Research exemplified by a Study on Beliefs of L1-Teacher Training Students on Interpreting
Petra Magnusson      Understanding L1 teachers’ talk about digitalization and multimodality
Camilla G Magnusson      One teacher’s reading comprehension instruction in an effective language arts classroom, and students’ metacognitive awareness of own reading processes
Inger Maibom
GRETE DOLMER     
Scaffolded Grammar Teaching of Writing and Student Group Work
Aino Mäkikalli      Potentiality of literary theory in contemporary literature education
Anabela Malpique
Deborah Pino-Pasternak     
Writing and reading performance in Year 1 Australian classrooms: The role of handwriting automaticity and writing instruction
Rocío Martínez
Diego Morales     
Why is it necessary to create educational resources for Deaf children, families, and schools with the constant involvement of the local Deaf community?
Ana S. Martins      Text complexity and word learning
Antoneli Matos Belli Sinder      Canonical Brazilian literature texts in Portuguese language classes
Johannes Mayer      Book reading as a shared multimodal activity
Larissa McLean Davies
Wayne Sawyer
Lyn Yates
Brenton Doecke
Philip Mead     
What are we developing?: Priorities and challenges for teaching literature in secondary subject English in Australia
Larissa McLean Davies
Wayne Sawyer
andy goodwyn     
LITERATURE and ‘DEVELOPMENT’
Alejandra Menti
María Paula Dutari
Sebastián Carignano
Celia R. Rosemberg     
The Teaching of Words and Information Juxtaposition. An Analysis of Kindergarten and First Grade Classes
Margaret Kristin Merga      Supporting literacy and literature learning: The role of librarians in schools
Per Arne Michelsen      Dialogic aspects in speeches
Louise Molbæk      Situation Based (authentic) Writing
Miriam Morek
Anke A. Herder
Debra A Myhill     
Teachers’ and students’ metatalk about written text production and negotiation of concepts of writing
Natascha Naujok      Participation in Storytelling Settings – Multimodal Approaches in Multilingual Education
Bernadeta Niesporek-Szamburska      Literary metaphor awareness by children aged 7 and 9
Arne Olav Nygard
Atle Skaftun
Åse Kari H. Wagner     
Frames for oracy in primary school in Norway
Eun ha Oh
Hyounjin Ok
Jangwon Moon
Jiyoun Kim
Sanghee Ryu
Soohyun Seo     
Digital Literacy Attitudes of Korean Elementary Students
Elisabeth Ohlsson      What impact can language have on language? An intervention on productive written vocabulary in L1.
Hyounjin Ok
Byeong-Young Cho
Jong-Yun Kim
INSUK KIM
Hee dong Kim     
A Web-Based Digital Literacy Assessment for K-12 Learners in Korea: Its design and results
Fátima Olivares
Paula López
Maria lourdes Alvarez
María Arrimada
Olga Arias-Gundín     
Revising strategies of narrative writing in primary grade students
Luci Pangrazio
Anna-Lena Godhe
Alejo Ezequiel González López Ledesma     
In search of a term: Defining digital literacies in the 21st century
Iris Susana Pereira      On learning how to be a language and literacy teacher at university. Student teachers’ perceptions about a learning strategy
Yael Poyas      Inquiry-based learning in Literature - possibilities and challenges - A case study
Helin Puksand      Using textbooks in the lessons of L1 and literature
Sofia Pulls      Constructions of (literary) writing in textbooks. The differences between writing in 1989 and writing in 2011.
SARA REAL CASTELAO
Patricia Robledo-Ramón
Vanesa López
Raquel Fidalgo
Olga Arias-Gundín     
Writing strategies and textual quality: How do they relate in upper primary education students?
SARA REAL CASTELAO
Mark Torrance
Gert Rijlaarsdam
Raquel Fidalgo     
Exploring Effectiveness and Transferring of the Components of a Cognitive Self-Regulated Instruction in Writing
Susanne Riegler
Maja Wiprächtiger-Geppert     
Primary School Teachers’ Beliefs about Spelling and Spelling Acquisition
Gert Rijlaarsdam      L1-education research that informs practice. Three research models applied for writing research
Léonard P. Rivard      Using a Discussion Strategy for Enhancing Reading Comprehension in the Science Classroom
Joao M.S. Rosa      Morphological awareness development in a naturalistic preschool setting
Helle Rørbech      Heterotopias – a study of other spaces in 10th grade students’ film production
Alexandra Ruivo      Slow writing - Improving writing skills
Cristina Manuela Sá      Teaching with comics to develop competences in oral communication
Tatjana Kielland Samoilow      Children’s cultural imagination of the refugee crisis
Joana V. Santos
Paulo N Silva     
Shortening Texts and Writing Abstracts in Higher Education: from Classroom Exercises to Knowledge Building Strategies
Wayne Sawyer
Larissa McLean Davies     
Exploring the relationship between literature and knowledge in L1 English
Catarina Schmidt      The Danger of a Single Story: Classroom Talk in Grade 6
Frederike Schmidt      Teachers’ perspectives on assessing students’ reading skills. A Design Research study on the development of a web-based instrument for practitioners
Anke Schmitz
Fabiana Karstens
Joerg Jost     
Strategy-based reading instruction in secondary schools: Findings from classroom observations and teachers’ surveys
Bernard Schneuwly
Glais Sales Cordeiro     
Text genres and L1 education
Bernard Schneuwly      Grand témoin
Marloes Schrijvers
Tanja Janssen
Olivia Fialho
Gert Rijlaarsdam     
Tranformative Dialogic Literature Teaching fosters students’ insight into human nature
Marloes Schrijvers
Sarah Levine
Iris Vansteelandt     
Systematic Design of Interventions for Literary and Reading Instruction (Invited SIG ROLE symposium)
Isabel Sebastião      The argumentative writing: the curricula, the textbook and the teacher – a classroom interaction
Isabel Sebastião      The role of the instructional statement in the writing process
Anna Seeber
Iris Winkler     
Online-based peer feedback in teaching practicum. Facets of professional competence of German L1 teacher students
Yael Segev
Sigal Hason     
Considerations in Running a virtual professional community as part of the effort to encourage reading in Elementary Schools.
Hyunseok Seo      Elementary School Teachers' Perception on Reading Underachievers and Teaching Experiences in South Korea
Conceição Siopa
Luísa A. Pereira
Joaquim Dolz     
Academic Writing at the University in Mozambique
Dag Skarstein      Online comments sections as interpretive communities
Sylvana Sofkova Hashemi      Pre-service Teachers Exploring Early Writing Instruction – fostering professional digital competence
Margrethe Sonneland      Working with Literature in Lower Secondary School. A study of the interplay between complex texts and readers in group interactions
A. Fulya Soğuksu
Yonca Koçmar Demirci     
Gendered Concept Formation in Educational Processes
Elin Strømman      Multimodality in writing
Bianca Strutz
Irene Pieper     
Learners’ approaches to poetic metaphor
Erika Sturk
Ann-Christin Randahl
Christina Olin-Scheller     
Discourses of writing in Facebook groups for teachers
Ingvill Krogstad Svanes
Dr. Tuva Bjørkvold
Dag Freddy Røed     
Metalinguistic talk in literacy events with tablets
Carla Teixeira
Adriana Cardoso     
Writing abstracts in higher education: types of discourse
Anouk ten Peze
Tanja Janssen
Gert Rijlaarsdam     
'Something different!' Does creative writing instruction influence students' writing performance?
Stina Thunberg      The reading avatar: Literacy and gamification
Stina Thunberg
Caroline Graeske     
Boys and girl-ish avatars - performing gender in language education
Maria Juddy Torres Villamil
Xavier Fontich     
Relationship between written genres and academic identity: Argumentative writing learning in higher education students in Colombia
Solveig Troelsen      Handling ambiguity under pressure: writing prompt and student responses at the Danish final exam in written composition
Andrea Trueba
Ruth Villalon     
Analysis of the written products of sixth grade students: summary and synthesis
Stavroula Tsiplakou      Critical literacy despite diglossia: data from Cypriot schools
Anne Uusen
Jane Pugi     
The comparison of texts written by 5th graders on computer and by hand
Liselore van Ockenburg
Daphne van Weijen
Gert Rijlaarsdam     
A little glimpse into synthesis writing interventions from different nations: similarities and differences
Jimmy H.M. van Rijt
Peter-Arno JM Coppen     
When students tackle grammatical problems. Exploring linguistic reasoning with linguistic metaconcepts in grammar education
Filomena B. Viegas
Laura Rodrigues Pinheiro Guimarães
Luís Ramos     
The interdisciplinary glossary in the development of lexical competence
Caroline Viriot-Goeldel
TOTEREAU Corinne
Jacques Crinon     
Teaching Spelling with Twitter?
Karolina Wawer      Teaching the “challenging texts” by means of play and creative writing. From avant-garde literature to digital verse
Astrid Wijnands
Peter-Arno JM Coppen     
A new grammar pedagogy for the development of cognitive and reflective thinking in secondary education
Anna Wileczek
Agnieszka Szplit     
Linguistic problems in bilingual education and teachers’ individual strategies used to solve them (research in Polish schools)
Anna Wileczek
Agnieszka Szplit     
Educational applications used for developing language competence in the mother tongue and the English language in Poland
Angela Wiseman
Kevin Oliver     
Promoting L1 and Interdisciplinary Connections through Locative Narrative Approaches
Angela Wiseman      Children’s Digital and Visual Responses to Picturebooks in a Primary School Classroom
Robert P Yagelski
Winnie-Karen Giera
Astrid Neumann     
On the boarders between – written with oral communication
Robert P Yagelski      Writing, Being, and Knowing: A Working Theory of Writing as an Ontological Act
Sooyeon Yang
Byeonggon Min     
The Effect of Discussion Participants’ Genre Perception and Expectation on the Discussion Process-Focusing on Small-Group Discussion among Korean Middle School Third Graders-
Minae Yu
Ko Eun Hong
Bon Gwan Koo     
A Study on Modal Expressions in Argumentative Texts of University Students
Chang Yuan
Jessica L. Eagle
Lili Wang     
Empowering ELL Students Through Digital Literacies: Research, Complexities, and Implications
Haoran Zheng
Anne T Keary
Sharryn Clarke
Julie Faulkner     
‘How do normal people speak?’: Language and anxiety in international pre-service teachers’ professional experience
keyi ZHOU
Rainbow Rung CHAN
Wai Ming Cheung
Eva Lindgren     
Lesson Study on the Combination of Reading and Writing in Primary One
Junling Zhu      Promoting conceptual development of the second conditional in the classroom zone of proximal development


Vasiliki Adampa & Thorkild Hanghøj & Dimitrios Koutsogiannis ()
PLAYING WITH GENDER IDENTITIES THROUGH GAMES AND LITERACY PRACTICES – IMPLICATIONS FOR LANGUAGE TEACHING

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 15:45-17:15 Room T15 Chair: Gonçalves, Matilde
It is often claimed that digital gameplay contributes to literacy and language development (e.g. Gee, 2003) and that games can be used productively within the context of L1 and L2 teaching (e.g. Beavis et al., 2017). Some of the main assumptions underlying these arguments are that video games are appealing to children and that their use in teaching can bridge the school reality with children’s everyday interests. These assumptions are often based on the hypothesis that all children, independent of their gender, age, locality and sociocultural background, have the same or similar experiences with video games.

The main aim of the present paper is to check the validity of this hypothesis. We will use data from a large-scale research project (2011-2015). Data analysis (1185 questionnaires completed by children 11-15 years old, 33 children’s ethnographic case studies, and interviews with parents) indicates that there are commonalities but also differences. Indeed, it seems that a high percentage of children play video games many hours per day and this is irrespective of their family’s socioeconomic background, the type of school they attend, and their grades.

However, both qualitative and quantitative data indicate gender differences in video game play. Whereas girls prefer to play casual, simulation and educational games, boys choose to play sports, shooting and strategy games. Our data suggests that different game types are part of constructing specific gendered identities: on the one hand, girl gaming relates mostly to the sphere(s) of domestic space, celebrity culture and consumerism; on the other hand, boys construct mainly sports and competitive identities. The gendered dimension of game playing also has strong affinities with girls’ and boys’ engagement in other print and digital literacy practices outside school (e.g. magazines/newspapers, websites, TV programmes, social media etc.). Since the children’s initial familiarization with the digital media takes place through game playing, the role of digital games appears to be important in “the major adolescent project of identity” (Beavis 2005).

The presentation will conclude with the implications of these findings for the incorporation of digital games in educational settings, especially in L1 context.

References
Beavis, C. (2005). Pretty good for a girl: Gender, identity and computer games. Proceedings of DiGRA 2005 International Conference: Changing Views – Worlds in Play.
Beavis, C., Dezuanni, M. and O’Mara, J. (2017). Serious Play. Literacy, Learning and Digital Games. London: Routledge.
Gee, J.P. (2003). What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Key-words
video games, gender identities, children’s literacy practices


Juli-Anna Aerila & Merja Kauppinen (Finland)
STORIES MAKE READERS (STORE) –PROJECT FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE STORE-STUDENTS

Paper session ARLE 2019 Friday, 14:00-15:30 Room T14 Chair: Lobo, Maria
Stories make Readers (StoRe) –project is a project concentrating on supporting educators in creating positive reading climate with the children in their groups. The piloting project of StoRe was implemented in a network of 10 class teachers in Finland. The importance of literature and literacy skills in the development of a child is undeniable whether we think of academic skills, emotional development or coping with the life in general. Children's readership is based on the models of adults and peers, and the attachment to positive images of readers. Educators are important role models in reading, as well as parents. However, the parental support during emergent literacy varies a lot. For example, 28 % of Finnish parents reports not reading regularly to their children (PIRLS 2016). Supporting parents in their readership is important, since the meaning of parental support is highlighted in international literacy assessments: there is a strong relationship between reading attitudes at home and reading commitment of a child. In this study, we present the perceptions of the importance of adult (teachers and family members) support for the StoRe-students. The data consist of online questionnaires (both open-ended and Likert-scale) answered by 274 students in Finnish primary schools (grades 1 – 6). The data is analyzed with qualitative content analyze and supported by quantitative information. The amount of data enables many perspectives to the adult support in reading. The preliminary results indicate, that students value and pay attention to the readership of adults. The means of pondering the readership are very concrete: talking about free time reading experiences, having books on the table, possessing knowledge about children’s books and reading aloud. The readership is more visible and strong to the younger readers and get vaguer since the students grow older. The most common role models to reading are the teachers, parents and the grandparents, but it seems that the older siblings in the family could be an important asset. Based on this study, more effort should be made to show the positive readership in classrooms and at home.

Cremin, T., Mottram, M., Collins, F., Powell, S. & Safford, K. (2014). Building Communities of Engaged Readers: Reading for pleasure. New York: Routledge.
Merga, M. (2016). I don't know if she likes reading”. Are teachers perceived to be keen readers, and how is this determined? English in Education 50(3):255–269.
The PIRLS 2016. International Results in Reading. https://timssandpirls.bc.edu/pirls2016/index-pirls.html
StoRe – Stories make Readers 2018. https://peda.net/id/b7896a1230b [12.12.2018]


Ana Albuquerque & Margarida Alves Martins (Portugal)
SOCIAL INTERACTIONS IN EARLY LITERACY PROGRAMMES: A RESEARCH WITH PORTUGUESE PRESCHOOLERS

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 15:45-17:15 Room T6 Chair: Uusen, Anne
Introduction: Numerous authors have demonstrated the benefits of invented spelling programmes in preschool contexts for young children’s literacy development (Albuquerque & Alves Martins, 2016, 2018; Alves Martins, Salvador, Albuquerque & Silva, 2016; Hofslundsengen, Hagtvet & Gustafsson, 2016; Ouellette, Sénéchal & Haley, 2013). Nonetheless, adult scaffolding interventions and peer interactions that occur in the intervention sessions are rarely explored in this process. Aim: Consequently, in this qualitative research we aimed at investigating the social dynamics that took place between the researcher and the participants in an invented spelling programme in small groups of Portuguese 5-year-old children. Method: We randomly selected children from the experimental condition with diverse metalinguistic skills at the beginning of the experiment – alphabet knowledge, syllable awareness and phoneme awareness. The programme was entirely audio recorded and transcribed so that we could study the interactive processes performed in the first, middle and last sessions. Results and discussion: The frequency and quality of interventions were analyzed and we identified specific adult mediation/scaffolding strategies and children speech units. Our results and its implications are discussed and reviewed within teaching-learning practices in preschool education curricula.

Keywords: preschool; invented spelling; scaffolding; peer interactions

References:
. Albuquerque, A. & Alves Martins, M. (2016). Promotion of literacy skills in early childhood: a follow-up study from kindergarten to Grade 1. Infancia y Aprendizaje: Journal for the Study of Education and Development, 1-16. doi: 10.1080/02103702.2016.1196913.
. Albuquerque, A. & Alves Martins, M. (2018). Escrita inventada no jardim-de-infância: contributos para a aprendizagem da leitura e escrita. Análise Psicológica, 36 (3), 341-354. doi: 10.14417/ap.1308.
. Alves Martins, M., Salvador. L., Albuquerque, A., & Silva, C. (2016). Invented spelling activities in small groups and early spelling and reading. Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology, 36(4), 738-752. doi:10.1080/01443410.2014.950947.
. Hofslundsengen, H., Hagtvet, B. E., & Gustafsson, J. E. (2016). Immediate and delayed effects of invented writing intervention in preschool. Reading and Writing, 29, 1473-1495. doi: 10.1007/s11145-016-9646-8.
. Ouellette, G., Sénéchal, M., & Haley, A. (2013). Guiding children's invented spellings: A gateway into literacy learning. Journal of Experimental Education, 81(2), 261–279. doi: 10.1080/00220973.2012.699903.


Alisa Amir & Hilla Atkin (Israel)
DOMAINS OF INTEREST AND ICT IMPLEMENTATION IN A QUESTIONNAIRE ON WRITING

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 09:30-11:00 Room T7 Chair: Elkad-Lehman, Ilana
Writing is often regarded as a challenging activity as it involves activation of regulation and strategies in the different phases of text production. It requires cognitive and meta cognitive engagement and demands motivational control. In other words, writers are required to plan, direct and evaluate their writing while coping with various meta cognitive processes. Despite the importance attributed to writing, in Israeli national exams writing performances of students indicate that they do not develop the essential writing skills to be successful at school - pointing out the rather basic level of students' writing skills. In a survey attached to these exams students expressed their dislike of writing activities, and writing lessons are experienced as boring and tiresome.
One of the ways to bridge over this lacuna is that teachers become familiar with students' stances, motivation and self-efficacy beliefs in different phases of writing. An effective way to do so is by utilizing questionnaires for self-reports on students' stances on writing processes. Quite a few questionnaires were developed for various purposes (see, De Smedt et al., 2018; Kieft et al., 2006, 2008), however, we did not find questionnaires which encompass the components of ICT and interest, i.e. interest domains of students.
The questionnaire can enable the teacher to form a data-based dialogue, relating to the students’ stances on writing, their interest domains, and accordingly to set special-interest-groups and suggest relevant writing topics. From the students’ perspective - in addition to the development of metacognitive awareness and self-regulation processes, the added components enable them to belong to an interest discourse community which operates in a technological environment in the process of writing.
We therefore, formulated a new questionnaire, based on existing questionnaires, and added two new components: domains of interest and the use of ICT in writing. The added components lean on Interest Theory (Hidi & Boscolo, 2006; Renninger & Hidi, 2016) and on the implementation of ICT in writing education (Avidov-Ungar & Amir, 2018).
We will present the process of the questionnaire adaptation and development, its validity and reliability, the rationale for the added components and teachers' evidence of utilizing the questionnaire.

Avidov-Ungar, O., & Amir, A. (2018). Development of a teacher questionnaire on the use of ICT tools to teach first language writing. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 31 (7), 675-693.

De Smedt ,et al. De Smedt F., Merchie, E., Barendse, M., Rosseel, Y., De Naeghel, J., & Van Keer, H. (2018). Cognitive and Motivational Challenges in Writing: Studying the Relation with Writing Performance Across Students' Gender and Achievement Level. Reading Research Quarterly, 53(2), 249-272.

Kieft, M., Rijlaarsdam, G., & van den Bergh, H. (2006). Writing as a learning tool: Testing the role of students’ writing strategies. European journal of psychology of education, 21(1), 17.

Renninger, K. A., Hidi, S. (2016). The power of interest for motivation and engagement. New York, NY: Routledge.





Luis Araujo (Portugal)
EARLY PARENTAL READING AND READING FOR ENJOYMENT: WHAT MATTERS MOST FOR BOYS AND GIRLS?

Paper session ARLE 2019 Friday, 14:00-15:30 Room T16 Chair: Levine, Sarah
This study examines the combined effect of frequency of parental book reading to 4-5 year olds and of students reading for enjoyment outside school on Australian students’ literacy scores at ages 8-9. Sénéchal (2012) has shown that family literacy practices related to teaching preschool children about literacy, namely the alphabet, and reading with them increase reading comprehension in fourth grade. Araújo and Costa (2015) report similar results in different European countries, using data from the cross-sectional Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS). It is well established that reading to young children positively influences later reading achievement (Kalb & van Ours, 2014) and it might also increase children’s motivation to read, which in turn will result in more frequent reading for enjoyment (Neuman & Dickinson, 2011, p.901). However, no longitudinal research exists to tests whether there is an additional advantage of students’ reading for enjoyment in the reading achievement of children who have been exposed to early book reading (Sénéchal & Young, 2008). To investigate this, we use data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC) in a hierarchical model where parental reading has a direct effect on the child current reading ability and a model where parental reading has an indirect effect through an association with reading for enjoyment. Results indicate that while for boys early parental reading has an indirect effect on reading scores test via its impact on reading for enjoyment, for girls the two effects are independent and therefore cumulative. This highlights the importance of parental reading to young boys as a form of early transmission of human capital. Findings also suggest that parental book reading reflects educational practices and cultural values, as the families that engage in book reading are more likely to limit the amount of TV children watch on weekdays. Lastly, reading for enjoyment seems to be, in and of itself, a capital investment in learning that results in better reading scores. This highlights the need for parents and schools to motivate students to read, namely by exposing them to environments that stimulate reading habits.

Keywords

Reading to Young Children, Reading for Enjoyment, Gender Differences, Human Capital
References
Araújo, L., & Costa, P. (2015). Home book reading and reading achievement in EU countries: the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study 2011 (PIRLS). Educational Research.
Kalb, G., & Ours, J. C. (2014). Reading to young children: A head-start in life? Economics of Education Review, 40, 1-24.
Mullis, I. V. S., Martin, M. O., Foy, P., & Hooper, M. (2017). PIRLS 2016 International Results in Reading. Retrieved from Boston College, TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center website: http://timssandpirls.bc.edu/pirls2016/international-results/
Neuman, S. B. & Dickinson, D. K. (Eds.) (2011), Handbook of early literacy research. New York: Guilford Press.


Olga Arias-Gundín & Mª Pilar Palomo & Raquel Fidalgo (Spain)
USE OF WRITING STRATEGIES BY UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS IN THE PERFORMANCE OF HYBRID TASKS

Short presentations (poster) and extended discussion ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 14:30-15:30 Room T11 Chair: Costa, Ana Luísa
Background. Hybrid tasks are one of the most common academic tasks demanded to undergraduate students. These involved reading and writing to solve them successfully. Not all of these tasks, from a summary to a proper synthesis, have the same level of complexity. It varies depending on the number of sources from which the information comes (Spivey, 1997). Teachers generally claim that students’ academic work suffers from low quality. They often insist that the written products are not sufficiently developed. The students' synthesis tasks are just juxtapositions of text fragments, which lack a storyline. This fact showed that the information is not integrated. It could be explained as a result of problems to correctly extract the information from source texts and/or lack of elaboration in the students' own final synthesis text.
Aims. In present study we explore: i) undergraduate students writing strategies and ii) the use of writing strategies influences writing performance depending on the complexity of the hybrid task.
Sample. In this study took part 793 undergraduate students (558 female and 235 male) University of León and University of Oviedo.
Method. To identify the level of use of writing strategies, students completed a Spanish version of writing style questionnaire (Kieft, Rijlaarsdam & van den Bergh, 2008). The Spanish version of questionnaire consisted of 13 items, and showed a Cronbach’s alpha of .728; it was identified three strategies: preplanning, planning, and controlling. To measure the level of writing competence the students had to write rather a synthesis from reading two texts and a summary from reading one text.
Results. We will present and discuss definitive findings in the conference.
Note. This research was possible with funds from University of León through research project (Reference: GID12-2018), awarded to Dra. Arias-Gundín.


Kieft, M., Rijlaarsdam, G. & van den Bergh, H. (2008). An aptitude-treatment interaction approach to writing-to-lear. Learning and Instruction, 18, 379-390.
Spivey, N. N. (1997) The constructivist metaphor: reading, writing and the making of meaning. San Diego: CA, Academic Press.


Carina Ascherl (Germany)
INVESTIGATING TEACHERS' FUTURE DIGITAL LITERACIES IN L1 TEACHING – AN INTERDISCIPLINARY AND INTERNATIONAL DELPHI STUDY

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 09:30-11:00 Room T11 Chair: Gonçalves, Matilde
Keywords:
Delphi Technique, Digital Literacies, L1 Teaching, Teacher Education

Abstract:
Policy makers, research and educational initiatives call for the promotion of competencies in dealing with new technologies in schools. This is to enable adolescents to become responsible, functional and socially active members of our contemporary and future society that will change even more in the future under the influence of the world’s digitalisation (Döbeli Honegger, 2016). Within this context, the notion of what “literacy” means in educational contexts has significantly expanded, focusing not just on reading and writing anymore but on “digital literacies” as well. As research shows, teachers need to be qualified in the subject-matter related use of digital media in order to prepare students for the world being shaped by digital technologies (Dudeney, Hockly & Pegrum, 2013). They need to be “digitally literate” themselves.
Therefore, the research interest of this project lies within the intersection of two major challenges for educational research: digitalisation and literacy. The underlying aim is to investigate digital literacies that primary and secondary teachers working in L1 teaching need by 2030 in order to develop pedagogies that cater to learners’ digital literacies needs. Aiming at offering a global perspective, both Australian and German L1 teaching contexts are chosen to exemplify this. Using the Delphi technique (Häder, 2014), collection of data is achieved by creating structured interaction amongst a panel of experts. In multiple iterations, these experts answer questions on a particular issue within their domain of expertise. The aim is “to obtain the most reliable consensus of opinion” (Dalkey & Helmer, 1963, p. 458) by creating a dialogue within the panel. The panel includes an interdisciplinary network of people from the educational practice (teachers; teacher trainers; people working in foundations promoting educational offers; people working in the conception, development and production of educational media) as well as from research and science (subject matter teaching; pedagogy; media pedagogy) from both Australia and Germany.
In the synopsis of a literature review and the outcomes of the Delphi study, a framework showing teachers’ necessary digital literacies in L1 teaching is to be developed which should serve to give implications for training prospective L1 teachers in future higher education.

References:
Dalkey, T. J. & Helmer, O. (1963). An Experimental Application of the Delphi Method to the Use of Experts. Management Science, 9(3), 458-467.

Dudeney, G., Hockly, N. & Pegrum, M. (2013). Digital Literacies. Research and Resources in Language Teaching. Harlow: Pearson.

Döbeli Honegger, B. (2016). Mehr als 0 und 1. Schule in einer digitalisierten Welt. Kornwestheim: hep.

Häder, M. (2014). Delphi-Befragungen. Ein Arbeitsbuch (3rd ed.). Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.



Elżbieta Awramiuk & Jana Vlčková ()
SOUND FORM SIGNALIZATION IN L1 POLISH AND CZECH TEXTBOOKS: MEANS, AIMS AND FUNCTIONS

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 15:45-17:15 Room T7 Chair: van Rijt, Jimmy H.M.
An adequate use of sound means of language is one of the important factors of a successful communication: the awareness of the phonetic and graphic correspondence helps in reading and writing at the first level of education, serves to better understand different kinds of texts (especially literary texts) at later stages, and helps in speaking at all levels (National Early Literacy Panel, 2008). The orthoepic competence, which includes among others the knowledge of the conventions used for the representation of pronunciation – is also developed as a component of linguistic competence (CEFR: 117-118). Phonetic transcription is concerned with how the sounds used in spoken language are represented in written form (Heselwood, 2013). In specialized sources, phonetic transcription is a conventionalised notation system; in non-specialist sources, the methods of sound form signalization (SFS) are less conventionalized, but they have important educational functions.

The purpose of this study is to present the results of the comparative analysis of several L1 Polish and Czech textbooks to answer the following questions:
1) When (in which teaching situations) and for what purposes SFS is used?
2) Which speech features are signalised and what is their function?
3) How is pronunciation signalised?

Two series (each consists of 3 textbooks) of Polish textbooks from the second stage of primary schools (grades 4-6, age 10-13) and two series of Czech textbooks for the same age range were analysed. Qualitative analysis focuses on searching for places where orthographic representation changes to fulfil the needs of SFS and where the sound form of language represents the point of didactic interest, shows the function of SFS and its means, as well as compares the results obtained in both countries.

The research is still underway, but we can already report some partial conclusions based on general recognition and on our actual and previous research (Awramiuk, 2018; Vlčková & Štěpáník, 2017). The SFS serves for developing phonetic awareness and is used to alert the orthographic form, as well as provide pronunciation of words (not only in L1). Unconventional ways of SFS are inconsistent, omitting important speech signals, and may lead in many cases to incorrect pronunciation. The attention to sound qualities of speech is paid separately, without connection to other layers of language as morphology, syntax or stylistics.

Keywords: primary school, textbook analysis, sound form signalization, Polish, Czech

References

Awramiuk, Elżbieta. 2018. Fonetyka w podręcznikach do nauki języka ojczystego [Phonetics in L1 textbooks]. In Elżbieta Awramiuk & Agata Rozumko (eds.), Z problematyki kształcenia językowego, vol. VII, 167-185. Białystok, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku.
CEFR: Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment, Council of Europe 2011.
Heselwood, B. (2013). Phonetic Transcription in Theory and Practice. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Vlčková, Jana & Štěpáník, Stanislav. 2017. Jak na zvukovou stránku ve výuce češtiny? [How to sound the Czech language?]. Český jazyk a literatura 68(2). 112–125.
National Early Literacy Panel (2008). Developing Early Literacy: Report of the National Early Literacy Panel. Washington, D.C.: National Institute for Literacy. Retrieved from lincs.ed.gov/publications/pdf/NELPReport09.pdf .


Abderrazzaq Bazar & Yamina El Kirat El Allame (Morocco)
THE IMPACT OF MOTHER TONGUE ON THE LEARNING OF ENGLISH: THE CASE OF MOROCCAN LEARNERS

Many scholars have insisted on the impact of mother tongue on the learning of foreign languages and have tried to account for the interference of mother tongue in the learning of a foreign/second language. Actually, mother tongue interference is more apparent when the gap between the first and the target language is wide. The differences can be the source of errors at the different levels of language (i.e. phonological, morphological, syntactic and pragmatic, … (Khuwaileh, Abdulla and Ali Al- Shoumali. 2000; Ringbom, Håkan, 1987; (Kathleen M. Bailey, Ryan M. Damerow, 2014). In Morocco, English is introduced officially as the second foreign language at the level of the 9th grade in the public education, after students have had six years of learning French as a first foreign language.
The aim of the present study is to investigate the challenges learners face in the learning of English. The main objective is to sort out the challenges that are the result of the influence of L1, Darija, in the Moroccan context. The study adopts a mixed approach making use of both qualitative and quantitative research instruments, namely, class observation, direct observation, participant observation, the interview and the survey.
The sample population involves Moroccan learners of English at different levels of education, from both sexes, in the public sector in particular. The study addresses and tries to answer the following research questions: (i) what are some of the challenges Moroccan learners of English face? (ii) How can we account for these challenges? (iii) To what extent does Darija influence the learning of English?
The data analysis and interpretation will reveal how the features of L1 can facilitate or hinder the learning of a second/foreign language.
Keywords: Learning English; L1; Darija; Language Interference; Second / Foreign language.
References
Khuwaileh, Abdulla and Ali Al- Shoumali. (2000). Writing Errors: A Study of the Writing Ability of Arab Learners of Academic English and Arabic at University. Language, Culture and Curriculum. Vol. 13, No.2. pp 174-183.

Ringbom, Håkan (1987). The Role of First Language in Foreign Language Learning. U.S.A: Multilingual Matters Ltd.

Kathleen M. Bailey, Ryan M. Damerow (2014). Teaching and Learning English in the Arabic-Speaking World. Co-published with The International Research Foundation for English Language Education (TIRF)


Mounia Benjelloun & Yamina El Kirat El Allame ()
THE ROLE OF STORY TELLING IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHILD’S LEXICAL RICHNESS: CASE STUDY

Paper session ARLE 2019 Thursday, 14:00-15:30 Room T15 Chair: Coutinho, Antónia
During the early years of life, children undergo major changes, particularly in their academic language development. Research has demonstrated that children’s early exposure to academic language at home is a key predictor of academic success at school (Cunningham & Stanovish, 1997). Once at school, children are expected to convey their ideas in a more conventional and structurally complex way using a wider range of words in comparison to informal language. One of the main features of academic language is lexical richness, including lexical density and diversity. Not all children are, however, equally prepared to produce this language type. A number of factors, such as parental social and educational backgrounds, as well as the use of storytelling at home might explain the differences in the type of language input children are exposed to.

This study is part of a larger research project on Moroccan children’s academic language development. It explores the extent to which lexical density and diversity are present in the production of two mothers and their children, with varying social and educational backgrounds, during storytelling. The study addresses the following research questions:

1. What is the degree of lexical richness present in the mothers’ input and their children’s output during storytelling?
2. How can mothers’ social and educational backgrounds influence the children’s lexical richness?

The study adopts a qualitative approach. The data analysis has revealed that the use of lexical features varies considerably among the two mothers and their children. Compared to the low social and educational background mother and her child, the affluent and well-educated mother provides her child with far more varied and denser lexical input, besides the use of interactive reading strategies that have proven to influence the child’s output at home (Benjelloun, M. 2017).

The findings show the strong bond between the children’s early exposure to academic lexical input through storytelling and their immediate academic success.

Key words: Academic language; lexical density; lexical diversity; input; output.
References
1. Benjelloun, M. The Lexical and Morpho-syntactic Features of Academic Language in Moroccan Children’s Register at Home and at School. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. Faculty of Letters & Human Sciences. Mohammed V University in Rabat. Morocco. 2017.
2. Cunningham, A. E., & Stanovich, K.E. (1997). Early reading acquisition and its relation to reading experience and ability ten years later. Developmental Psychology 33, 934-945.


Anica Betz & Lena Bocek & Joerg Jost & Michael Krelle (Germany)
HOW DO STUDENTS DEAL WITH SOURCES IN WRITING-FROM-SOURCES-TASKS? AN INSIGHT INTO STUDENTS’ TEXTS AND TASK-SOLVING-PROCESSES

Short presentations (poster) and extended discussion ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 14:30-15:30 Room T11 Chair: Costa, Ana Luísa
Scientific and professional writing requires the ability to use information from different sources (e.g. texts, diagrams, pictures) for text production. Despite a long international research tradition (e.g. Spivey 1984), only lately in educational policy in Germany there is a growing awareness for the so-called writing-from-sources and since 2012 this new type of writing-task is established in the educational standards for the A-level exams.
Previous research concerning writing-from-sources focuses on the specific competences involved in reception, reproduction, and production (e.g. Jakobs 2003), as well as on relevant cognitive processes connected to the conjunction between reading and writing (e.g. Segev-Miller 2007, Britt & Rouet 2012). However, research regarding the underlying reading and writing processes and the specific demands while solving material-based-writing-tasks is still needed. Therefore, in our study we investigate both the students’ reading and writing activities, and the resulting texts. The purpose is to analyse how students process reading and writing while working on writing-from-sources-tasks, but also to investigate the resulting texts regarding different research questions, e.g. how students synthesise different sources into their own texts and if a conjunction between processes and resulting texts can be described.
In our pilot study we identified action-defined time slices during the overall writing process and related them to specific features in students’ texts. We observed students (11th grade, N = 5) working on an argumentative material-based-writing-task for the A-level exam (duration: 210 minutes). Recorded videos of the reading-writing-processes were rated using four main categories: reception, processing of the sources, writing, and non-reading-and-writing. We observed a high variance in individual processes in all categories while solving the task. To get access to the conjunction between processes and resulting texts we further analysed the students’ resulting texts on the basis of a coding manual. Coding was aimed at describing the integration of the given sources in students’ own texts under the perspective of text genre (e.g. selection, dominance, and linguistic pattern used to refer to sources). Especially with regard to source integration in texts we observed genre related differences. Our results will be discussed under the perspective of writing-from-sources-arrangements in learning environments.

References:
• Britt, M. A. & Rouet, J.-F. (2012). Learning with Multiple Documents. Component Skills and Their Acquisition. In: J. R. Kirby & M. J. Lawson (Eds.), Enhancing the Quality of Learning: Dispositions, Instruction, and Learning Processes (pp. 276-314). New York: Cambridge University.
• Jakobs, E.-M. (2003). Reproductive Writing – Writing from Sources. In Journal of Pragmatics 35 (2003), pp. 893-906.
• Segev-Miller, R. (2007). Cognitive Processes in Discourse Synthesis: The Case of Intertextual Processing Strategies. In M. Torrance, L. van Waes & D. Galbraith (Eds.), Writing and Cognition: Research and Applications (pp. 231-250). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
• Spivey, N. N. (1984). Discourse synthesis: Constructing texts in reading and writing. Newark: International Reading Association.


Dr. Tuva Bjørkvold (Norway)
SPONTANEOUS COLLABORATIVE WRITING AMONG STUDENTS AS RESEARCHERS

Paper session ARLE 2019 Thursday, 14:00-15:30 Room T14 Chair: Puksand, Helin
This case study of a 7th grade class acting as researchers examines the writing practices of the whole class. The students participate in a national research contest, initiated by the Norwegian Research Council demanding a written report as contest contribution. As the whole class research one self chosen question together, they also write the report jointly, and have a shared interest in investigating and writing as well as possible. Collaboration, without the teacher initiating it, dominates the writing. The research question is: What characterize the collaborative literacy events when students act as researchers?
This study is situated within the New Literacy Studies, which sees literacy as something you do, not as a set of skills (Barton, 2007). Therefore, the way the students use literacy to handle their research is of interest. To participate in the research competition requires to understand the discourse of research (Gee, 2015), a major challenge in primary school. The students seem to solve this demanding literacy task primarily by choosing collaborating spontaneously, a rather rare solution in the primary school (Nykopp, Marttunen, & Laurinen, 2014). All situations were the students write or talk about their writing, the literacy events, are analyzed to later derive the literacy practices of these students (Street, 2009). A triangulation of methods were used, focusing on collaboration in the literacy events, through student texts (344), video observation (104 hours) and video stimulated interviews (22). The material is analyzed through three main data driven categories: who initiated the collaboration, why and how did the students collaborate.
Findings show that 343 of the 344 texts were collaborated on, in groups of two to eight and once by the whole class. However, the most noteworthy finding is that the majority of the collaborative writing events were initiated by the students themselves, not by the teacher. Further preliminary findings suggest that the students initiated collaboration in situations that demanded something challenging in the writing event, as explanations of words or concepts, technical issues or combining different data sources. Personal relationships were not observed as a reason to collaborate in this study.

Key words: collaborative writing, literacy, students as researchers

Literature
Barton, D. (2007). Literacy: An introduction to the ecology of written language. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Publisher.
Gee, J. P. (2015). Social linguistics and literacies: Ideology in discourses (5 ed.). London: Routledge.
Nykopp, M., Marttunen, M., & Laurinen, L. (2014). University students' knowledge construction during face to face collaborative writing. Studies in Writing, 28, 277-299. doi:10.1163/9789004265011_013
Street, B. (2009). The future of "Social literacies". In M. Baynham & M. Prinsloo (Eds.), The future of literacy studies Palgrave Advances in Language and Linguistics. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230245693. doi:10.1057/9780230245693




Witold Bobinski (Poland)
DO WE TEACH READING IN THE WAY WE READ BOOKS? “HUMAN” SIDE OF THE REDISCOVERY OF TEACHING

Paper session ARLE 2019 Friday, 14:00-15:30 Room T11 Chair: Coppen, Peter-Arno JM
Why don’t our pupils want to read novels and poems? Why do we have so many problems with engaging pupils in reading, with shaping positive attitude to literature? I am in the process of ongoing research in the field of educational mode of reading and discussing literature with young people. The main research questions are: what is the difference between the way we read for ourselves and the mode of reading demanded by school authorities, educational policy and tradition? What conclusion comes out of this parallel? Questionnaires and interviews with the student teachers and in-service teachers of Polish Language Arts show the astonishing difference, or even the gap, between the private and “didactic” mode of reading and the use of literature. The research made so far (IBE, 2015) show the phenomenon of teachers’ devotion to the dual – and internally dissonant – paradigm of the approach to literature: human and school-centered. If the teachers of literature are incompatible with themselves when they are in the classroom, they are simply untrustworthy and ineffectual in their teaching. The contradiction between these two approaches to literature may be the most powerful reason for the growing reluctance to read among Polish young people.
The ideas of the school that is awakening (Rasfeld, Breidenbach, 2014) and of the rediscovery of teaching (Biesta, 2017) put the trustworthiness of the teacher in the centre of the new philosophy of education. On the other hand the philosophy of literature – readers’ response theory, Roland Barthes’ concept of (Barthes, 1973, 1978) – underline the pleasure-aimed or pleasure-centered mode of the use of literature, which in Polish school is still almost totally absent. What in fact is the pleasure of reading? Isn’t it just the pleasure of travelling, of imagining, of remembering and forgetting, of association, of categorizing, of intertextual and multimodal linking, of comparing and evaluating? How to reveal those dimensions of reading in front of the classroom, how to come clean with connections between literature and life? It is the matter of the rediscovery of teaching reading.

REFERENCES
Barthes, R. (1973) Le plaisir du texte. Editions du Seuil. Paris.
Biesta, G.J.J. (2017) The Rediscovery of Teaching. Routledge. London and New York.
Dydaktyka literatury i języka polskiego w świetle nowej podstawy programowej (2015), Warszawa, IBE.


Gustav Borsgård (Sweden)
FOSTERING DEMOCRACY THROUGH LITERATURE EDUCATION

My thesis aims to describe how globalized economic relations and neoliberal political rationality has affected the policy discourse and educational system in Sweden since the marketization of education in the 1990’s. Even though I examine this development on a transnational level, my primary focus is on the role of literature education in Swedish upper secondary school. Since 1946, the Swedish school has had two main objectives according to the written curriculum: one is to provide knowledge and the other is to foster democratic citizens. During the later half of the 20th century, literature education in Sweden has been viewed as one important way of fostering democratic citizens through the reading of fiction.

Since the reform of Swedish upper secondary school in 2011, the democratic value of reading fiction has been toned down in the written curriculum in favour of more easily measurable skills and knowledge. A potential critique of the conception of knowledge that defines the written curriculum of 2011 is its increased focus on pupils’ employability and decreased focus on what is called “Bildung” in the German tradition, namely the moral and intellectual side of education that has to do with citizenship and personal growth, i.e. things that can not easily be measured. This development can, in turn, be viewed as a symptom of an increased interest in quantitatively measurable learning outcomes, which is not an isolated Swedish phenomenon but an international tendency when it comes to policy discourse.

I am interested in the democratic implications of a more standard-based curriculum and the strengthened performance culture when it comes to literature education in general and the reading of fiction in particular in Swedish upper secondary school. I am not only examining the development from a transnational and national level, but am also conducting interviews with mother tongue language-teachers in Swedish upper secondary school to get a view of how practice has been influenced since the reform in 2011.


Bouchra BOUKLATA & Yamina El Kirat El Allame (Morocco)
TEXTUAL FEATURES OF THE ACADEMIC LANGUAGE OF MOROCCAN MONOLINGUAL CHILDREN’S REGISTER AT HOME AND AT SCHOOL

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 09:30-11:00 Room T15 Chair: Schneuwly, Bernard
Yamina El Kirat El Allame, Mohammed V University in Rabat
& Bouchra Bouklata, Ibn Tofail University. Kenitra


Early exposure to the language of schooling at home has proved to be a prerequisite for the child’s smooth transition to school not only through his/her coping with the complex cognitive academic demands but through the ability to use language in decontextualized interactions, i.e, beyond the perceivable, as well (Cunningham & Stanovish, 1997).

The Moroccan monolingual child seems to face a double challenge as (s)he is expected from his/her first day at school to be well prepared to face the demands set by the educational setting not only in a language that is not his/her mother tongue, Modern Standard Arabic, but in a sophisticated register supposed to occur earlier in Darija, the home language of the participants in the study

The article aims at exploring the use of decontextualized language, as one of the communicative features of the academic language register at the textual level, in the inputs of mothers and teachers of 18 monolingual Moroccan 3- to 6-year-old children and the effect of these inputs on the children’s language development. Data collection involved a book-picture telling task and a free conversations task at home and at school at two measurement times. All mother-child interactions and teacher-child interactions were videotaped. The data was transcribed, coded according to the DASH coding scheme and analysed using two software programmes: the CLAN (Computerised Language Analysis) and the SPSS (Statistical Package fo for the Social Sciences).The proposed theoretical framework, based on systemic functional linguistics and usage-based theories and informed by research on the language of school, was adopted for assessing caretaker-child interactions.

The data analysis revealed that the decontextualized language highly occurred in all mothers’ input, teachers’ input, and children’s output both at home and at school, but to varying degrees. Mothers were found to produce much more decontextualized language than teachers, except for the book-picture telling task in T2. At school, children, on the other hand, produced significantly higher proportions of non-present talk during the book-picture telling activity in both measurement times than at home. However,, they exhibited a reversed pattern at home as they used higher proportions of non-present talk in the free conversation task in both measurement times than at school.


Key Words: Mother tongue (Darija); Decontextualized language; Academic language; Early exposure; Modern Standard Arabic; Variance.
References
1. Bouklata, Bouchra. 2017. Communicative Features of Academic Language in the Register of Moroccan Monolingual children at home and at school.
2. Cunningham & Stanovish. 1997. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. Faculty of Letters & Human Sciences. Mohammed V University in Rabat. Morocco.


Yassine Boussagui & Yamina El Kirat El Allame (Morocco)
LANGUAGE POLICY AND LANGUAGE REVITALIZATION OR DEVITALISATION: THE CASE OF AMAZIGH IN MOROCCO

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 15:45-17:15 Room T15 Chair: Gonçalves, Matilde
Since the independence, Morocco’s adopted language policies have fundamentally rested on the Arabic language and Islam as the two foundational narratives legitimizing the exclusion of the Amazigh varieties from the classroom and normalizing the use of standard Arabic as the only language of instruction. This has resulted in the stigmatization of the Amazigh linguistic and cultural heritage and the moulding of culture of resistance to Amazigh linguistic revival. Despite the attempts made recently to reconcile Moroccans with Amazigh, first as a national language in 2001 and second as an official language in 2011, it remains legitimate to question these attempts in the light of the constitutional incongruity and inconsistency in treating Amazigh and Standard Arabic. While the constitution vows to develop, protect, and promote the use of Arabic, it pledges no such treatment for Amazigh. A better understanding of the impact of language policy cannot be attained unless it is interpreted within a framework that draws closely on the power and interests of a dominant group (Tollefson, 1991). Amazigh revitalization policy accordingly should be investigated in relation to its role in serving the dominant narrative. This study intends to contribute to a better understanding of how language perception and language attitudes towards Amazigh are affected by the constructed language ideologies in Morocco over the decades of policy formulation. The main objective is to investigate how language-in-education policy in particular contribute to Amazigh devitalisation rather than revitalization. The findings discussed here are based on a mixed methods approach involving both the quantitative and qualitative research methods conducted between 2016 and 2018. The main research instruments used in the collection of the data are questionnaires and interviews. The study addresses and tries to answer three research questions, namely (i) What attitudes do Moroccan have towards the Amazigh language? (ii) To what extent has the State’s official recognition of Amazigh influenced the status of the language and changed Moroccans’ attitudes towards it? (iii) To what extent do the structural forces of dominance and power constrain the teaching of Amazigh language and inhibit its revitalization?

Key words: Amazigh; Language policy; Language-in-education policy; Language
Revitalization; Language devitalisation.

Reference
Tollefson, 1991


MAUREEN BOYD & Emma Janicki-Gechoff & John Gordon & Tina Høegh (United States)
DIALOGIC PEDAGOGY: LITERATURE BASED PEDAGOGY AND PURPOSEFUL TEACHER PRACTICES

Symposium ARLE 2019 Thursday, 15:45-17:15 Room T9
Presenters, Chair and Discussant:
Maureen Boyd and Emma Janicki-Gechoff (Department of Learning and Instruction, Graduate School of Education, University at Buffalo, USA)
John Gordon (School of Education and Lifelong Learning, University of East Anglia, UK) and
Tina Høegh (Department for Culture Studies, University of Southern Denmark) (chair)
(discussant - coming up soon)

Cultivating principles of dialogic pedagogy – supported reasoned argument, engaged perspective-taking, harnessing local ways of knowing – is critical for our students to thrive. The papers in this international symposium recognize the complexities, idiosyncrasies, and patternings of classroom teaching and learning. The three studies utilize varied research methods (Ethnographic case study, adapted Conversation Analysis and Multimodal Textmaking) to analyse distinctive features of literature-based teaching and learning. They identify unique relationships between teaching practices and the modality of focal study texts, and collectively identify facets of dialogic pedagogy purposed to literature-based learning that support student participatory involvement both in the moment and to develop across time critical and dialogic dispositions to learning.
Our three studies explore L1 language arts teaching and learning across ages (8-17 years), and across three national contexts: US, UK and Denmark. We examine purposeful ways teachers select texts and employ them in multimodal ways to cultivate students’ access to, ownership of, and dialogic experiences with literature texts they read, write, and perform. Building on Fiona Maine (2015) we view texts as written, audible, visual or moving image formats and we view multimodality as the utilization of semiotic resources rather than the resource itself. For literature-based learning, teachers use such texts (literature as resources) in particular/purposeful ways to engage students and encourage them to take ownership of the inquiry of texts.
Our findings illuminate instructional choices that teachers can make to cultivate a listening disposition, student participation, and a dialogic classroom ethos to learning. Findings explicate the influential role of the teacher in terms of 1) patterns of classroom talk practices; 2) ways instructional and curricular decisions are made (and not made); 3) situated multitask-conditions of teaching, 4) instructional repertoires: across a poetry unit (study a), in the study of literary novels (study b), during work with an e-learning platform (study c). Each study findings considers the [un]planned interplays among these four dimensions. For example, homing in on classroom participants and their engagement in and between modes and materials, voices in texts, and the spatial geography of place in and outside the classroom.
Reference:
Maine, Fiona (2015) Dialogic readers: children talking and thinking together about visual texts. Routledge.


Esther Breuer (Germany)
EXECUTION PROCESSES IN L1 AND FL WRITING

Paper session ARLE 2019 Thursday, 14:00-15:30 Room T14 Chair: Puksand, Helin
Different studies have shown that writing in a foreign language (FL) is a process which is cognitively demanding. Writers experience difficulties in the (conscious) subprocesses of generating ideas, of planning, of translating and of revising (Breuer, 2015, 2016, Van Weijen, 2008). However, up to now the aspect of execution has not been of central interest in FL writing research. Execution processes are usually automatised in the L1, and it is often proposed that at least in languages which use the same alphabet, the execution process should not have an effect on the success of the writing process.
In order to analyse whether this proposition is true, a study was set up in which 330 students at a German university were asked to copy German and English sentences and phrases. The material was presented to them in a special setting of InputLog, which was created for generating copytask studies. The phrases consisted of words which were different in terms of bigram frequency, in order to see whether more frequent bigrams were executed faster and with less errors in both languages. The participants were also asked to copy senseless consonant strings as well as non-words which, if you moved two letters, would be sensible words. The latter was done in order to see whether whole-word reading and/or writing would take place in both languages, or whether writing mistakes would be related to writing words instead of non-words.
The analysis has shown that there are indeed differences in the executing processes between the L1 and the FL students, but also betwenn L1, FL and L2 students, whom we definec as participants whose first spoken language was not German, but whose first written language it was. Copying L2/FL words and phrases is more laborious than doing this in the L1, more errors take place, and the working memory resources are smaller in the FL as well as in the L2 than in the L1. The automatised processes of execution are thus not as profound in the L2/FL as they are in the L1, which means that this subprocess allocates perceptible demands, having negative effects on L2/FL writing.

References:
Breuer, E.O. (2015). First Language versus Foreign Language. Fluency, Errors and Revision Processes in Foreign Language Academic Writing. Frankfurt a.M.: Peter Lang.
Breuer, E.O. (2016). Effects of Planning and Language on the Construction of Meaning. Double Helix, 4, 1-19. <http://qudoublehelixjournal.org/index.php/dh/article/view/91/291>.
Van Weijen, Daphne. (2008). Writing processes, text, quality, and task effects: Empirical studies in first and second language writing. Utrecht: LOT.

Keywords:
Fluency
Copy Task
First Language
Foreign Language
Execution



Scott Bulfin & Nikolaj Elf & Dimitrios Koutsogiannis (Australia)
INVITED SIG TECHNOLOGY AND LITERACY EDUCATION (SIG TALE) SYMPOSIUM: AGENCY, TECHNOLOGY AND TEACHING L1

Symposium ARLE 2019 Thursday, 14:00-17:15 Room T6
Organizers:
Scott Bulfin, Monash University, Australia
Nikolaj Elf, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark
Dimitrios Koutsοgiannis, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece

Moderators:
Nikolaj Elf and Scott Bulfin

General description:

Agency is a notion widely used in sociolinguistic and educational research. In a L1 perspective, it is often used as a positive term in relation to technology as it is linked, for example, to empowerment, creativity and development of voice through writing or other productive multimodal practices. However, theoretical developments in late 20th and early 21st century, including a post-anthropocentric perspective, have suggested a revised understanding of human agency arguing that technology decenters the subject’s agency and that this hold implications for education and teaching and learning. From a L1 perspective, these developments in the thinking of agency and technology are scarcely reflected both in theory and practice. The aim of the present symposium is to shed light on the potential understanding and relationship of the three notions and their implications for L1 research and practice. Six contributions offer varying conceptualisations of agency and explore the value of these approaches in relation to L1 practices in a wide variety of contexts across the world. The discussant will comment on the contributions and offer reflections from theoretical, methodological and policy perspectives for further plenary discussion.

Overview of presentations:

Session I:

Moderator: Scott Bulfin

I) Possibilities for agency? Exploring the interface of the digital humanities and L1 literary education (McLean, Sawyer, Bode)
II) “That was me, clicking and touching to do exactly what I wanted to”: Reading literary apps and perceiving agency (Acerra)
III) How a survey of young people’s skills in digital literacy highlights issues regarding their digital agency (Lacelle, Lebrun, Boutin)

Discussion (part I): Emeritus Professor Bill Green, Charles Stuart University

Session II:

Moderator: Nikolaj Elf

IV) Literacy in digitalised secondary school classroom: Reflections on transitional practices (Nygaard & Skaftun)
V) Family, children’s digital literacy practices and education: Revising the connection (Koutsogiannis & Adampa)
VI) Agency, Technology and Teaching Practices in L1 classrooms: Paradoxes, complexities, restrictions and possibilities in Greek-Cypriot Literacy Education (Kontovourki & Poyiadji)

Discussion (part II): Emeritus Professor Bill Green, Charles Stuart University

Plenary discussion.

Format: 15 minutes’ presentations. Discussant: 10 minutes in each session.


Adriana Bus & Lisa van der Sande (Netherlands (the))
LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF BOOKSTART

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 15:45-17:15 Room T6 Chair: Uusen, Anne
Purpose – BookStart is a bookgifting program: parents receive a book package when children are about 4 months old and it is expected that free books work as “a nudge” that reminds parents of the importance of book reading and stimulates that they indeed read to young children (Thaler & Sunstein, 2008). Most parents are aware of the importance of verbal interaction with very young children but book reading is not yet part of their routines. A main hypothesis is that bookgifting initiates book reading routines at an early age which may affect children’s interest in reading and children’s language and literacy skills on the long run.
In a prior research (Van den Berg & Bus, 2014), we were able to demonstrate the short-term effects of an early start with book reading on children’s language development at 15 months. When parents followed up the BookStart suggestion to make an early start with book sharing this had a positive effect on the baby’s vocabulary at 15 months.
Method – About 800 participants in the first study were invited to participate in the second study and about 60% agreed to continue their collaboration and to complete a new questionnaire when children were on average 59 months old (SD = 3 months). About half of this group adopted BookStart in the first year of children’s life.
The questions concern book reading (e.g. how many books available, where in the home and how often does a caregiver share books with the child) but in particular children’s interest in reading.
We asked permission to get access to scores on standardized tests at school.
Results –In all, 470 caregivers have completed the online questionnaire. For about half of the children we received scores on a standardized language and literacy test applied in the second year in kindergarten just before children start first grade. Especially temperamentally highly reactive children benefited from BookStart on the long run.
Conclusions –We discuss why in particular temperamentally reactive children profit from bookgifting and why bookgifting programs are important even when not all children benefit.
Thaler, R.H., & Sunstein, C.R. (2008). Nudge: Improving decissions about health, wealth and happiness. Yale uNiversity Press.
van den Berg, H., & Bus, A. G. (2014). Beneficial effects of BookStart in temperamentally highly reactive infants. Learning and Individual Differences, 36, 69-75.


Mark-Oliver Carl (Germany)
RESEARCH ON POETRY READING IN SECONDARY EDUCATION - COGNITIVE MODELS, NEW STUDIES AND THEIR METHODOLOGICAL CHALLENGES

Symposium ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 11:30-13:00 Room T7
The symposium explores the comparatively understudied (Peskin 2007) field of cognitive processes and dispositions of (different types of) poetry readers among students and reflects on the conditions of the production of such knowledge. It brings together recent and ongoing innovative research projects, examines methodological challenges, relates their findings to cognitive theories, and discusses how they may support teachers who feel particularly insecure in this area of literature as part of their work.

Developmental studies of literary reading, building on cognitive models of text comprehension as strategy- and knowledge-based, genre-sensitive processes of constructing different types of mental text representations (Van Dijk/Kintsch 1983), and drawing on methods from psycholinguistics and social sciences, have often focused on narrative prose only. A possible reason is that research into poetry reading processes is a particularly ill-structured domain, their object often being conceptualized as elusive. Methods of data collection and analysis require significant and well-reflected adjustments when applied to the reading of poems (Dixon/Bortolussi 2011).

Recently, developmental aspects of reading poetry in the literary classroom are finally receiving more attention (for an overview cf. Burke et al. 2016). The symposium aims to deepen this discussion by including research of particularly latent dispositions and processes involved in secondary students’ reading of poetry within and outside the classroom. Breukink and Das locate their studies within current empirical research on literary reading development of Dutch secondary students. Combining expert panels, think-aloud protocols, comprehension tests, interviews and eye-tracking , their studies provide insight into situation modelling of poems vs. narrative and expository prose texts, as well as into the development of poetry reading competence and types of stronger and weaker poetry readers respectively. Kleber’s think aloud study explores through Qualitative Content Analysis the development of poetic inferences across German secondary school, while Sigvardsson’s interview study elicits via Grounded Theory Methodology three reasons why Swedish secondary students and teachers read poetry.

Common challenges which are addressed are how limitations of text and participant choice can be overcome, how seemingly disparate results of qualitative studies can be integrated into models of poetic reading, and how their relevance is communicated to practitioners.

Selected references:
Dixon, P. & Bortolussi, M. (2011): “The scientific study of literature. What can, has and should be done.” In: Scientific Study of Literature 1 (1), pp. 59-71.

Peskin, J. (2007): “The genre of poetry: Secondary school students' conventional expectations and interpretive operations.” In: English in Education, 41(3), pp. 20-36.

Van Dijk, T. A. & Kintsch, W. (1983): Strategies of Discourse Comprehension. New York: Academic Press.

Burke, M., Fialho, O., Zyngier, S. (2016). Scientific approaches to literature in learning environments. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. doi:10.1075/lal.24

Keywords: poetry reading, reading processes, cognitive models of reading, poetry readers’ profiles

Address of discussant:
Dr. Mark-Oliver Carl, Universität zu Köln, Institut für Deutsche Sprache und Literatur II, Albertus-Magnus-Platz 1, 50923 Köln


Participant contribution abstracts:

• Anna Sigvardsson: “Secondary teachers and secondary students on why they read poetry”

To date poetry education has been one of the most under researched areas of literature education and poetry reading pedagogy for secondary students is especially understudied. In order to develop poetry teaching it is essential that more aspects of this particular part of literature education be investigated further. Activities with poetry outside of school may also provide ideas for the pedagogical discussion but the leisure uses of poetry seem even less investigated (cf. Felski, 2008).
The proposed presentation discusses why secondary teachers and secondary students read poetry in their spare time based on empirical data from two interview studies with 36 participants. Given the explorative nature of the research, constructive Grounded Theory was chosen as the overarching qualitative methodology. Open and focused coding (Charmaz, 2014) has been used to develop categories from the most recurring statements of why one reads poetry during leisure time.
Regarding the young readers of poetry, three tentative categories have been found so far, which highlight important functions of lyric poetry for this group: being seen by the poem, an internal community and support in difficult periods. It is evident that a creative interplay between the readers’ self and the poems ‘I’, or persona, is enacted. The reading process seems to be a supportive relational practice that enables readers to use perspectives in the poems to better understand themselves as individuals and as members of a larger community.
When the categories were related to Felski’s (2008) concepts of ‘recognition’, ‘enchantment’, ‘(social) knowledge’ and ‘shock’ – it appears that only ‘recognition’ had explanatory value. The proposed presentation therefore also relate to the theory of context models (van Dijk, 1997) to explore findings further. The preliminary analysis of the teachers’ statements suggests that they read for similar reasons as the young readers. However, further explorations of the categories are needed to find out more about their characteristics.
The results point to the importance of letting pupils explore a wide repertoire of poems in class in order to find poems that are personally relevant to them. Moreover, some uncontrolled reading in class may help pupils engage with the form.

Keywords: poetry reading, secondary education, leisure reading, Felski
References
Charmaz, K. (2014). Constructing grounded theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Felski, R. (2008). Uses of literature. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Pub.
Van Dijk, T. A. (1997). Cognitive context models and discourse. In M. Stamekov (Eds.) Language structure, discourse and the access to consciousness, 189-226. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Address:
Anna Sigvardsson, Division: Education, Language and Teaching, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Luleå University of Technology, 97187 Sweden


• Hans Das (study A) & Corina Breukink (study B): “Students’ reading activities when reading poetry”

In the Netherlands poetry education has an ambiguous status. Even though literary development and reading comprehension are learning objectives, they are neglected in the reality of the classroom. The focus seems to be on teaching technical and periodical conventions. These obvious didactical limitations in didactics are hardly surprising, since poetry reading in secondary education still remains under-researched. To be able to enhance poetic reading competence effectively, it is necessary to expand the scientific knowledge base. A main question in current studies is: How do secondary education students read and understand poetry? The following studies both investigate into and describe the reading (and answering) activities that readers develop in order to construct meaning from a poem (situation model).

Study A, which elaborates on Witte et al, describes the developmental levels of the students' lyrical abilities. It also connects to a study by Janssen et al., because the reading activities applied by the students are examined by means of interviews and thinking aloud protocols. Study A provides insight into provisional poetry reader profiles and reading processes for each particular profile – allowing for the design of (a) poetry learning line(s) in secondary education.

Study B draws on the notion of ‘situation model’, using a reading test with comprehension questions and retrospective interviews, that are followed by eye-tracking pilot studies that connect to valid measures in reading research that objectively reflect fine-grained online text processing (Rayner et al., 2006). In this study the reading and comprehension of poetry is contrasted with the reading of expository and literary prose, in order to examine in what way genre steers the reading and comprehension processes (Zwaan, 1994). Study B offers insight in differences and commonalities of offline and online reading comprehension processes for prose and poetry, elicited with and without comprehension questions. Building on this empirical knowledge, a poetry reading program will be developed, in co-creation with secondary school teachers.

The (preliminary) findings, conclusions and common challenges (e.g. the selection of texts and participants) will be presented in dialogue, to discuss how they are complementing.

Key words: ‘think aloud’, ‘reader profiles’, ‘reading development’, ‘reading and answering processes’, ‘eye movements’

References
Janssen, T., Braaksma, M & Rijlaarsdam, G. (2006). Literary reading activities of good and weak students: A think aloud study. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 21(1), 35-52.

Rayner, K., Chace, K.H., Slattery, T.J. & Ashby, J. (2006). Eye movements as reflections of comprehension processes in reading. Scientific Studies of Reading 10(3), 241-255. DOI: 10.1207/s1532799xssr1003_3.

Witte, T., Rijlaarsdam, G., & Schram, D. (2012). An empirically grounded theory of literary development: Teachers' pedagogical content knowledge on literary development in upper secondary education. L1-Educational Studies in Language and Literature, 12, 1-30.

Zwaan, RA. (1994). Effect of genre expectations on text comprehension. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 20, 930-933.

Addresses of contributors:
Hans Das, c.o. Research Centre Arts in Society, Oude Boteringestraat 34, 9712 GK Groningen, The Netherlands
Corina Breukink, c.o. Research Group Language and Education, Utrecht Institute of Linguistics, Trans 10, 3512 JK Utrecht, The Netherlands

• Christopher Kleber: “Generating inferences during reading of difficult poetry – A comparative study with fifth graders and university freshmen”

This study was conducted as a comparative design that sampled 30 fifth-graders from a German “Gymnasium” and 27 freshmen from Heidelberg-University in order to identify developmental aspects in poetry reading throughout secondary education. The participants thought aloud during their first encounters with the poem “Du darfst” by Paul Celan (1967). According to an expert rating, the stimulus material can be considered difficult because of its incoherence and aesthetic language use, and it doesn’t necessarily demand specific context knowledge that would benefit the freshmen over the fifth graders. The research objective was to investigate differences in inferential reasoning between groups. Inferences are defined as the information in the mental model of a text that go beyond explicit text information and are necessary to establish coherence (Noordman/Vonk 2015).

T-units of the verbal protocols were classified via a taxonomy of literary inferences that covers two important aspects of comprehension: the operational type of the inference and its contribution to the construction of a multidimensional referential model. The first aspect is divided into the subclasses problem-detection, concrete-inference, abstractive-inference, explanation based on general knowledge and explanation based on further text information. The distinction between concrete and abstractive inferences was made because earlier research indicates the importance of abstraction as a creative operation for literary understanding (Welling 2007). Explanation classes were added to integrate Peirce’s theory of good inferential thinking: Most inferences are hypothetical by nature and therefore need to be validated. The second aspect covers mutually accepted dimensions of referential models (Tapiero 2007): language/structure, space/time, plot/causality, protagonists/objects, motives/intention and theme/moral point.

Results show that university freshmen significantly outperform fifth graders in the categories “problem-detection”, “abstractive-inference” and “explanation based on further text information”. Regarding the referential model, the fifth graders seem to consider “space/time” more and “motivation/intention” and “theme/moral point” less than the freshmen. Thus, inferential abilities generally improve during secondary education, but certain aspects are possibly lost. High variances in both samples in every category hint at both the individuality of poetry understanding and at persisting differences in inferencing abilities. Depending on their priorities in poetry education, teachers can draw different conclusions from these findings.

Keywords: poetic inferences, mental model construction, inferential reading development, think aloud

References
• Celan, Paul (1967) Atemwende (Breathturn). Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp.
• Tapiero, Isabelle (2007): Situation models and levels of coherence. Toward a definition of comprehension. New York: Routledge.
• Welling, Hans (2007): Four Mental Operations in Creative Cognition: The Importance of Abstraction. In: Creativity Research Journal 19 (2-3), S. 163-177
• Noordman, Leo G.M.; Vonk, Wietske (2015): Inferences in Discourse, Psychology of. In: James D. Wright (Hg.): International encyclopedia of the social & behavioral sciences. 2. ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier, S. 37–44.

Address
Christopher Kleber, Heidelberg University of Education, Department of German Language and Literature and their Didactics, Im Neuenheimer Feld 561, Room A420, 69120 Heidelberg


Marília Carvalho Batista & Ana Isabel Mata (Portugal)
ORALITY IN THE INITIAL TRAINING OF BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE LANGUAGE TEACHERS: A CASE STUDY

Paper session ARLE 2019 Thursday, 14:00-15:30 Room T11 Chair: Silva, Paulo N
This communication presents a case study reflection on how orality is understood in the Initial Training Course of Portuguese Language Teachers as First Language, Curso de Letras, at one Public University in Brazil. This study is of a qualitative nature (GUBA & LINCOLN, 1994; 1982) and seeks to verify which theoretical approaches and pedagogical practices are used. We conducted interviews with 3 teacher trainers of Curso de Letras at one Public University, and we observed and recorded them in their classes so that we could confront what they thought and taught. Based on the data collected, we can conclude that in the initial training of teachers there is no specific reference to the teaching of orality, although the new guidelines on orality from the official Brazilian documents, BNCC (2018) and PCN (1998), recommend it. The trainers do not consider orality as a teaching content, despite sociolinguistic authors as Bortoni-Ricardo (2004), Ilari & Basso (2007) and Mollica (2014) theoretically support them. Trainers understand oral activities as mere oral presentations of different subjects. They mention only the contents of students’ presentations and do not refer to their structure, nor do they refer to aspects of linguistic variation, or mention the Project NURC (Educated Urban Standard), because there is no methodology on the teaching of orality in the context of initial training.

Keywords: Orality. Initial Teacher Training. Portuguese.

References
BORTONI-RICARDO, S. M. (2004). Educação em Língua Materna: A Sociolinguística na Sala de Aula. São Paulo: Editora Parábola.
PCN (1998). Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais: Ensino Médio: Língua Portuguesa. BRASIL, Ministério da Educação. Brasília/DF: MEC/SEF.
BNCC (2018). Base Nacional Comum Curricular. BRASIL, Ministério da Educação. Brasília/DF: MEC.
GUBA, E. G. & LINCOLN, Y. S. (1994). Competing paradigms in qualitative research. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 105-117). London: Sage.
GUBA, E. G. & LINCOLN, Y. S. (1982). Epistemological and Methodological Bases of Naturalistic Inquiry. Educational Communication and Technology Vol. 30, No. 4: 233-252.
ILARI, R. & BASSO, R. (2007). O português da gente: a língua que estudamos, a língua que falamos. São Paulo: Editora Contexto.
NURC (1970-1990). Projeto da Norma Culta Urbana. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; Universidade de São Paulo e Universidade de Minas Gerais.




Daniel Cassany & Boris Vazquez-Calvo (Spain)
YOUNG PEOPLE’S VERNACULAR LITERACY PRACTICES ONLINE: IDENTITIES AND LANGUAGE LEARNING

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 09:30-11:00 Room T11 Chair: Gonçalves, Matilde
In the project Digital Identities and Cultures in Language Education (http://bit.ly/ICUDEL_ResearchGate), we analyze how young people build their discourse and affinity identities (Gee, 2000) by participating in social networks and fan communities online. From a qualitative and ethnographic perspective and through the theoretical lenses of New Literacy Studies (Barton & Lee, 2013), we collect data (Androutsopoulos, 2013) that we analyze with content and discourse analysis order to answer two main questions: 1) which literacy practices are young people developing online? and 2) what learning do they extract from such practices?
Our data stem from the online activity of 17 teenagers (12-18 years old) from four schools in Barcelona. We conducted two semi-structured and face-to-face interviews (one general and another situated into a specific practice) and participant observation of their profiles (on Instagram, Facebook and YouTube) for months, capturing and analyzing hundreds of posts (texts, photos and videos).
The findings reveal that: 1) while all participants have a significant activity online, their attitudes, purposes and practices are very diverse; 2) young people tend to prefer Instagram (to explore and interact with others) and YouTube (to create content), while they show less interest in Facebook or Snapchat; 3) boys and girls make use of the affordances of the Internet to develop their gender identities consciously; 4) they can be broken down into two categories of users: “spectators” and “creators”. “Spectators” post occasional texts that are less elaborate and sophisticate, often curating other people’s content, because their interest is to browse, explore and learn from friends’ and celebrities’ posts. “Creators” post more frequently and with more sophistication (gameplays, challenges, tutorials, etc.), to explore their creative selves, gain audience and influence them. Most informants report that these practices allow them to develop their identities (overcome shyness, develop humor, contact friends, improve teamwork skills) and learn about technology (software, video, photo), interculturality (diverse communities, language variation) and languages (Spanish as L1 or English as L2).

Keywords: vernacular practices, fan practices, informal learning, social networks, digital identity.

References
Androutsopoulos, J. (2013). Online Data Collection. In C. Mallinson, B. Childs, & G. Van-Kerk (Eds.), Data Collection in Sociolinguistics (pp. 236–250). New York: Routledge.
Barton, D., & Lee, C. (2013). Language Online: Investigating Digital Texts and Practices. New York: Routledge.
Gee, J. P. (2000). Identity as an Analytic Lens for Research in Education. Review of Research in Education, 25(1), 99–125. https://doi.org/10.3102/0091732X025001099




Jordi Casteleyn & André Mottart (Belgium)
L1 LITERATURE EDUCATION: QUINTESSENTIAL OR PERHAPS INCONVENIENT FOR FUTURE ENGINEERS?

Paper session ARLE 2019 Friday, 11:00-12:30 Room T15 Chair: Ruivo, Alexandra
L1 teachers often encourage their students to read as much as possible, and many good reasons can be given to support this behavior. For instance, having read a lot of fiction during childhood and adolescence should have a positive impact on academic success in higher education (Mol & Bus, 2011). However, research studies that investigated this relationship usually recruited students from social sciences, and it is thus yet unknown if this positive impact of reading can also be retrieved for students from other faculties. In this respect, this paper addresses the following research question: regarding non-social sciences students, what is the impact of a history of reading dxon their academic results? 388 first-year civil engineering students from a major university in Flanders (Belgium) completed tests on word knowledge, activity preference (Stanovich, West, & Harrison, 1995), reading enjoyment (Mol & Jolles, 2011) and print exposure, i.e. having being exposed to fiction, or more specifically an Author Recognition Test (Mol & Bus, 2011) at the beginning of the academic year 2018-2019. It is widely acknowledged that word knowledge is strongly related to reading comprehension (Cunningham & Stanovich, 1997), and as a result a word knowledge test could be employed as a more feasible alternative to the more time-consuming reading comprehension tests. In addition to personal variables (such as age, gender, type of secondary education, first language, special needs), the test scores were linked to the students’ 1st term academic results from February 2019. We will examine the students’ academic results by conducting a GLM Univariate ANCOVA in which we enter word knowledge, reading motivation, and print exposure as the independent variables and the personal variables as covariates. This paper discusses the conclusions from this project and comments on the implications they have on the future of L1 literature education.

References

Cunningham, A. E., & Stanovich, K. (1997). Early reading acquisition and its relation to reading experience and ability 10 years later. Developmental Psychology, 33, 934–945.
Mol, S. E., & Jolles, J. (2014). Reading enjoyment amongst non-leisure readers can affect achievement in secondary school. Frontiers in psychology, 5, 1214.
Mol, S., & Bus, A. (2011). To read or not to read: A meta-analysis of print exposure from infancy to early adulthood. Psychological Bulletin, Mar, 137(2), 267-296. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0021890.
Stanovich, K.E., West, R.F. & Harrison, M.R. (1995). Knowledge growth and maintenance across the life span: The role of print exposure. Developmental Psychology, 31, 811–826.


Jordi Casteleyn (Belgium)
WHAT CAN L1 CLASSES LEARN FROM PROFESSIONAL SPEAKING COURSES?

Paper session ARLE 2019 Thursday, 14:00-15:30 Room T11 Chair: Silva, Paulo N
Although research into the development and training of L1 public speaking is limited (Wurth et al., 2018), professional speaking courses are often quickly sold out. A specific type of such a course is an improv(isational) theatre program during which participants learn how to improvise short, comedic scenes. Recent research indicates that this improv theatre training might have an impact on the public speaking competence and public speaking anxiety of secondary education students (e.g. Casteleyn, 2018). However, these studies focus on interventions that are limited in time, whereas most L1 educators and students may experience that improving the public speaking competence can be a slow and distressing process, and that as a result this more resembles an upward spiraling step-by-step process than a straightforward development. In this respect, this paper adopts a more longitudinal perspective than other studies, and addresses the following research question: what is the impact of following an improv course on the public speaking competence and public speaking anxiety of its participants? Participants (n=40 in total) from three introductory improv(isational) theatre courses were tested every three weeks, which resulted in four test moments per participant. Public speaking anxiety was assessed via a self-reported questionnaire (Hook, Smith, & Valentiner, 2008). The public speaking competence was assessed via a speaking exercise during which participants were asked to give a 1-minute talk on a beforehand unknown but thought-provoking statement. These talks were videotaped and scored via comparative judgement (Lesterhuis et al., 2017). In addition, a qualitative analysis was implemented. Specifically, after completing the course, participants whose results deviated from the average scores, were invited for a semi-structured interview to detect factors influencing their scores. Moreover, a think-aloud protocol concerning their speaking exercises was conducted. This paper discusses how the public speaking competence develops during a professional speaking course and which factors may influence this process. The results may have a substantial impact on how the training of the L1 public speaking competence is organized.

References

Casteleyn, J. (2018). Playing with improv(isational) theatre to battle public speaking stress. Research in Drama Education: The Journal of Applied Theatre and Performance. 
https://doi.org/10.1080/13569783.2018.1552129
Hook, J., Smith, C., Valentiner, D. (2008). A short-form of the personal report of confidence as a speaker. Personality and Individual Differences, 44, 1306-1313.
Lesterhuis, M., Verhavert, S., Coertjens, L., Donche, V., & De Maeyer, S. (2017). “Comparative Judgement as a Promising Alternative to Score Competences”. In: Cano, E. & Ion, G. (2017). Innovative Practices for Higher Education Assessment and Measurement. Hershey, PA, USA: IGI Global. DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-0531-0.ch007
Wurth, A., Tigelaar, D., Hulshof, H., de Jong, J., & Admiraal, W. (2018). A literature review of feedback and teaching oracy in L1-classes in secondary education. Paper presented at ARLE (The International Association for Research in L1 Education), SIG Literacies & Oracies, Seminar Focus on Oracy. 2018. Leiden, Nederland.


Sungmin CHANG (Korea (The Republic Of))
ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MULTIPLE DOCUMENT COMPREHENSION, ARGUMENTATIVE WRITING, SELF-REGULATORY PROCESSES, AND DEEP UNDERSTANDING

The purpose of this study is to collectively and empirically examine a hypothesized model that specified structural relationships between multiple document comprehension, argumentative writing, self-regulatory processes, and deep understanding. Although considerable research has been conducted focusing on direct and indirect linkages between various individual difference variables and deep understanding (e.g., Bråten et al., 2014), rather less attention has been paid to structural relationship between sub-processing factors of learning from texts and deep understanding. This study hypothesized that students’ perception of task-based needs (planning) and reflection of provisional writing product (monitoring) predict their deep understanding both directly and indirectly, mediated by selection of relevant materials (multiple document comprehension) and integration of information (argumentative writing).
Data were collected from 664 high school students writing an opinion essay about the topic provided with multiple documents. Participants followed 6 detailed phases, separated by different time units, and produced 3 times of writing products, 4 times of source lists, 6 times of reflective journals, and 2 times of writing workshop records.
Modeling of hypothetical relationships between components was tested by applying a structural equation model. "Deep understanding," the dependent variable of learning-from-texts, was measured by applying an analytic assessment of six experts according to a criterion validated through factor analysis. On the other hand, four predictive variables that explain deep understanding were measured by applying a transformative design that quantifies the results of qualitative content analysis on a five-point scale.
One of the main findings of this study is that, as expected, participants' planning and monitoring processes were found to predict deep understanding. Multiple document comprehension and argumentative writing, which can be identified through visible products (texts), are affected by planning and monitoring. This suggests that invisible self-regulatory processes as well as visible linguistic performances are essential to achieving the desired learning outcomes. Our result is consistent with traditional conceptualization of the importance of self-regulatory processes in learning-from-texts (Moos & Azevedo, 2008), which demonstrates the problem of previous writing activities in content subject classes that allow students to unilaterally acquire the information of reading materials and integrate them independently of the writers' own rhetorical perspective.
The finding that visible linguistic performances are mediated by monitoring, particularly, corresponds to a recent paradigm in which generation and reviewing are known to dynamically interact with each other (Galbraith, 1999). The writers' task representation is never a one-time interpretation and continually changes as it responds to additional representation or resolves several constraints for linguistic performances; thus, various activities, such as a writing workshop for peer-tutoring, need to be applied to facilitate epistemic reentries that allow students to continually generate additional representations before producing final products (texts).
Of note is also that multiple document comprehension did not have direct effects on deep understanding, while argumentative writing had a direct effect. This shows the importance of instructions for text-producing such as integrating information by applying an argumentative schema, in addition to comprehending important information from given reading materials. It is especially important, in the context of educational situations teaching learning-from-texts, that the sub-processes should be publicly open and persistently identified in order to check the achievement of students. This is consistent with a previous study (Klein et al., 2016), which defines learning-from-texts as "a dialogue between rhetorical and content problem solving.“

[Keyword] multiple document comprehension, argumentative writing, self-regulation, deep understanding

[Reference]
Bråten, I., Anmarkrud, Ø., Brandmo, C., & Strømsø, H. I. (2014). Developing and testing a model of direct and indirect relationships between individual differences, processing, and multiple-text comprehension. Learning and Instruction, 30, 9-24.
Galbraith, D. (1999). Writing as a knowledge-constituting process. In M. Torrance & D. Galbraith (Eds.). Knowing what to write: Conceptual processes in text production (pp. 139-160). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
Klein, P. D., Arcon, N., & Baker, S. (2016). Writing to Learn. In C. A. MacArthur, S. Graham, & J. Fizgerald (Eds.), Handbook of Writing Research (2nd ed.) (pp. 243-256). New York: Guilford Press.
Moos, D. C., & Azevedo, R. (2008). Self-regulated learning with hypermedia: The role of prior domain knowledge. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33(2), 270-298.


Wai Ming Cheung & Yanli Huang & Hiu Mei Chan & Qing Zhang (Hong Kong)
THE EFFECT OF GUIDED FANTASY ON THE CREATIVE WRITING ABILITY OF LINGUISTICALLY DIVERSE STUDENTS

Paper session ARLE 2019 Friday, 14:00-15:30 Room T10 Chair: Batalha, Joana
Abstract
Linguistically diverse (LP) students in Hong Kong have to acquire basic competence in reading and writing Chinese to prevent marginalization. However these students are usually directed by teachers’ traditional teaching to “fill in the blanks” in their writing. Teaching literacy skills in creative contexts would invite learners to engage themselves imaginatively which stretches their generative capacities, and persist when they encounter difficulties. The present study aims to explore how guided fantasy (Kirmizi, 2015).which is a creative writing strategy would encourage students’ divergent thinking abilities in Chinese writing.
A quasi-experimental design was employed in this study to investigate its effectiveness on LP students’ creative writing ability in heterogeneous classrooms. Eighty-one Grade three students from a school were recruited. They were randomly assigned to an intervention group (20 females and 26 males) and a control group (16 females and 19 males) with two classes in each group. The intervention group employed guided fantasy strategy to learn Chinese writing while the control group used traditional method. Pretest and posttest of writing were implemented before and after the designed lessons to test students’ writing performance. The Chinese Creative Writing Scale with excellent interrater reliability (.90 to .98) was adopted to measure students’ creative writing performance in fluency, flexibility and originality (Cheung, et. al, 2001).
Results showed that the test (pre-test vs. post-test) × group (control vs. intervention) interaction reached significance at all three subscales, F=47.58, p<.001, ηp2=.376 for fluency, F=30.39, p<.001, ηp2=.278 for flexibility, and F=5.49, p=.022, ηp2=.065 for originality. Follow-up analyses on improvements (i.e., scores in post-test minus scores in pre-test) showed that, students in intervention group obtained a higher improvement (8.35 on fluency, 7.35 in flexibility, and 2.85 in originality) than those in the control group (2.83 on fluency, 2.63 in flexibility, and 1.83 in originality) in all three subscales, ps<.05.
Both intervention group and control group made progress but the intervention group made greater progress than control group. Guided fantasy has the power to involve and excite LP students to write better and teachers should be equipped with creative writing strategies.

References

Cheung, W. M., Tse, S. K., & Tsang, W. H. H. (2001). Development and validation of the Chinese creative writing scale for primary school students in Hong Kong. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 35(4), 249-260.
Kirmizi, F. S. (2015). The effect of creative drama and creative writing activities on creative writing achievement. Egitim ve Bilim, 40,181.

Acknowledgement: The research is supported by General Research Fund (RGC Ref No. 1760715)


Mette Vedsgaard Christensen & Kristine Kabel (Denmark)
GRAMMAR TEACHING PRACTICES IN DANISH L1 CLASSES

Paper session ARLE 2019 Thursday, 14:00-15:30 Room T12 Chair: Madeira, Ana
In this paper, we present key findings from a large national study on grammar teaching practices in upper secondary school in Denmark (Gramma3, 2018-19). The study explores how grammar teaching takes place and how teachers and students conceive grammar teaching in the three language subjects Danish (L1), English (L2) and German (L3). The study addresses an underexposed yet contested discipline in L1 education in Denmark, the status of grammar teaching in Denmark hence seems similar to what has been reported Myhill (2018) regarding the UK. In this paper, we focus on key findings from the L1 classroom.
Framework
The study finds its point of departure in a broad conceptualization of the notion of grammar teaching. We investigate grammar teaching both when it takes the shape of a decontextualized, explicit grammar instruction focusing on language as a set of rules, but also when grammar is taught through more functional or meaning-oriented forms. Traditionally, grammar teaching is linked to the study of morphology and syntax, whereas a meaning-oriented form of grammar teaching also may focus on the level of the text and on contextual factors involved in e.g. writing. In this study we aim at exploring the different levels and aspects of language in grammar teaching, hence we find inspiration in the notion of a multilevel-grammatics (Macken-Horarik, Sandiford, Love, & Unsworth, 2015).
Design
The study is a focused ethnographic study (Knoblauch, 2005) with data consisting of coded classroom observations and interviews with teachers and students in Year 7 and 8 (age 13-15) from seven schools in Denmark (in total 260 lessons). In this paper, we focus on data from L1-classrooms (140 lessons).
Findings
In our study of grammar teaching practices in upper secondary, we find different and contrasting tendencies: in some schools, we see a minimal explicit focus on grammar and language, and in other schools, we see an explicit focus on grammar in texts or even context-involving activities. However, in most schools, grammar teaching almost exclusively takes place as a segregated activity, where the normal pedagogical principles and ideals regarding student-centred activities seem to be absent. As part of our presentation, we discuss the current grammar teaching practices within L1 education.

References
Knoblauch, H. (2005). Focused ethnography. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung, 6(3). https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004
Macken-Horarik, M., Sandiford, C., Love, K., & Unsworth, L. (2015). New ways of working 'with grammar in mind' in school English: Insights from systemic functional grammatics. Linguistics and Education, 31, 145-158. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2016/j.linged.2015.07.004
Myhill, D. (2018). Grammar as a meaning-making resource for improving writing. Contribution to a special issue Working on Grammar at School in L1-Education: Empirical Research across Linguistic Regions. L1-Educational Studies in Language and Literature, 18, pp. 1-21. https://doi.org/10.17239/L1ESLL-2018.18.04.04


Eva Dam Christensen (Denmark)
EXPLORATORY AND CRITICAL DIALOGUES AS LEARNING AND REFLECTION TOOLS

Pre-conference ARLE 2019 Tuesday, 14:30-16:00 Room T10 Chair: Pieper, Irene
Discussants: Pieper (Germany); Gonçalves (Portugal)
Short presentations (poster) and extended discussion ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 14:30-15:30 Room T14 Chair: Fontich, Xavier
Introduction.
This intervention study investigates and qualifies students` use of exploratory and critical
dialogues when reading multimodal texts in lower secondary school. I investigate how
students engage in group dialogues to develop skills for critical communication and
validating texts on websites through interthinking
The study has its main theoretical foundation in a sociocultural understanding (Vygotsky, 1986, Bakhtin, 1986, Maine, 2015). Learning and understanding does not happen individually but is developed through dialogues in social contexts.
Research Questions:
How do students working in groups use dialogue to explore the content and credibility of websites?
How can we qualify the same dialogue by facilitating an exploratory and critical validation of it by students?
Methods & Data Sources.
This PhD project is an intervention study with four lower secondary classes participating. To describe the field before and after the intervention, I have completed an initial dialogue test of students` group work based on their dialogue while reading websites and a dialogue test after the intervention. Data are conducted through video and audio records of students group dialogues and focus group interviews.
My hypothesis is that when students reflect and have a meta-dialog over their own dialogue, they can strengthen their ability to criticize and make source criticism of websites
Analysis
First part of the transcriptions and the interviews of the focus groups indicates that when the teacher set up dialogic group assignments the student isn`t aware of how to be critical
Students try to analyze the elements on the website by reading the multimodal information and then assessing the credibility of the content without exploring how the website's multimodal texts interact and what it can do for credibility
Significance
It seems that the students' observation of their own group dialogues helps to qualify their study of the same group dialogues and allows for meta-reflection.
The aim I work on is that students acquire dialogue and critical communication skills as awareness that knowledge is not secure and in fact and that students themselves must learn to deal with this uncertainty by making assessments of the Internet texts

Key words: exploratory and critical dialogue, interthinking, digital multimodal texts, group dialogue

References.
· Littleton, Karen & Mercer, Neil (2013): Interthinking, Putting Talk to work, Routhledge
· Maine, Fiona (2015): Dialogic Readers. Children talking and thinking together about visual texts, Routhledge
· Mercer, Neil and Hodgkinson, Steve (2010): Exploring Talk in School, Sage Publications
· Wegerif, R. (2016). Applying dialogic theory to illuminate the relationship between literacy education and teaching thinking in the context of the Internet Age. Contribution to a special issue on International Perspectives on Dialogic Theory and Practice, edited by Sue Brindley, Mary Juzwik, and Alison Whitehurst. L1-Educational Studies in Language and Literature, p. 1-21.





Valentina Christodoulou & Elena Ioannidou (Cyprus)
NEW DIGITAL PRACTICES AND EMERGING LITERACY FORMS: AN INVESTIGATION OF YOUNG PEOPLE’S LANGUAGE USE IN SOCIAL MEDIA

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 09:30-11:00 Room T11 Chair: Gonçalves, Matilde
The present paper investigates the digital practices of young people (aged 14-20), in the context of Cyprus, that draw on but are also mediated by written texts. Digital literacy practices have proven to be very rich sources for linguistic study as they do not only involve users’ metalinguistic awareness of language choices made but they also give way to new directions for the use of social networking platforms such as Facebook and Instagram. The use of digital practices in social networking has proven to be a powerful and dynamic form of informal learning (Carrington & Robinson, 2009).
In particular, three aspects of young people’s digital uses of language are explored: A) Greeklish (use of Latin alphabeted characters in Greek words), a common writing system used mostly among youth in social media and online interactions and a dynamic digital practice which indexes participation in certain digital communities, B) Engreek (use of Greek alphabet in English words), a popular and rather recent practice with users which can be characterised as a reversal of Greeklish. Engreek is investigated through the lens of linguistic novelty or even resistance in the sovereignty of Greeklish and English language in digital environments. C) Hashtags in social networking sites (e.g. Facebook and Instagram) as processes of text-density.
The objective is to obtain a more rounded picture of the ways in which different forms of digital practices and emerging linguistic choices can transform users’ literacy practices allowing them to cross ‘borders’ through multimodal texts and the ways in which this crossing may correlate with their positions in a landscape of practice.
The data collected comprise of a corpus of data from participant posts on Facebook and Instagram (thirty posts), as well as advertisements on Facebook (twenty) and one hundred and twenty questionnaires. For the analysis of the data we adopted models of analysis that spring from sociolinguistics, literacy theories, Ethnography of Communication and discourse analysis, whereas a quantitative analysis of questionnaire responses was also employed.

Keywords: Engreek, digital language practices, script-focused translanguaging, landscapes of practice, reflexivity


References:
Androutsopoulos, J. (2013) Networked multilingualism: Some language practices on Facebook and their implications In International Journal of Bilingualism 19(2), 185-205.
Carrington, V. and Robinson, M. (eds.) (2009) Digital literacies: Social learning and Classroom Practices. London: Sage Publications
García, O. (2009) Education, multilingualism and translanguaging in the 21st century. In: A.K. Mohanty, Panda, M., Phillipson, R. & Skutnabb-Kangas, T. (eds.) Multilingual education for social justice: globalising the local. New Delhi: Orient BlackSwan, 140-158.
Jørgensen, J. N. (2008) Polylingual Languaging Around and Among Children and Adolescents In International Journal of Multilingualism 5(3), 161 -176
Papacharisi, Z. (2015) Affective publics and structures of storytelling: sentiment, events and mediality In Information, Communication & Society.
Velasco, P. & García, O. (2014) Translanguaging and the Writing of Bilingual Learners, Bilingual Research Journal, 37(1), 6-23.
Zappavigna, M. (2015) Searchable talk: the linguistic functions of hashtags, Social Semiotics, 25(3), 274-291


Rosalie Hiuyan Chung & Julie Cohen (United States)
ANALYZING THE MECHANISMS THAT INFLUENCE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEACHERS AND COACHES

Paper session ARLE 2019 Thursday, 11:00-12:30 Room T10 Chair: Bremholm, Jesper
Keywords: instructional coaching, coaching supports, teacher characteristics, perceptions

Coaching is being used to support teachers in districts across the United States with variable evidence of effects on shifting teacher and student outcomes (Kraft, Blazar, & Hogan, 2018). Recent theoretical pieces on coaching continue to propose specific coaching models that might help improve teacher practice (Glover & Reddy, 2017). Yet these articles mainly emphasize coaching techniques and fail to examine how the relational aspect of coaching can influence the type of support teachers receive. This study draws on data from a large-scale study of the implementation and effects of content focused professional learning curriculum in a large southeastern school district in the United States to analyze the nuanced relationships between two literacy coaches and the teachers they support. Our goal is to use empirical data to build a more robust theoretical model of the ways in which teacher, coach, and school characteristics influence coaching dynamics and are associated with shifts in teaching practice. Drawing on theories of andragogy and social support, we anticipated that teachers were more likely to be receptive to coaches who valued their input and created a collaborative working relationship. Data includes semi-structured interviews with coaches, teachers and principals at multiple timepoints in two consecutive years and debriefs where the coach provided feedback to teachers about their instruction. Results suggest that both the experience and background of a coach and teacher are important factors in building an effective coaching relationship. School culture can also influence teacher and coach perceptions of the coaching relationship. Implications highlight the need for careful matching of coaches and teachers and training the administration to better support instructional coaches in their work.

References
Glover, T. A. & Reddy, L. A. (Eds.). (2017). Instructional coaching practices: Promising models, empirical support, and considerations for practice [Special issue]. Theory Into Practice, 56(1).
Kraft, M. A., Blazer, D., & Hogan, D. (2018). The effect of teacher coaching on instruction and achievement: A meta-analysis of the causal evidence. Review of Educational Research, 88(4), 547-588.


Anthony Coppola & Glais Sales Cordeiro (Switzerland)
YOUNG NEWCOMER STUDENTS’ CAPACITIES TO UNDERSTAND AND RECOUNT A TALE IN FRENCH, LANGUAGE OF INSTRUCTION, THROUGH A “MINIMAL CIRCUIT OF ACTIVITIES”

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 09:30-11:00 Room T12 Chair: Mata, Ana Isabel
Keywords : French didactics – young newcomer students – oral comprehension and production capacities – characters-narrative system – minimal circuit of activities

Teachers tell and read tales and children’s storybooks very often to young students in primary school. Nevertheless, is listening enough to understand and recount a story? Is there no need for specific instruction to develop students’ oral comprehension and production capacities? Research in French didactics shows that oral comprehension skills are frequently requested in different school matters but strategies to develop these skills are rarely taught (Colognesi & Dolz, 2017), especially to allophone students.
Attempting to find solutions to these issues, we drew on the work developed by teachers and researchers at the Maison des Petits Network (MdPN) in Geneva (Switzerland) that aims to better equip teachers and students aged 4 to 8 to working on tales or children’s storybooks comprehension. This Network has conceived a “minimal circuit of activities” based on the concept of “characters-narrative system” (CNS) (Cordeiro, 2014) that makes visible the relationships between the intentions, actions and feelings of each character interacting with those of the other characters. This didactical device highlights the narrative’s dynamic, which would be a major asset for its understanding (Cordeiro, 2018).
In this presentation, we will analyse the outcomes of the MdPN “minimal circuit of activities”, adapted to the language needs of 4 newcomer students (age 5) attending a French language support group in a canton of Vaud school for the understanding of Goldilocks and the three bears tale. These intensive French courses (IFC) aim to build a bridge between the students’ heritage language and French, language of instruction. The teaching sequence was fully filmed and analysed. It was composed of the following steps: (1) watching an animated story of the tale; (2) individual assessment of students’ initial capacities to recount the story; (3) characters and places identification; (5) (re)construction of the CNS of the tale through images re-sequencing ; (6) watching another animated story of the tale; (7) individual assessment of students’ final capacities to recount the story.
First results of initial and final assessments analysis show that thanks to the teaching sequence students become capable of pointing out more accurately the characters’ main intentions, actions and feelings, putting into words the basic aspects of the tale’s plot.

References:

Colognesi, S. & Dolz, J. (2017). Un dispositif de formation des enseignants : construire des scénarios pour développer les capacités orales des élèves du primaire. In J.-F. de Pietro, C. Fisher & R. Gagnon (Eds.). L’oral aujourd’hui : perspectives didactiques. Recherches en Didactique du Français, 9 (pp. 177-199). Namur : Presses universitaires de Namur.
Cordeiro, G. S. (2014). Justifications des élèves et médiations de l’enseignante dans une tâche de compréhension en lecture d’un conte en maternelle. Repères, 50, 157-176.
Cordeiro, G. S. (2018). Apprendre à parler en justifiant ses dires collectivement pour comprendre un récit lu ou raconté à l’école maternelle : propos des élèves et interventions de l’enseignant. Pratiques no. 177-178. Accès : https:// journals.openedition.org/pratiques/4060


Marianne Cormier & Nicole Lirette-Pitre & Nicole Ferguson (Canada)
AN EXPLORATION OF THE INTERPLAY OF CHILDREN’S LITERATURE AND THE LEARNING CYCLE INSTRUCTIONAL MODEL ON STUDENTS’ UNDERSTANDING IN SCIENCE, LANGUAGE ABILITIES AND READING COMPREHENSION.

Paper session ARLE 2019 Thursday, 14:00-15:30 Room T15 Chair: Coutinho, Antónia
In language minority schools, the mediating function of language for building identity and constructing knowledge seems to be a critical component of powerful pedagogical actions (Author). Carrejo and Reinhartz (2014) voice the need to integrate discipline-based instruction with language-based instruction as there is evidence that science serves as the instructional engine to promote language skills. According to Gee (2014), students must be engaged in learning to unpack both the content of science and its language, and by doing so, they are developing both literacies. Literature can create conditions for exploring human experience (Sumara, 2002), an important consideration for linguistic minority students who are negotiating their own identity. The Learning Cycle is a pedagogical model conceived for science teaching and seems effective for engaging students in learning and for fostering conceptual change (Marek, 2008). Our study explores the interplay of these different components. Thus, our three-year quasi-experimental study examines the impact of lesson plans using the 5E Learning Cycle embedded with children’s literature in middle school science. Our primary objective is to determine if this kind of juxtaposition helps linguistic minority students in a multilingual setting co-develop scientific and language literacies. Taking place in New Brunswick francophone minority schools, eight classes participated in a total of 12 science study units that interplayed the Learning Cycle with a children’s novel, set in the New Brunswick context, starting in grade six and continuing until the end of grade eight. Eight control classes were also followed and were taught science according to the provincial curriculum guide. In a mixed methods design, quantitative before and after measures were collected to measure understanding in science, language abilities and reading comprehension. At the end of the study, and for qualitative purposes, interviews were conducted with both teachers and students in the experimental group. Quantitative results suggest that the interplay between literature and science has promoted greater understanding. Qualitative results indicate the powerful nature of the novels to foster engagement and highlights the inclusive, identity building potential of this synergy that also nurtures language and science learning.


Rosária Rodrigues Correia & Luis Araujo & Célia Folgado & Carla Sofia Sobrinho Lourenço Sampaio & Susana Franco (Portugal)
ASSESSING ORAL LANGUAGE SKILLS AT PRIMARY SCHOOL ENTRY

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 15:45-17:15 Room T10 Chair: Pereira, Luísa A.
Although the development of oral language skills is common to the curricula of both preschool and primary school in Portugal, as Pinto (2010) states “traditionally, oral language is not regarded as a skill to develop”, contrary to what happens in terms of teaching reading and writing. However, oral comprehension and expression correspond, according to Sim-Sim (2009), to “a primordial use of language, while reading and writing are secondary competences.” Thus, we assume that both oral and written language are important aspects to develop in primary school and that a better knowledge of oral language, which children acquire first, will enable better written language skills (Sim-Sim, 2009). Our goal was to assess, upon primary school entry, the dimensions of language knowledge that are related with learning to read and write, so that we could identify possible difficulties in the development of reading and writing and propose didactic choices to teachers. To evaluate the language knowledge of 59 students attending first grade in a semi-urban center, we used the battery Identification of Linguistic Knowledge Skills (ILKS) (Identificação de Competências Linguísticas (TICL). The battery assesses four language areas: (i) lexical knowledge - 64 itens; (ii) morphosyntactic knowledge - 27 items; (iii) oral memory for verbal input - 19 items; and (iv) Ability to reflect about oral language - 24 items. The 59 students attended preschool for 3 years, have no special education needs, speak Portuguese as mother tongue, and their age range between 5 years and 10 months and 6 years and 11 months. The TICL is a criterion-based battery (Viana, 2004), which allows us to assess how well students fare according to an established mastery of the domains tested and, in this case, 70% of items presented a difficulty level above .75 – which indicates an easy level (Viana, 2004). Results show that 36% of students had results below the expected level for their age, which suggests that a high number of students may present difficulties in developing reading and writing skills. Results in each language area will be discussed, as well as implications for practice.

Keywords: assessment, oral language, reading and writing, primary school

Genishi, C. (1998). Young Children's Oral Language Development. ERIC Digest. ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education.

Pinto, M. (2010). Desenvolver competências do oral no 1.º Ciclo. Desenvolver Competências em Língua: Percursos Didácticos. [Develop oral skills in Primary School. Developing Language Skills: Didactic Methods]. Lisboa, Edições Colibri, pp.15-32.

Sim-Sim, I. (2009). O Ensino da Leitura: A Decifração. [The Teaching of Reading: De-ciphering.] Lisboa, Ministério da Educação, Direção-Geral de Inovação e de Desenvolvimento Curricular.

Viana, L. (2004). Teste de Identificação de Competências Linguísticas. [Identification Test of Linguistic Competences.] Gaia, EDIPSICO.

Vukelich, C., Christie, C., & Enz, B. (2016), Helping young children learn language and literacy: Birth through kindergarten. NY: Pearson.


Paulo Costa & Angela C. P. Balca (Portugal)
(RE)BUILDING TRADITIONAL NARRATIVES: WRITING EXERCISES FROM WINDOWS AND MIRRORS

Oral tradition narratives constitute a fundamental element in the construction of common references, and, in this sense, they appear both as an object and in an instrumental perspective at various points in the educational pathways. We intended, with this study, to identify the features of written texts that emerge – categories (Reis, 2001), planning, textualization and strategies (Carvalho, 2012) - when the induction of this practice is done through narratives of oral tradition. We started from students' previous knowledge of the story in order to perceive the most significant changes in terms of the options taken at retelling. We used the data collected in the context of an exercise combining the reading / retelling of traditional narrative texts with writing practices. This activity involved fifty students attending training linked to professions in the educational area from two higher education establishments and took the form of a workshop that was operationalized as follows: 1) A traditional narrative, known to all the students involved, was identified by its title. 2) Students were asked to write their version of the story. 3) A written version of the story was read to students (Coelho, 2009) Students were asked to rewrite the story by changing one of the narrative categories (space, time, characters, action, narrator). The content analysis seems to indicate, on the one hand, a prior knowledge that is reasonably standardized, with little significant variants, and, on the other hand, for a retelling/rewriting option that does not seem to privilege a category of specific narrative in an evident way, although time and the introduction of a different outcome from the original one are the most recurrent strategies.
Keywords: oral tradition narrative; writing practices; higher education.
References:
Carvalho, J. (2012). Ensinar e aprender a escrever no século XXI – (Re)configurando um velho objeto escolar. Anais do SIELP (vol.2). Uberlândia: EDUFU.
Coelho, A. (2009). Contos Populares Portugueses, Alfragide: Leya.
Reis, C. (2001). O conhecimento da literatura. Introdução aos estudos literários. Coimbra: Almedina.


Ana Luísa Costa & Ana CSCS Mota (Portugal)
WHAT DO WE PUT? A COMMA?

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 09:30-11:00 Room T6 Chair: Batalha, Joana
The aim of this exploratory study is to describe the kind of linguistic awareness that underpins the uses of punctuation by children in their third year of formal learning. Since primary school, young writers see their texts evaluated through punctuation rules in daily classroom routines. However, when children enter the stage of compositional writing, they hardly know the metalinguistic concepts associated with punctuation rules. For instance, even a common instruction as “put a full stop at the end of a sentence” requires the complex awareness of what a sentence is (Hall & Robinson 1996). Moreover, in a language like European Portuguese, punctuation rules are less intuitive than in languages where there is a stronger relationship with prosody. In Portuguese, the majority of rules depends on syntactic knowledge (Duarte 2000). For instance, the use of a comma between the subject and the predicate is forbidden, which applies to all types of subjects, including sentential ones. The metalinguistic knowledge about the noun-phrase that may be the subject of a sentence is taught at 4th grade. However, before that, by the second year of formal learning (Nicholls et al. 1989), students begin composing sentences in major cohesive unities in texts. In the gap between the need to use punctuation marks and the understanding of punctuation rules, the mistakes made in early writing composition are far from being chaotic. Instead, those mistakes may be taken as evidence that children are reflecting on punctuation and text functioning. Our exploratory study purpose is to contribute to the description of the metalinguistic activity embedded in early punctuation uses. Data were collected from classroom activities in a 3rd-grade class developing a narrative writing project. Two kinds of sources were analyzed: (i) texts written by 21 children (13 girls, 8 boys) and (ii) oral interactions in peer-work during a text-revision task. A “text-oriented analysis” (Hyland 2002) of the punctuation uses, and the analysis of the verbalized beliefs on punctuation from the peer interactions will support the description. Learning about how children spontaneously use and think about punctuation may contribute to better pedagogical approaches to writing at primary school.

References
Duarte, I. (2000). Língua Portuguesa. Instrumentos de análise. Lisboa: Universidade Aberta.
Hyland, K. (2002). Teaching and Researching Writing. London: Longman. MacWhinney.
Hall, N. & Robinson, A. (eds.) (1996). Learning about Punctuation. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Nicholls, J. et al. (1989) Beginning Writing. Philadelphia: Open University Press.


Keywords: punctuation; metalinguistic activity; writing development; early writing


João Costa (Portugal)
GLOBAL CHALLENGES FOR EDUCATION. CAN LINGUISTS HELP?

Keynote Thursday, 09:30-10:30 Room Auditorium 1 Chair: Batalha, Joana
Education systems across the world face challenges related to equity, inclusion, and endowing students with the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values allowing them to thrive. Democratic education systems are currently discussing the role of education in a context of uncertainty, of quick development of technology, of construction of a diferente relation with knowledge. Because we live in the middle of an avalanche of information, school is more importante than ever, since information does not equal truth, knowledge or wisdom.
With this background in mind, we propose a reflection on what can be the contribution of formal linguistics, with a particular focus on the integration of the knowledge developed on language acquisition.
It will be argued that this type of research is crucial for the design of education policy, for influencing decisions, and – most importantly – for better practises in the work with students.


Antónia Coutinho & Matilde Gonçalves & Noémia Jorge (Portugal)
TEXT GENRES, DISCURSIVE TYPES AND POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENTAL EFFECTS

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 09:30-11:00 Room T15 Chair: Schneuwly, Bernard
Text genre is nowadays a consensual notion in text and discourse linguistic studies as well as in didactic approaches. In Portugal, the notion appeared recently in the official documents for compulsory education, replacing the notion of text types, explicitly or implicitly referred in previous documents. Besides all discussion concerning current programmes, in Portuguese context, this evolution appears as a positive one, once it allows a balanced work, dealing with contextual dimensions as well as macro-organizational and (micro)linguistic (or grammatical) features. The importance of contextual features has already been pointed out by several authors, among which we will emphasize the founding contribution of Voloshinov ([1929]1973), arguing for a top-down methodological option regarding the study of language. Following Voloshinov, as well as Vygotsky ([1934]2007) and Saussure (2002), the Socio-Discursive Interactionism framework (Bronckart, 1997) defines itself as a logocentric approach, assuming the role of language as fundamental in the development of superior psychic functions and in the development of the individuals during their life. Based on this epistemological and theoretical framework, we want to discuss, in this paper, what specific developmental effects can be attached to the progressive mastery of text genres. More specifically, we will argue that the referred mastery is supposed to contribute to the development of praxeological capacities and the development of personal identities, besides the development of formal contents (Bronckart, 2008). Both dimensions (praxeological capacities and personal identities) depend on a differential approach (Coutinho & Miranda, 2015): to deal with the differences between different genres and to deal with differences between different examples (specimen) of the same genre. However, the development of personal identities depends particularly on discursive capacities (as they are conceived within the Socio-Discursive Interactionism framework): to deal with different socio-subjective roles, to deal with the grammatical solutions (as technical solutions) to configure those roles.
The theoretical dimension of this contribution will be supplemented by practical experiences in classroom Portuguese contexts, in mandatory education and in higher education (first year). The available data highlights the benefits of a genre-oriented teaching approach, developing different and complementary dimensions of the person – including their social and discursive capacities.


References

Bronckart, J.-P. (2008). Un retour nécessaire sur la question du développement. In M. Brossard & J. Fijalkow, Vygotski et les recherches en éducation et en didactiques (pp. 237-250). Bordeaux : Presses Universitaires de Bordeaux.

Coutinho, M. A., Miranda, F. (2015). Les propriétés différentielles des genres et leurs implications didactiques. Le Français dans le monde. Recherches et applications, 58: 17 - 26.

Voloshinov, V. N. ([1929]1977). Marxism and the Philosophy of Language. Harvard: Harvard University Press and the Academic Press Inc.

Saussure, F. de (2006). Writings in General Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Keywords:
text genres - discourse types - differential approach - personal development - EXPERIENCE


Hans Das & Barend P. van Heusden & Theo Witte & Gillis J. Dorleijn (Netherlands (the))
STUDENTS’ ATTITUDE TOWARDS POETRY, THE WAY(S) IN WHICH THEY READ POETRY AND STAGES OF POETRY READING

Pre-conference ARLE 2019 Tuesday, 16:30-18:00 Room T10 Chair: Elf, Nikolaj
Discussants: Elf (Denmark); Feytor Pinto (Portugal)
Paper session ARLE 2019 Thursday, 15:45-17:15 Room T16 Chair: Ohlsson, Elisabeth
Although most L1-teachers in the Netherlands are convinced of the importance of poetry, little attention is paid to poetry in the literary classroom. A Dutch survey among 225 L1-teachers in secondary education (Vekobo project, s.d.) showed that a large majority are dissatisfied about the curriculum structure and the way they deal with differences between students.
This is hardly surprising, since poetry reading in secondary education still remains an underdeveloped field of research (Dymoke, Lambirth, & Wilson, 2013). In order to enhance poetry teaching, more research is needed into the students’ attitude towards, and the way(s) in which they read poetry.

This study addresses two research questions: what are the characteristics of students’ attitude toward poetry and how do these affect their reading strategies? And second: can we discern levels or stages of poetry reading? And if so: how many, and on the basis of which criteria?
The research connects to two studies which focused on reading prose. Janssen et al (2006) researched different reading activities applied by strong and weak readers of short stories and Witte et al (2012) described developmental levels for reading and understanding novels.

A study into the pedagogical content knowledge (pck) of expert poetry teachers, explored in focus groups, led to a first demarcation of four ability levels for both lower and upper secondary education and to sets of poems that connected to these levels.
In a second study the concepts, preferences and reading processes of students (N=38) were examined by means of interviews and think-aloud sessions. Based on these data, three types of poetry readers were distinguished for both lower and upper secondary students.
On the basis of the research on teachers’ pck and students’ reading practice we developed a survey to be completed by 4400 students from all over the Netherlands. The results (summer 2019) should provide insight into the existence of poetry reader types, as well as (developmental) stages of lyrical abilities – allowing for the design of (a) poetry learning line(s) in secondary education.


References:
Dymoke, S., Lambirth, A., & Wilson, A. (Eds.). (2013). Making poetry matter: International research on poetry pedagogy. London: Bloomsbury.

Janssen, T., Braaksma, M & Rijlaarsdam, G. (2006). Literary reading activities of good and weak students: A think aloud study. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 21(1), 35-52

Vekobo project (s.d.). Legitimacy, status and practical problems of teaching poetry in secondary education in the Netherlands. Groningen: Teacher Education Centre RUG (to be published).

Witte, T., Rijlaarsdam, G., & Schram, D. (2012). An empirically grounded theory of literary development: Teachers' pedagogical content knowledge on literary development in upper secondary education. L1-Educational Studies in Language and Literature, 12, 1-30


research area:
poetry in secondary education


key words:
‘poetry education’, ‘literary development’, ‘reader profiles’, ‘focus groups’, ‘interviews and thinking aloud’


Charlotte Dejaegher & Marine ANDRE & Patricia Schillings & Jonathan Rappe ()
TEACHING COMPREHENSION’S STRATEGIES IN AN EXPLICIT AND AUTHENTIC WAY IN THE EARLIEST LEARNINGS: EFFECTS OF BELIEFS ON TEACHERS' PRACTICES

Paper session ARLE 2019 Thursday, 14:00-15:30 Room T14 Chair: Puksand, Helin
Keywords: visible learning, teaching beliefs and practices, comprehension strategies

This presentation will focus on the identification of the main beliefs which might constitute obstacles to comprehension strategies teaching in an explicit and authentic way. Since September 2017, we have indeed been implementing the French program “PARLER” (Zorman, Bressoux, Bianco, Lequette, Pouget & Pourchet, 2015) in five French-speaking Belgian experimental schools. This compensatory program proposes short, intensive, regular and structured working ability groups that focus on oral language comprehension skills based on explicit instruction principles in a decontextualized way (Bianco, 2015). However, to deal with the complexity of the reading act, pupils have to learn how to coordinate these abilities together during authentic reading activities. Thus, experimental class teachers have been asked to work in three steps: shared reading, guided reading and autonomous reading using children’s books. This type of comprehension strategies teaching – and in particular the first step of shared reading – are unfamiliar to Belgian teachers. Therefore, it seems appropriate to identify what teachers’ beliefs (meaning any simple proposition, conscious or unconscious, inferred from what a person says or does, capable of being preceded by the phrase ‘I believe that’, Rokeach, 1992, cited by Pajares, 1992, pp. 314) could be an obstacle to this kind of teaching.

Concretely, four focus-groups with teachers who have implemented the program PARLER in their classrooms have been conducted. Among the various teachers’ beliefs, we have noticed the prevalence of the belief that the pupils has to be active in his own learning. We will also present how teachers have overcome these obstacles through talks and debates between them.

Reference list :

Bianco, M. (2015). Du langage oral à la compréhension de l’écrit. Grenoble: Presses Universitaires de Grenoble.
Pajares, F. (1992). Teachers’ beliefs and educational research: Cleaning up a messy construct. Review of Educational Research, 62(3), 307–332.
Zorman, M., Bressoux, P., Bianco, M., Lequette, C., Pouget, G., & Pourchet, M. (2015). « PARLER »: Un dispositif pour prévenir les difficultés scolaires. Revue Francaise de Pedagogie, 193(4), 57–76. https://doi.org/10.4000/rfp.4890


Jeroen Dera (Netherlands (the))
LITERATURE EDUCATION AS NORMATIVE PRACTICE: THE CASE OF THE NETHERLANDS

Paper session ARLE 2019 Thursday, 14:00-15:30 Room T16 Chair: Valentim, Helena T.
Keywords: identity, literature education, gender diversity, cultural diversity

As noted in the Call for Papers for this conference, it is through the mediating function of language that identity is built. This awareness lies at the heart of many secondary school literature curricula, that often engage students in questions related to what it means to be human. In this respect, reading literary texts in classroom contexts might help students in shaping their own identity. At the same time, the institution of literature education itself can be considered as a crucial actor in the process of identity formation, for it provides the social context in which identities are shaped and performed.

In this contribution I analyze literature education as a normative institution that articulates poetical and ideological positions towards literature in general and identity in particular. The literary texts that are selected and discussed in language classrooms implicitly and explicitly shape discourses on gender, ethnicity and authorship. In my presentation, I will address this mechanism through data collected in three interrelated studies, conducted in the field of literature education in the Netherlands:

1. A survey study among teachers of Dutch (n=197), focusing on their own reading habits and their knowledge of contemporary novels.
2. A survey study among Dutch secondary school students (n=1616), focusing on their reading habits and the literary texts they selected for their literature exam.
3. A content analysis of Dutch schoolbooks on literature, focusing on the gender and cultural diversity of the selected authors.

Because the data each cover a different actor within the educational system (teacher, student, textbook), they provide a broad overview of the institution. Statistical analysis of the data shows that Dutch literature education reproduces inequalities related to gender and ethnicity: texts of both female and non-western authors are underrepresented in the text selection of both teachers, students and textbooks. This implies that educational professionals in the Netherlands should pay more attention to text selection processes when fostering democratic identity formation.

References (selection)
- M.W. Apple, Education and Power. New York, 2011 [1982].
- J. Dera, ‘De lezende leraar: Literatuuronderwijs in Nederland(s) als onderzoeksobject’. TNTL 134 (2018) 2, pp. 146-170. [‘The Reading Teacher: Literature Education in the Netherlands as Object of Research’]
- A. Haertling Thein, R. Beach & A. Johnston, ‘Rethinking Identity and Adolescence in the Teaching of Literature: Implications for Pre-Service Teacher Education’. In H.L. Hallman (ed.), Innovations in English Language Arts Teacher Education (Advances in Research on Teaching, volume 27). Emerald Group Publishing Limited, pp. 65-87.


Fleur Diamond & Graham B. Parr & Lorna Smith & Nikki Aharonian & Scott Bulfin & simon wrigley (Australia)
L1 EDUCATORS WRITING TOGETHER IN HYBRID PROFESSIONAL LEARNING COMMUNITIES: INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES

Symposium ARLE 2019 Thursday, 15:45-17:15 Room T14
There is strong global agreement that educators who are actively engaged in ongoing, collaborative professional learning promote their own development and that of the teaching communities of which they are a part (Schleicher, 2016). Despite this apparent consensus, there is lively debate about the professional learning practices that institutions, sectors or governments should or should not invest in, and about what kinds of accountability regimes best support or constrain these practices (Holloway & Brass, 2018). The writing practices that L1 teachers and teacher educators undertake for, or in, their professional learning is one topic that has provoked such debates.
Of particular interest to this symposium is the literature that explores the writing undertaken within and stimulated by hybrid professional communities of educators. In these communities, individuals from different spaces periodically come together to write and talk as an important dimension of their professional learning lives. The most widely known instance is the 44 year old ‘National Writing Project’ (NWP) in the US, which continues to operate with over 200 networks across the country. In the UK and New Zealand, educators conducted a form of National Writing Project, although the character of the writing and the pedagogy utilised in those projects is often quite different. Advocates of NWPs in all these countries write about their capacity to inspire and empower individual educators, and describe ways that the projects facilitate and recognise reflective practice, enable the sharing of knowledge, build networks, and promote identity work. In other countries, including Australia, Israel and parts of Europe, smaller-scale and shorter-term communities of L1 educators have been researched, revealing similarly wide-ranging outcomes.
The three papers in this international symposium respond to the question: ‘How does writing in hybrid L1 professional communities across the world shape the practices, experiences and identity work of L1 educators who participate in these communities?’ The symposium offers a framework for understanding how writing can benefit individual and collective professional learning, and also how writing together in hybrid professional communities can best be facilitated and developed in the face of increasingly powerful accountability regimes.

Keywords
teacher writing; teacher educators; professional learning; accountability regimes; communities of practice

References
Holloway, J., & Brass, J. (2018). Making accountable teachers: The terrors and pleasures of performativity. Journal of Education Policy, 33(3), 361-382, DOI: 10.1080/02680939.2017.1372636
Schleicher, A. (2016). Teaching excellence through professional learning and policy reform: Lessons from around the world, International summit on the teaching profession, Paris: OECD. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264252059-en



Fleur Diamond & Scott Bulfin & Graham B. Parr & Ceridwen Owen & Kelli McGraw (Australia)
TEACHER PROFESSIONALISM AS A ‘SITE OF STRUGGLE’: L1 TEACHERS’ WORK AND CREATING ALTERNATIVE UNDERSTANDINGS OF PROFESSIONAL IDENTITY

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 09:30-11:00 Room T10 Chair: Krogh, Ellen
Fleur Diamond – Faculty of Education, Monash University, Australia.
Fleur.Diamond@monash.edu
Scott Bulfin -- Faculty of Education, Monash University, Australia.
Scott.Bulfin@monash.edu
Graham Parr -- Faculty of Education, Monash University, Australia.
Graham.Parr@monash.edu

Proposed symposium:

Keywords: professionalism; L1; English teaching; identity; praxis; becoming.
As governments across the globe seek to position their workforce as competitive in an internationalised knowledge economy, they have looked to education to deliver a more literate, highly skilled population. The result has been a series of reforms to education, teacher education, and teacher accountability that reshape understandings of the purposes of education. This has had an impact on the composition of teacher professional identity (Ball; 2003; 2015; 2016; Biesta, 2015; Sahlberg, 2011/2015). Teacher professional standards, and reforms to teacher education, have mobilised a powerful set of discourses about what it means to be a teacher. As literacy is understood to be a predictor of later success in the ‘fast capitalist’ world, there has also been an intense focus by governments and their instrumentalities on L1 education and the practice of L1 teaching.
In L1 education, the dual focus on reforming teacher professionalism and prescribing curriculum and assessment means that L1 teachers in particular are subject to intense scrutiny of their practice. Standardised tests and high stakes assessments have worked to privilege the aspects of literacy that can be quantified and rendered into ‘data’. The combined effect of these developments in the education landscape has meant that L1 teachers are increasingly held responsible for the successful delivery of a range of edu-polices and accountability mechanisms. Positioned within frameworks that focus on the competency-based and technical aspects of teacher professionalism, L1 teachers also work with other commitments derived from ethical investments, relationships, practice histories, and the different priorities inscribed in L1 subjects.
This symposium draws on work by Stephen Ball (2003; 2015; 2016) in which he proposes subjectivity as a ‘site of struggle’ in an era of neo-liberal reforms to teacher professionalism and identity. Drawing on work by Mikhail Bakhtin (1981) on identity formation as a continuous “ideological becoming” in the “zones of contact” between competing discourses, these papers offer analyses of the work of L1 English educators who are negotiating alternative understandings of their practice and identity. Focusing on aspects of practice and identity connected to critical thinking, creativity, and meaning-making in dialogic praxis, the papers in this symposium present the various ways in which L1 educators enact alternative understandings of teacher professionalism.
References:
Bakhtin, M. (1981). The dialogic imagination: Four essays (C. Emerson & M. Holquist, Trans.). Austin: University of Texas Press.
Ball, S. (2003). The teacher’s soul and the terrors of performativity. Journal of Education Policy. 18(2), pp. 215 – 228. DOI: 10.1080/0268093022000043065
Ball, S. (2015). Education, governance and the tyranny of numbers. Journal of Education Policy. 30(3), pp. 299 – 301. DOI: 10.1080/02680939.2015.1013271
Ball, S. (2016). Subjectivity as a site of struggle: Refusing neoliberalism? British Journal of the Sociology of Education. 37:8, 1129-1146, DOI: 10.1080/01425692.2015.1044072

Biesta, G. (2015). What is education for? On good education, teacher judgement and educational professionalism. European Journal of Education, 50(1), 75 – 87. DOI: 10.1111/ejed.12109
Sahlberg, P. (2011/2015). Finnish lessons 2.0: What can the world learn from educational change in Finland? Second Edition. New York: Teachers College Press.

The becoming of early career L1 teachers: The negotiation of neoliberal policy and language in everyday work

Ceridwen Owen – Faculty of Education, Monash University, Australia

Ceridwen.Owen@monash.edu

Keywords: everyday practices; L1; becoming

Over the last three decades in Australia neoliberal approaches to education policy have led to increases in teacher, student and school accountability, a preference for outcomes that are amenable to quantifiable and benchmarked measurement, and the standardisation of teaching and learning. In part, this is due to the global focus on developing a knowledge economy, where knowledge is an asset to be produced and distributed. The economisation of education, and the neoliberal approach to education policy, has led to the language of education being framed by a discourse of individual accountability, surveillance and achievement.

This paper reports on a study examining the “everyday practices” (de Certeau, 1984) of early career L1 teachers in public secondary schools in Victoria, Australia, and how their work is mediated by neoliberal policy and language. The study is working with a group of early career L1 teachers across a number of schools through observations, focus groups and interviews, and the generation of various texts. This paper argues that understanding the everyday negotiations of early career L1 teachers provides a lens for examining social structures, settings and arrangements. As Mills (2000) positions “neither the life of an individual not the history of a society can be understood without understanding both”, and that the “larger historical scene” has meaning due to the “inner life of individuals”.

Drawing from the Bakhtinian concept of heteroglossia (Bakhtin, 1981), this paper examines the way that early career L1 teachers are negotiating with, and appropriating, the language of institutions in their everyday work. The process of negotiation is the “art of using” (de Certeau, 1984) that which is imposed by institutions. The “art of using” is the tactics that individuals use to carve out a place within institutional systems that attempt to frame their work in particular ways. Through negotiating with, and appropriating, the language of schools and policy, early career L1 teachers are using that which is imposed to meet their needs and values in relation to L1 education.

References:

Bakhtin, M. (1981). The dialogic imagination: Four essays (C. Emerson & M. Holquist, Trans.). Austin: University of Texas Press.
de Certeau, M. (1984). The practice of everyday life (S. Rendall, Trans.). California, USA: University of California Press.
Mills, C. W. (2000). The sociological imagination. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Cultural Memory and L1 Teaching: late career teachers and teacher professional identity
Fleur Diamond – Faculty of Education, Monash University
Scott Bulfin – Faculty of Education, Monash University
Graham Parr -- Faculty of Education, Monash University
Fleur.Diamond@monash.edu
Scott.Bulfin@monash.edu
Graham.Parr@monash.edu
Keywords: L1 teaching; professionalism; teacher identity; cultural memory; practice histories
The current policy landscape with respect to teacher accreditation and professionalism emphasises the technical and performative aspects of teaching practice (Ball, 2003; 2015; 2016). There is increasing evidence that due to global ‘policy travel’, a standards-based reform agenda in education has ushered in significant reforms to how teacher professionalism is accredited and understood across a range of national contexts (Sahlberg, 2011/2015). In relation to L1 English teachers’ work in particular, curriculum and assessment has been subject to intense regularisation, scrutiny, and measurement through such mechanisms as high-stakes testing and the ‘datafication’ of literacy (Gibbons, 2017). The combined effect of these policy changes includes significant shifts in how L1 teacher professionalism and professional identity are understood, with implications for how L1 teaching is practised.
The wide-ranging effects of standards based reforms mean that many aspects of current educational policy have become naturalised as ‘the way things are’, rather than a product of struggles over the meaning, purpose and direction of education (Biesta, 2015; Gibbons, 2017). Therefore, it is timely to study the personal-professional biographies and practices of late-career and retired L1 teachers for what their careers can reveal about changes in teacher professionalism and professional identity over time.
Using the framework of ‘cultural memory theory’ (Hirsch and Smith, 2002), the paper reports on how individual memories of teaching careers intersect with the more public narratives of educational change over time. Based on one-on-one interviews and focus groups with late career L1 English teachers, the study develops knowledge about how teacher professionalism and L1 teacher identity have been constituted from the 1970s until the present day. Findings show that participatory, democratic understandings of teachers’ role in public life and curriculum change were more prominent in earlier formations of teacher professionalism. Particularly suggestive findings for current practice are the importance of an intellectual life, and activities that can be categorised as ‘care of the profession’. The paper suggests that, going beyond mere nostalgia, the cultural memory of L1 teaching can form a resource for alternative, more agentive understandings of teacher professionalism and professional identity for the future.
References:
Ball, S. (2003). The teacher’s soul and the terrors of performativity. Journal of Education Policy. 18(2), pp. 215 – 228. DOI: 10.1080/0268093022000043065
Ball, S. (2015). Education, governance and the tyranny of numbers. Journal of Education Policy. 30(3), pp. 299 – 301. DOI: 10.1080/02680939.2015.1013271
Ball, S. (2016). Subjectivity as a site of struggle: Refusing neoliberalism? British Journal of the Sociology of Education. 37:8, 1129-1146, DOI: 10.1080/01425692.2015.1044072

Biesta, G. (2015). What is education for? On good education, teacher judgement and educational professionalism. European Journal of Education, 50(1), 75 – 87. DOI: 10.1111/ejed.12109

Gibbons, S. (2017). English and its teachers: A history of policy, pedagogy and practice. Abingdon: Routledge/NATE.

Sahlberg, P. (2011/2015). Finnish lessons 2.0: What can the world learn from educational change in Finland? Second Edition. New York: Teachers College Press.

Resources for constructing L1 English teacher identity: Balancing curriculum and policy imperatives with personal philosophies of L1 teaching.

Kelli McGraw
Queensland University of Technology

kelli.mcgraw@qut.edu.au

Keywords: L1; teaching; English; agency; identity; becoming


Since 1999 every curriculum for L1 English in Australia has been broadened from their initial focus on poetry, prose fiction and plays, to include various studies of screen and digital media. The adoption of media texts and visual analysis as core elements of an ‘English’ curriculum reflects the theoretical shift in the subject, as semiotic systems beyond linguistic expression came to be understood as ‘languages’ with ‘grammars’ of their own (Kress & van Leeuwen, 1996).

This paper reports findings of an analysis of the Australian Curriculum for English (L1), and the Australian Professional Standards for Teaching, locating significant textual resources for understanding the scope of English as a school subject in Australia with a focus on the role of English teachers in developing multimodal literacies.

This paper will argue that to be a ‘professional’ teacher you must both be both accredited as one and self-identify as one. Official curriculum and standards documents offer structural resources (Archer, 2003) for both articulating and demonstrating ways of acting within the boundaries of acceptable practice for L1 teaching. Concepts and terms in these documents can cause 'pinch points' or 'permission points' for L1 teachers seeking to enact their personal philosophy of teaching, but as teachers' identities emerge, they draw on personal resources as well to shape their own bespoke identity. By contrasting analysis of the textual resources available to teachers, with artefacts from a self-study of L1 (English) teacher identity, this paper generates questions for further research into teacher philosophy and agency. L1 teacher identity, due to its interdisciplinary construction, is theorised as bricolage - a collection of views and interests on language/linguistics, literature/texts, literacy/literacies, politics and society.

References:
Archer, M. (2003). Structure, agency and the internal conversation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kress, G. and van Leeuwen, T., (1996). Reading images: The grammar of visual design. London: Routledge.


Brenton Doecke & Philip Mead (Australia)
THIS ‘IN-BETWEEN’ WORLD OF THEORY AND PRACTICE: THE ROLE THAT LITERARY KNOWLEDGE PLAYS IN THE TEACHING OF LITERATURE

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 15:45-17:15 Room T14 Chair: goodwyn, andy
Keywords: Literature Teaching, Literary Knowledge, Early Career Teachers

There is, I believe, room for many more attempts to move in this in-between world of theory and practice …’
Marjorie L. Hourd (1968 [1949]), The Education of the Poetic Spirit

This presentation arises out of a four-year longitudinal study into the teaching of literature in secondary schools in Australia. A key question that motivates this study is how the literary education of graduates informs the work they do when they join the English teaching profession. The main source of data for the study are interviews conducted over the life of the project with early career teachers about their literary education, when they have been invited to share stories about the formal situations in which they participated at school and university when studying literature and to reflect on their experiences of literary texts at home and in other social settings.

Drawing on the data that we have thus far collected from these interviews, we shall present an argument about the relationship between the literary knowledge of these early career teachers and their teaching, challenging some dominant conceptions of how knowledge informs teaching. These include Shulman’s (1986) notion of ‘pedagogical content knowledge’ (as distinct from content knowledge produced by fields of inquiry) and Young’s (2008) understanding of ‘powerful knowledge’ (as distinct from ‘experience’ as Young understands this word). Both conceptions of the relationship between knowledge and teaching provide problematical frameworks for understanding the relationship between the literary education of these early career teachers and their emerging pedagogies.

What these early career teachers have had to say to us reflects more than a phase in their professional learning as English teachers but might more properely be taken to exemplify the fundamentally distinctive nature of reading and writing ‘literary’ texts when compared with other school subjects and the fields of knowledge on which they draw. This distinctiveness might be summed up by Marjorie Hourd’s words, as an ‘in-between world’, not a direct relationship between literary studies as a field of inquiry and the teaching and learning that occurs in literature classrooms (as though it is simply a matter of converting literary knowledge into a content that secondary school students can access), but a social space in which teachers and their students can meet to share their experiences of literary texts and thus enact a fundamentally important form of sociability.

References

Hourd, M.L. (1968 [1949]), The Education of the Poetic Spirit: A Study of Children’s Expression in the English Lesson, London: Heinemann.
Shulman, L. (1986), ‘Those Who Understand’: Knowledge Growth in Teaching, Educational Researcher, 15 (2), pp.4-21.
Young, M. (2008), Bringing Knowledge Back In: From Social Constructivism to Social Realism in the Sociology of Education, London and New York: Routledge.


Yamina El Kirat El Allame (Morocco)
OPTIMAL MEASURES FOR THE MAINTENANCE AND/OR REVIVAL OF THE AMAZIGH LANGUAGE IN MOROCCO

Paper session ARLE 2019 Friday, 11:00-12:30 Room T16 Chair: Coutinho, Antónia
Amazigh, one of the mother tongues in Morocco besides Darija, has been for long a stigmatized and marginalized minority language. Recently, however, under the pressure of the Amazigh Cultural Movement and Human Rights Organizations, the Moroccan authorities have changed their attitudes from total rejection to official recognition and officialization. This is progressively leading to the development of a degree of language awareness and a change in attitudes among the Amazigh people. This is, however, still very limited and does not concern all the Amazigh communities, and especially those in contact areas, which have been undergoing a language shift in progress leading to language loss, as is the case for instance for the Beni Iznassen Amazigh, spoken in the North-Eastern part of Morocco. The aim of the present study is to address the issue of Amazigh language endangerment and propose some optimal measures for its maintenance and revival/revitalization.
The study is based on exhaustive fieldwork, mainly in the Beni Iznassen Amazigh areas but also at the Moroccan national level. Comparison between some other communities, namely those having reached an advanced stage of endangerment and those still struggling for survival reveal the factors that accelerate or slow down language loss process. The study explores the impact of the official intervention, i.e. teaching, standardization and officialization and proposes some optimal measures for the maintenance and revival or revitalization and protection of an endangered language in general and the Amazigh language in particular. To this end, the study addresses questions related to (i) the main factors that may contribute to the slowing down and/or stopping of the process of loss; and (ii) the optimal measure(s) that may contribute to the maintenance, revival of an endangered language at the age of globalization.

Key words: Amazigh language shift/loss, language endangerment, Language maintenance/revival measures, language awareness.

References:
Boukous, A. (2012). Revitalisation de l’amazighe: Enjeux et stratégies. Rabat: L’Institut Royal de la Culture Amazigh Publishing
El Kirat El Allame, Yamina & Boussagui Yassine. (2018). Amazigh in Morocco. In Seals, C. A. & Shah, S. (Eds.). Heritage Language Policies around the World (pp. 111-127). New York, NY: Routledge.


Yamina El Kirat El Allame & Othmane Zakaria (Morocco)
FOREIGN LEARNERS OF MSA AND THE CHALLENGES OF THE MOROCCAN DIGLOSSIC CONTEXT

Paper session ARLE 2019 Friday, 11:00-12:30 Room T16 Chair: Coutinho, Antónia
The increasing demand for the learning Arabic as a foreign language has encouraged many foreign students to take study abroad programs in Arabic speaking countries, among which is Morocco. This has, however, revealed unexpected challenges on top of which is the diglossic situation in the Arab countries, where Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) is used in the formal domains while local varieties of Arabic, are used in the informal domains (Eisele, 2002).

This complex situation usually represents a real challenge, not only to foreign students, but even to Moroccan natives as well (Maamouri, 1998). In this respect, this study aims to address the issues the diglossic situation in Morocco imposes on foreign students, be they American, Malaysian, Chinese or European. The study addresses and tries to answer three research questions, namely (i) What are some of the challenges foreign students face while studying in Morocco?(ii) What strategies should instructors adopt to help students overcome the challenges diglossia imposes on them?(iii) How can the diglossic situation be made profitable to the students?

The study involves field work research and adopts a qualitative approach relying mainly on class observation, free and participant observation, indirect interviews and students’ productions, both written and oral. The target group consists of study abroad students, namely American, Malaysian and Chinese, who are taking MSA classes in Moroccan universities. They also have Moroccan Colloquial “Darija” lessons to facilitate their cultural immersion and communication with the host families. The groups are observed during their classes and students are interviewed both individually and in focus groups. MSA instructors are also interviewed for more input about the subject. The data analysis will help to answer the research questions and reveal the challenges imposed by the Moroccan diglossic situation on both the instructors and students. Some recommendations are formulated on the basis of the findings.

Key words: Foreign language; Diglossia; Learning context; Multilingualism, Culture.

Suggested references:
Albirini, A. (2015). Modern Arabic Sociolinguistics: Diglossia, variation, codeswitching, attitudes and identity. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.
Eisele, J. C. (2002). Approaching diglossia: Authorities, values, and representations. In A. Rouchdy (Ed.), Language contact and language conflict in Arabic: Variations on a sociolinguistic theme (pp. 3-23). London: RoutledgeCurzon.
Maamouri, M. (1998). Language Education and Human Development: Arabic Diglossia and Its Impact on the Quality of Education in the Arab Region.International Literacy Inst., Philadelphia, PA.


Nikolaj Elf & Jimmy H.M. van Rijt & Marloes Schrijvers (Denmark)
REFLECTING ON THE FUTURE IDENTITY OF L1 - EDUCATIONAL STUDIES IN LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE

Round table ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 11:30-13:00 Room Auditorium 3
This round table invites ARLE delegates to learn about core activities of the ARLE affiliated journal L1 - Educational Studies in Language and Literature's editorial work. Furthermore, you will have the opportunity to reflect on and discuss the future development of the journal with L1 editors. So, the round table is organized by editors of the journal and comprises short presentations for reflection and discussion.

One presentation focuses on general activities of the journal, including L1 editors' regular meetings and discussions on important themes for developing the journal, such as quality criteria for reviews, publication rates, special issues etc.

Another presentation focuses on 'identity issues' of the journal, presenting an alternative to the present journal website's text on Aims and scope (cf. http://www.l1research.org/). We argue that the journal's Aims and scope should be aligned with ARLE's general domain and mission statement, which was revised a few years ago (cf. http://www.arle.be/about.html).

Finally, a third short presentation suggests a revision of the design and layout of the website. As all L1 scholars know, redesigns hold important implications for how the journal communicates and positions itself. One potential reason for redesigning, is technological developments: The website should be easy to read on any kind of device, which is currently not the case. Another issue we would like to discuss, is how much emphasis the journal subtitle 'Educational Studies in Language and Literature' should have visually on the website, considering that many L1 studies focus on other aspects, such as technology and modalities other than language.

Generally, L1 encourages all ARLE members to engage in the journal. This round table is a good occasion to do so.


Ilana Elkad-Lehman (Israel)
TEACHING LITERATURE IN A HERITAGE LANGUAGE: THE CASE OF LITERATURE INSTRUCTION IN HEBREW FOR IMMIGRANT CHILDREN

Paper session ARLE 2019 Thursday, 14:00-15:30 Room T16 Chair: Valentim, Helena T.
Israel is an immigrant society. Every year, Jews who choose to live there – because of their religious beliefs, hardships or other reasons – arrive in Israel and become citizens. For them, Hebrew is a heritage language, despite the fact that only some of them know it from prayer books or from home. Immigrant children are entitled to study in a special language acquisition class (ulpan), to be tutored by a Hebrew teacher, to be given special tests, etc. Special Hebrew and literature curricula have been designed for them, and special classes have been opened for them in areas with large immigrant concentrations.
The present study is a phenomenological-narrative qualitative study (van Manen, 2014) focused on the stories of 19 literature teachers in special classes for immigrant high school students preparing for their matriculation exams. It is designed to learn about the unique experience of teaching literature in Hebrew to immigrant adolescents with limited mastery of the language.
The research questions are: What beliefs on teaching literature to immigrants are implied by the teachers’ narratives? How are these beliefs articulated in their pedagogical practice, and how are they unique?
The data were collected in open in-depth interviews, complemented by student paper samples and the researcher’s field diary. They were analyzed using both content and narrative analysis.
The findings show that the participants are expert in teaching literature, unlike studies on second language teaching (Paran, 2008). Some teach immigrants by choice, and some due to workplace constraints. All, however, attach importance to teaching literature precisely to the immigrant population, as a vehicle of emotional support, acquaintance with Israeli society and culture, ideological education, and social discourse – making literature instruction in Hebrew in this population unique compared to second-language literature instruction (Kramsch & Kramsch, 2000).
Beyond that, their approaches to conveying the text to students vary: works in Hebrew, in adapted Hebrew, in the students’ language, or synopsized. They also vary in terms of instruction methods, along the range from behaviorist to constructivist. Finally, the teachers disagree with regard to the curriculum and the literary corpus it includes.

References
Kramsch, C., & Kramsch, O. (2000). The avatars of literature in language study. The Modern Language Journal, 84(4), 553-573.‏
Paran, A. (2008). The role of literature in instructed foreign language learning and teaching: An evidence-based survey. Language Teaching, 41(4), 465-496.
van Manen, M. (2014). Phenomenology of practice: Meaning-giving methods in phenomenological research and writing. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press.


Per-Olof Erixon & Stanislav Štěpáník & Bill Green (Sweden)
‘RETHINKING L1 EDUCATION IN THE GLOBAL ERA’

Symposium ARLE 2019 Friday, 11:00-12:30 Room T10
Convener:
Per-Olof Erixon (Umeå University, Sweden)

Presenters:
Bill Green (Charles Sturt University, Australia)
Stanislav Štěpáník (Charles University, Czech Republic)
Per Olof Erixon (Umeå University, Sweden)

Discussant:
Ellen Krogh (University of Southern Denmark, Denmark)

Abstract
The symposium will take as its starting point an ongoing book project, involving L1 researchers from ten different countries. The preliminary title of the book is “Rethinking L1 Education in the Global Era”, and it is conceived as an edited volume, crafted and bringing together a range of scholars from different countries to address the contemporary state of play in national standard language education – what we refer to as the L1 subjects. Some of the chapters focus on a single L1 subject or a set of related L1 subjects (e.g. Danish, the Scandinavian L1 subjects); some on the same L1 subjects (e.g. English) but in different countries (e.g. Australia, New Zealand, England, & the USA); while others focus on particular clusters of L1 subjects. Other chapters are addressed to key issues (e.g. the role & significance of technology in & for L1 education, across different countries; the dialogue between curriculum inquiry & didaktik studies, etc).
Four thematic threads (or meta-themes) of particular significance overall are to be woven through the volume, as well as being addressed in our opening essay.
1. Educationalisation, i.e. expansion of educational action and mass-popular education, ocurring during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries
2. Globalisation, i.e. a process by which national and regional economics, societies, and cultures, and thereby school and curricula, have become integrated through the global network of trade, communication, and dominating political ideologies.
3. Pluriculturalism, i.e. challenges of migration and diaspora, including refugee issues, worldwide
4. Technocultural change, i.e. changing technologies and their associated cultures and cultural politics; further, the thesis that there is an inherent tension between teaching based on digital media, and traditional ways of judging and examining works in schools.
The book works broadly from a comparative-historical perspective and seeks to provide insight into the major issues emerging in the scholarly literature to date, as well as rich accounts of a range of specific L1 subjects and their geo-epistemic communities.
The symposium provides an overview of the book concept and its associated project, and presents three papers based on chapters currently under preparation.

***


Paper 1

Teaching the (Post-)National L1 Subjects; or, Learning from Gramsci

Bill Green (Charles Sturt University, Australia)

Keywords: language, nation, history, power, Gramsci, transnational curriculum inquiry

(Re)conceptualising L1 education is increasingly important and even urgent in a global era, and very different from the field’s foundational period, well over a century ago. This requires due regard for both theory and history, as resources for curriculum inquiry. This paper looks closely at the question of language in the context of culture and power, nation and empire, place and planet. While its stepping-off point is subject English in the Anglophone world, its concern is equally with its corresponding school-subjects (i.e. ‘French’, ‘German’, ‘Italian’, etc) in countries such as France, Germany and Italy, as classical and distinctive ‘nations’. It asks about the role and significance of such subject-areas, historically, culturally and ideologically. It does so by considering some concepts and arguments from the early 20th-century Italian philosopher Antonio Gramsci. While Gramsci is little referenced in the literature of L1 education, the paper proposes that it would be generative to draw more systematically on his work, in seeking to rethink L1 education in the current conjuncture. This is especially with regard to his views on language and translation, which are arguably also key concepts and problematics for the field, understood expressly as transnational curriculum inquiry. Such matters, Gramsci believed, are always to be considered in relation to power and politics. In this regard, then, the paper seeks to provide critical insight into the task of rethinking L1 education in the global era. It focuses on language and education in the context of debates on post-nationalism and post-modernity. It asks: What is it that motivates and authorises the L1 subjects, as governmental projects? How does language figure in contemporary struggles over social inclusion and subjectivity, identity and security? What does all this mean for L1 education, in a global curriculum context of crisis and change?

Paper 2

Between Grammar and Communication: The Case of the Czech Republic and England

Stanislav Štěpáník (Charles University, Czech Republic)

Keywords: Czech, English, language awareness, communication competency, grammar, communication


In many parts of the world, L1 teaching has evolved from Classics, i.e. from a common fundament. Interestingly, even though the divergent and turbulent development of society in the 20th and 21st centuries has brought various paradigms for looking at L1 instruction, and despite the fact that the various national L1 teaching models have come up with various solutions, there are certain problems they all have in common. One of them is the topic of the position of grammar (or knowledge about language – comp. Myhill, 2005).

On the example of a traditionally grammar-based approach to teaching Czech (and to a certain extent also Slovak, Polish or Hungarian – comp. Pieniążek & Štěpáník, 2016) and a skills-based approach to teaching English in England (and other English-speaking countries – comp. Locke, 2010), the presentation is going to elaborate on the historical (political, linguistic, didactic, etc.) factors which have shaped teaching L1 in the Czech Republic and in England, and have led to the current situation when the grammar-based systems are looking for functionally and communicatively oriented solutions and the skills-based systems have in a smaller or larger extent decided to implement more grammar teaching (Myhill, 2018). What are the underlying reasons and policies?

References:
Locke, T. (Ed.). (2010). Beyond the Grammar Wars: A Resource for Teachers and Students on Developing Language Knowledge in the English/literacy Classroom. New York: Routledge.
Myhill, D. (2005). Ways of knowing: Writing with grammar in mind. English Teaching: Practice and Critique, 4(3), 77–96.
Myhill, D. (2018). Grammar as a Meaning-Making Resource for Improving Writing. L1-Educational Studies in Languages and Literature, 18, 1–21.
Pieniążek, M. & Štěpáník, S. (2016). Teaching of national languages in the V4 countries. Praha: Pedagogická fakulta Univerzity Karlovy.

Paper 3

Teaching Reading: The Marginalisation of Literature and Mother Tongue Education in Sweden

Per-Olof Erixon (Umeå University, Sweden)

Keywords: Sweden, reading promotion programme, L1 education, neoliberalism

Reading fiction has been an important basic content in mother-tongue education and the school subject Swedish (L1) since the 19th century. Declining results in reading skills identified in large-scale international surveys such as PISA are seen as a critical issue for education in general, but also for democracy, social justice and economic competitiveness (Alexander 2012). Closely related to this is the fact that school has become a battleground in the political debate. This ratio has led to an intensification of reading-promotion programmes in Swedish schools, organised by the National Agency for Education under the name ‘Läslyftet’ (Heightened Reading). The presentation will examine reading-promotion discourses and practices in Sweden, and more specifically the so-called “Läslyftet” (Heightened Reading). Notable in this reading-promotion programme is for example the effective downplaying of literature, with fiction marginalized in favour of non-fiction. Also, and under the motto that all teachers are language teachers, the school subject Swedish is marginalized in the programme to the benefit of other school subjects, such as natural sciences, in which, for example, the importance of reading for the development of democratic society is emphasized. Tasks previously being considered the responsibility of one school may thus be taken over by other school subjects or disappears. The underlying ideas, interests and values of these identified discourses are seen in the light of the neoliberalisation of Education and what Pasi Sahlberg calls GERM – The Global Education Reform Movement, in which he identifies five interrelated features: 1/ standardization of education, 2/ focus on core subject, 3/ the search for low-risk ways to reach learning goals, 4/ use of corporate management models, and 5/ test-based accountability.

References
Alexander, Robin John (2012). Moral Panic, Miracle Cures, and Educational Policy. What Can We Really Learn from International Comparison? Scottish Educational Review, s. 4-21.
Sahlberg, Pasi (2018) https://pasisahlberg.com/global-educational-reform-movement-is-here/ [Downloaded March 5 2018]


Magdalena Flores & Rut Sánchez-Rivero & Anabela Malpique (Netherlands (the))
WRITING INSTRUCTION IN IBERO-AMERICA: NATIONAL SURVEY STUDIES IN SPANISH AND PORTUGUESE

Symposium ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 11:30-13:00 Room T10
Mastering writing skills is essential in contemporary society: it is essential for academic success, participation in civic life and the world of work. However, in many countries there are concerns about how this actually happens in classrooms, due to the number of young people who finish their school education without being able to communicate in writing effectively (MacArthur, et al., 2006; Graham & Perin, 2007).
Innovation must be based on a realistic view of teachers’ practices at school (Graham & Rijlaarsdam, 2016). However, little is known about how writing is taught worldwide. To obtain the required evidence, it is crucial to conduct descriptive studies that relate teachers’ practices to their cultural context: background features vary from country to country, and they strongly affect how writing education is viewed in each of them. These contextual features shape societal needs and societal expectations, which in turn can be considered preconditions for writing instruction (Graham & Rijlaarsdam, 2016, p. 784).

Therefore, the main goal of this symposium is to provide the required evidence of teachers’ practices in writing instruction and its’ relation to particular contexts. Based on that evidence, we aim to provide a basis to better prepare students worldwide to become skilled writers. We intend to do so by presenting studies that examine teachers’ practices and beliefs about writing instruction in various countries across Ibero-America, as a unified geo-cultural area (Tardif, 2006). We will include both studies conducted in Portuguese-speaking countries, Portugal and Brazil, as well as in Spanish speaking countries, Spain and Chili.

To meet the main goal of this symposium, participants will (a) describe the current state-of-the-art and the difficulties they experience in the prevailing educational writing practices in each of the countries included (b) reflect critically on each particular situation and compare them in the overarching final discussion, and (c) promote an active dialogue between the presenters, discussant and the audience, by gathering questions, implications and new perspectives that should be included in future research and educational practice.

References
Graham, S., McKeown, D., Kiuhara, S., & Harris, K. (2012). A meta-analysis of writing instruction for students in the elementary grades. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104, 879-896.
Graham, S., & Rijlaarsdam, G. (2016). Writing education around the globe: Introduction and call for a new global analysis. Reading and Writing, 29, 781-792. DOI 10.1007/s11145-016-9640-1.
MacArthur, C., Graham, S., & Fitzgerald, J. (2006). Introduction. In C. A. MacArthur, S. Graham, & J. Fitzgerald (Eds.), Handbook of writing research (pp. 1-10). New York: The Guilford Press.
Tardiff, J. (2006) Culture et territoire: Les espaces symboliques [Culture and territory: The sybmolic spaces. In Les enjeux de la mondialisation culturelle Tardiff, J. & Farchy, J. Éditions Hors Commerce, Paris, p. 55-70

Presenters:
Rut Sánchez-Rivero, University of Leon (Spain), rsanr@unileon.es
Anabela Malpique, Murdoch University (Australia), anabela.malpique@googlemail.com
Magdalena Flores-Ferrés, University of Amsterdam (The Netherlands), magdflores@gmail.com

Chair and opponent
Luisa Alvares Pereira, University of Aveiro (Portugal), lpereira@ua.pt


Magdalena Flores & Daphne van Weijen & Gert Rijlaarsdam (Netherlands (the))
TEACHERS’ BELIEFS ABOUT WRITING INSTRUCTION IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN CHILE: AN ONLINE NATIONAL SURVEY

Paper session ARLE 2019 Thursday, 11:00-12:30 Room T10 Chair: Bremholm, Jesper
In Chile there is a need of conducting descriptive studies that could set a basis of evidence for future improvement of writing instruction at school secondary level. When aiming to contribute to such a gap, is essential to understand teacher’s perception and judgments about writing instruction, because these beliefs affect their actual behavior in the classroom (Pajares, 1992). Therefore, we created and implemented an online national survey study aiming to collect information about L1 teachers’ beliefs about writing instruction in Chile and their relation to their practices.
We based our questionnaire design on a meta-analysis of writing practices for adolescents (Graham & Perin, 2007), previous survey studies conducted in other countries, and relevant literature of the Chilean context. We asked about general self efficacy beliefs about writing instruction, and, in addition, about beliefs concerning specific paradigms of L1 and writing instruction, including the linguistic, communicative, procedural and cultural paradigms. During Spring 2017 we collected 182 completed surveys from teachers of all the regions in Chile (response rate: 47%).
Teachers report to have possitive self efficacy beliefs regarding to their writing instruction (on average, 7/10), which contrast with their perceptions about their preparation for it: only 33% of the teachers reported being satisfied with their training for writing instruction.
Teachers report giving great emphasis to structural aspects of language, and interestingly, to creativity. On the contrary, they report to give less relevance to communicative aspects of writing, which is coherent with their self-efficacy beliefs about communicative and collaborative writing.
We created four profiles about teachers’ orientation towards writing instruction (60% of variance represented). These profiles match with the theoretical paradigms about L1 and writing instruction. Correlation analyses show that they are related to respondents’ reported practices.
We expect that this study will provide a knowledge base that would allow get an insight about possible improvements to be made in Chile (Cutler & Graham, 2008). Furthermore, we expect that it will contribute to the scientific knowledge about writing isntruction worldwide, will by providing data from the Chilean context, and by making this comparable to similar studies conducted in other countries.
Key words:
writing instruction, secondary education, teachers' practices, teachers' beliefs
References:
Cutler, L. & Graham, S. (2008) Primary Grade Writing Instruction: A National Survey. Journal of Educational Psychology. 100, 4, 907-919.
Graham, S. & Perin, D. (2007) Writing Next. Effective Strategies to Improve Writing of Adolescents in Middle and High Education. Alliance for Excellent Education: New York.
Pajares, F. (1992) Teachers' Beliefs and Educational Research: Cleaning up a Messy Construct Review of Educational Research 62, 3, pp. 307-332


Xavier Fontich (Spain)
INVITED SIG EDULING SYMPOSIUM: RESEARCH ON GRAMMAR TEACHING IN LANGUAGE EDUCATION: DRAWING ON THE PEDAGOGIC SYSTEM AS A A COMMON GROUND

Symposium ARLE 2019 Thursday, 14:00-17:15 Room T7
The role grammar teaching plays in Language Arts is controversial and a focus of a permanently open debate (Boivin et al. 2018). For a number of years, and still until recently, a dominant question on the international arena was whether grammar teaching had any effect in improving pupils’ communicative skills (specially in writing). Such question was underpinned by an approach to grammar teaching dominated by contributions from linguistics, with scarce consideration for classroom pedagogy (e.g., whether students were meant to talk in order to learn) and pupils’ learning processes (i.e., the obstacles in the process of conceptualization and the gap between declarative and procedural knowledge); furthermore, there was little attention to the interplay between linguistic models and school contents. Nonetheless, over the last years, there is in some countries a growing agreement about the need to locate the focus of research and practice in the interplay between these three poles: grammar content, teaching methods, and learning processes (i.e., the pedagogic system). The pedagogic system is seen as an overarching frame that serves as a horizon for the studies in this field, which albeit temporarily focused on one of the three poles do always have close connections with the other ones (see for instance Ribas et al. 2014). While this has been widely shared in the Francophone area, it is still far from being a common ground on a broader international setting. This symposium wishes to contribute to such a common ground, with contributions by researchers from Francophone Canada, Estonia, France, and Portugal, and a discussant from Spain, and with communications exploring a plethora of issues that fall around the poles of the pedagogic system: the learning processes of a specific grammar concept (namely, word classes; Cardoso, Pereira & Leite; Beaumanoir-Secq) and of argumentative writing (Kerge), grammar teaching methodologies (Gauvin & Messier), and reflective language practices across subjects that could potentially benefit from grammar knowledge. We believe that empirical studies presented in our symposium will contribute conceptual clarity to the role grammar instruction plays in language education. Keywords: pedagogic system, learning processes, teaching methodologies, grammar content

Boivin et al. 2018). Working on grammar at school in L1 education: Empirical research across linguistic regions. Introduction to the special issue. L1-Educational Studies in Language and Literature, 18, p. 1-6.
Ribas et al. (ed.) (2014). Grammar at school: Metalinguistic activity in language education. Brussels: Peter Lang.

Presenters:

1) “Metalinguistic activity in higher education: thinking about words” Adriana Cardoso, Susana Pereira, & Teresa Leite, acardoso@eselx.ipl.pt, susanacp@eselx.ipl.pt, teresal@eselx.ipl.pt, Escola Superior de Educação de Lisboa, 1549-003 Lisboa, Portugal

2) “Conceptualizing word classes” Morgane Beaumanoir-Secq, morgane.beaumanoir-secq@neuf.fr, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, 33, boulevard du Port, 95011 Cergy-Pontoise cedex, France

3) “Grammar development in argumentative student writings” Krista Kerge, krista.kerge@gmail.com, Tallinn University, Narva rd 25, 10120 Tallinn, Estonia

4) “Organizing the field of French grammar education through a network of concepts related to method” Isabelle Gauvin & Geneviève Messier, gauvin.isabelle@uqam.ca, messier.genevieve@uqam.ca, Université du Québec à Montréal, 405 Rue Sainte-Catherine Est, Montréal, QC H2L 2C4, Canadà

5) “Literacy as shared dancefloor for school subjects” Merilin Aruvee, merilin.aruvee@tlu.ee, Tallinn University, Narva rd 25, 10120 Tallinn, Estonia

6) “Discussion: Grammar education, a meeting point of different approaches” Xavier Fontich, xavier.fontich@uab.cat, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Edifici-G5, 08193-Bellaterra Spain


Carolin Führer (Germany)
APPROACHES TO THE RECEPTION OF GRAPHIC NOVELS AS MULTIMODAL LITERATURE – A CASE FOR NEW WRITING TASKS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

Short presentations (poster) and extended discussion ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 14:30-15:30 Room T15 Chair: Elf, Nikolaj
Until now teaching practices in Germany primarily employed graphic literature as a tool for promoting reading. My presentation departs from that and points out the ambiguous multimodality of the medium. A qualitative multimodal text and discourse analyses of written output from the reception in three 9th- and 10th- grade classes are brought into focus to give answers on writing about graphic literature. The treatment inquires what a suitable multimodal reception might look like in secondary schools that relates reading, writing, and designing to each other operationally. The aim is the (re-)construction of orientation towards both a competence in pictorial reception and reading competence and also individual and emotional experiences. This depends on the conviction, that the narrative structure can never be made to correspond completely with language and its own uncertainties.

keywords: comics, educational writing culture, multimodal literacy

Cohn, Neil (2013): Visual Narrative Structure, In: Cognitive Science 34, S. 413-452.

Glas, A. & U. Heinen & J. Krautz & G. Lieber u.a. (eds.) Sprechende Bilder – Besprochene Bilder. Bild, Begriff und Sprachhandeln in der deiktisch-imaginativen Verständigungspraxis. München: kopaed 2016, 349-375.

Klug, N.-M. Text- und Diskurssemantik. Nina-Maria Klug/Hartmut Stöckl (eds.) Handbuch Sprache im multimodalen Kontext. Berlin/ Boston: De Gruyter 2016 (Handbücher Sprachwissen, HSW, Bd. 7), 165-189.


Michal Ganz-Meishar & Idit Porat & Miri Miller ()
CHARACTERISTICS OF LITERARY DISCOURSE BY CO-TEACHING IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

Paper session ARLE 2019 Thursday, 11:00-12:30 Room T14 Chair: Dera, Jeroen
The international trends in pre service teacher academia training programs seek to provide a response to raising the quality of teaching students. Strengthen their ability to cope with complex situations in the classrooms and to integrate them into the education system for a long period of time. It has been found that programs based on clinical training approaches creates collaborative learning communities that helps promote a significant training process and improve teaching quality (Aubusson & Schuck, 2013).
Our study was conducted in three schools between 2015 and 2018. The participants are fifteen pre service teachers and six training teachers. The study was conducted as part of training program, which combines a meaningful three-day teaching experience. The teaching of literature lessons was executed in the form of co-teaching: two teachers - one Expert and the other a Novice.
The purpose of the study is to examine the characteristics of literary discourse in the process of constructing the interpretation of the literary texts using co-teaching at elementary school.
The study is qualitative and based on two perceptions. The first is the perception of the ambiguity of the literary text and its non-definition as a central challenge of literary discourse (Iser, 2006). The second is the 'Discourse Analysis' approach which focuses on the use of language in a social context. This helps characterize the literary discourse taking place in the class by identifying recurring themes (Kupferberg, 2010).
The data collected by writing reflections, recording, transcription and observations conducted by the researchers. In analyzing the data three categories were found that characterize the literary discourse: (1) An empathetic, open and respectful dialogue - in which there is room for a broad range of interpretative voices; (2) Critical thinking - which supports creativity and personal involvement; (3) Values - a literary discourse that encourages value-based behavior and promotes tolerance and talking accountable (Michaels, O'Connor & Resnick, 2008).
These findings emphasize the central role of using co-teaching in literature lessons as a promoter and structure of an interpretive learning environment that gives freedom of thought to the individual and interpersonal to all of the discourse participants.

Keywords: Clinical Training, Co-Teaching, Elementary School, Literary Discourse

Aubusson, P., & Schuck, S. (2013). Teacher education futures: today’s trends, tomorrow’s expectations. Teacher Development, 17:3, 322–333.
Iser, W. (2006). The Act of Reading A Theory of Aesthetic Response. Jerusalem: The Magnes Press.
Kupferberg, I. (Ed.) (2010). Text and discourse analysis A RASHOMON of research methods. Beer Sheva: Ben Gurion University.
Michaels, S., O’Connor C., & Resnick L.B. (2008). Deliberative Discourse Idealized and Realized: Accountable Talk in the Classroom and in Civic Life. Studies in Philosophy and Education 27(4), 283–297.



Anna-Lena Godhe & Annette Mars & Ann-Mari Edström (Sweden)
VISUALIZING THE INVISIBLE – ASSESSING QUALITIES IN MULTIMODAL MEANING-MAKING IN LANGUAGE EDUCATION

Paper session ARLE 2019 Thursday, 11:00-12:30 Room T11 Chair: Jusslin, Sofia
It is well-known by now that assessment in formal educational settings focus on verbal language even though students are assigned to create multimodal compositions (e.g. Godhe, 2014). The research project presented here involves researchers with expertise within the fields of language learning, visual arts, pedagogical drama and music pedagogy. Combining our expertise, the project aims to investigate both practicing teachers’ and teacher students’ conception of multimodal meaning-making.
A recent analysis of multimodality in curricula in the Nordic countries revealed that all curricula contained aspects of multimodality (Elf et al., 2018). Whereas the focus earlier has been on receptive skills, the curricula now also contain goals relating to students productions of multimodal work. Knowledge requirements in curricula tend to focus on assessing products, rather than process. However, as pointed out by for example Wyatt-Smith and Kimber (2009), to use a static set of criteria or rubrics on dynamic multimodal texts runs the risk of being counterproductive. By attending to the compositional process, it is possible to make visible how multimodal compositions are created in a situated practice perspective.
Teachers of languages have specific knowledge of verbal language but not of other modes for expressing meaning, such as images and sound (Tønnesen, 2011). The general level of knowledge in other modes than the verbal does not appear to be sufficient in order to evaluate and assess multimodal compositions where a number of meaning-making modes interact and intertwine. However, it is not plausible for language teachers to obtain specific level of knowledge of all modes. The question that we aim to explore is what qualitative aspects of the different modes that language teachers need to be able to distinguish and evaluate in students compositions and how can these be developed.
The data will mainly consist of interviews and recordings from teachers’ group discussions and from classrooms. We aim to combine and explore different theoretical standpoint by taking a mainly phenomenographical approach in one of the two studies and a social interactionist in the other as well as exploring socio-materialistic theories and conceptions.
References;
Elf, N., Gilje, Ø., Olin-Scheller, C. & Slotte, A. (2018). Nordisk status og forskningsperspektiver i L1: Multimodalitet i stryedokumenter og klasserumspraksis. In; Rogne, M. & Rune Waage, L. (red.) Multimodalitet i skole- og fritidstekstar. Ein vitskapleg antologi. Fagbokforlaget, p. 71−104.

Godhe, A-L. (2014). Creating and assessing multimodal texts: negotiations at the boundary. Diss. Goteborg: Goteborgs universitet.

Tønnessen, E. S (2011). Multimodal textkompetense og dataspill, [Multimodal text competence and computer games]. In Ellvin, M, Skar, G & Tengberg, M (red.), Svenskämnet i förändring […], 2011, Svensklararserien 234.

Wyatt-Smith, C., & Kimber, K. (2009). Working multimodally: Challenges for assessment. English Teaching: Practice and Critique, 8(3), pp 70-90.


Matilde Gonçalves & Antónia Coutinho & Noémia Jorge (Portugal)
GATHERING SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY AND LAY PEOPLE: SCIENTIFIC LITERACY PROMOTION PROJECT

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 11:30-13:00 Room T16 Chair: Hansen, Jens Jørgen
The purpose of this paper presentation is twofold: 1) to present some of the results of the project “Scientific Literacy Promotion” (PLC) funded by Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation (Portugal) and 2) to prospect future research based on the results achieved in the PLC.
The presentation is structured in three moments. At first, a brief reflection on the textual models of scientific diffusion will be made. Choosing a predominantly qualitative and interpretive approach, the reflection will be based on studies recently developed in Textual Linguistics (Gonçalves & Miranda 2007, Coutinho & Miranda 2009, Gonçalves 2011, 2018) and will be illustrated with the analysis of current Portuguese press texts. In this first moment, the fluctuation between scientific literacy and science communication will be demonstrated by the diversity of the classes of texts that participate in the practices of democratization of science and by the multiplicity of terms involved (dissemination, diffusion, popularization, promotion). Secondly, a didactic device suitable to Basic and Secondary Education - the didactic model of genres of scientific dissemination - will be presented, inspired by works enrolled in the area of Didactics of Languages, oriented to the process of appropriation of textual genres in its components, textual and grammatical (Dolz, Noverraz & Schneuwly 2004, Cunha & Jorge 2011, Jorge 2014, Coutinho, Tanto & Luís 2015, Gonçalves & Jorge (org.), 2018). In the third and final stage, future research possibilities will be explored with the results achieved in the PLC.
Based on the assumption that the construction of scientific knowledge is made in and through texts, we believe that the linguistic and textual characterization of the genres used to communicate science is not only assumed to be a way for the knowledge of the different social practices of science communication, but also contributes to the promotion of an approximation between the scientific community and lay people.

Scientific literacy, didactic transposition, textual genre


Coutinho, M. A. & Miranda, F. (2009). “To describe textual genres: problems and strategies”. In Genre in a Changing World. Perspectives on Writing (pp. 35-55). Colorado: The WAC Clearinghouse and Parlor Press.

Coutinho, M. A; Tanto, C.; Luís, R. (2015). O conhecimento explícito dos textos e da língua. In Formação docente. Textos, teorias e práticas, 133 - 164. ISBN: 978-85-7891-344-4. Campinas, SP: Mercado de Letras.

Cunha, L. & Jorge, N. (2011). “A ‘discussão oral’: proposta de sequência didáctica”. In Novos Desafios no Ensino do Português (pp. 152-165). Retirado de https://repositorio.ipsantarem.pt/bitstream/10400.15/689/1/novosdesafiosensinoportugues.pdf

Dolz, J., M. Noverraz & B. Schneuwly (2004). “Sequências didáticas para o oral e a escrita: apresentação de um procedimento”. In Géneros Orais e Escritos na Escola (pp. 95-128). Campinas: Mercado de Letras.

Gonçalves, M. & Jorge, N. (org.) (2018). Literacia científica na escola. Retirado de https://drive.google.com/file/d/1I3hF05jjiSahm9RWHmOpKz5-JGcBBP44/view

Gonçalves, M. (2018). Towards a text theory (within text linguistics). In Grammar and text: Selected papers from the 10th and 11th Fora for Linguistic Sharing (pp. 10-22). England: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Gonçalves, M. (2011). Espécie de texto: contributo para a caracterização do sítio web. Hipertextus, 7, 1-12. Retirado de http://www.hipertextus.net/volume7/02-Hipertextus-Vol7-Matilde-Goncalves.pdf

Gonçalves, M. & Miranda, F. (2007). “Analyse textuelle, analyse de genres: quelles relations, quels intruments?”. In Presses Universitaires de Grenoble, 1, 47-53.

Jorge, N. (2014). O género memórias. Análise linguística e perspetiva didática. Tese de doutoramento. FCSH/NOVA. Retirado de https://run.unl.pt/handle/10362/12524


Alejo Ezequiel González López Ledesma ()
DIGITAL MEDIA IN LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE TEACHING PRACTICES: AN ETHNOGRAPHIC AND HISTORIC APPROACH TO ADDRESS CHANGE AT SCHOOL

In this presentation we will introduce the organization and the main aspects of an ongoing doctoral research which aims to study the ways in which Language and Literature secondary school teachers who work in the City and Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, incorporate digital media to their everyday teaching practices.
To this end, we will firstly develop the media, cultural and educational scenario that the study addresses as a problem, with an axis in the Argentine and Latinamerican regional context (Dussel, 2014; Tedesco, 2008). In second place, we will introduce the ethnographic and sociocultural framework that we have adopted in order to address teaching practices in the context of school culture (Rockwell, 2009) and regarding particularly the school discipline Language and Literature (Cuesta, 2011). From there, we will argue that an anthropological, political and historical perspective can contribute to address the comprehension of innovation processes at school by studying the ways in which teachers and students actually engage with digital media, as they exchange perspectives on culture and negotiate knowledge in the classroom.
To conclude, we introduce some preliminary results of our study and also open a dialogue, firstly, with other perspectives dedicated to the study of innovation processes at secondary school and, secondly, with the guidelines for educational policy proposed by the present Ministry of Education in Argentina in recent years.

References
Cuesta, C. (2011). Lengua y Literatura: Disciplina escolar. Hacia una metodología circunstanciada de su enseñanza [en línea]. Tesis de posgrado. Universidad Nacional de La Plata. Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias de la Educación.
Dussel, I. (2014). Programas educativos de inclusión digital. Una reflexión desde la Teoría del Actor en Red sobre la experiencia de Conectar Igualdad (Argentina). Versión. Estudios de Comunicación y Política, (34), 39-56. Recuperado a partir de http://version.xoc.uam.mx
Rockwell, E. (2009). La experiencia etnográfica. Historia y cultura en los procesos educativos. Buenos Aires: Paidós.
Tedesco, J. C. (2008). Las TIC en la agenda política educativa. En C. Magadán & V. Kelly (Eds.), Las TIC: del aula a la agenda política. Buenos Aires: IPEE-UNESCO.


andy goodwyn (United Kingdom (The))
CONTESTING THE TERRITORY: HOW MOTHER TONGUE ENGLISH TEACHERS IN ENGLAND AND AUSTRALIA ARE REMAINING RESILIENT AND CREATIVE IN CONSTRAINING TIMES.

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 09:30-11:00 Room T16 Chair: Aruvee, Merilin
Teacher identity, L1 teaching, teacher autonomy, national policy.
Around the world teachers have been experiencing strong external pressures on their work, reducing their autonomy and constraining their creativity [Goodwyn, 2013, 2016], especially true of a subject area like L! English where teachers have deep convictions. The identity of English teachers in Australia and England has marked similarities, characterised by a passionate attachment to teaching literature [Goodwyn et al, 2015], Personal Growth ideology, strongly inflected by a view of students as agents in meaning making [ Goodwyn, 2004, 2005]. Another marked commonality for English in both Australia and England has been the fact that the subject suffers from increasing surveillance and regulation, leading to much teacher dissatisfaction and to many leaving the profession.
The study explores the ways English and literacy educators seek to find a balance between external expectations, contemporary pressures, professional aspirations, and personal values in times of change. The research uses a grounded theory approach, building up an understanding of teachers’ own subject theories from the emerging data. 30 in-depth interviews were carried out in each country to provide a qualitative data set, capturing the views of teachers from a range of years of experience and with differing levels of responsibility. The interviews focused on 6 key areas: identity concepts of self /subject English; professional and personal priorities; pedagogies and educational strategies; and perceptions of change.
The data was analysed thematically, searching for common areas of teacher concern and value. Certain significant themes emerged. The strongest of all was a tension between the need to ensure student success in the testing regimes operating in both countries whilst maintaining a classroom dynamic that centred on individual student well being and engagement.
L1 teachers are feeling besieged and undermined but also resilient and robust. Most teachers still enjoy their teaching and believe they can hold on to their own values and beliefs. However, they also feel that the future is difficult and they are aware of many good teachers who have ‘had enough’ of reduced professional autonomy and obsessions with national test results. They argue passionately for a return to more trust and respect for teacher judgements, especially in a subject which has the fluidity and flexibility that characterises English teaching at its best. [Goodwyn, 2010].
Goodwyn, A. (2016). Expert Teachers: an International Perspective. London, Routledge.
Goodwyn, A., Durrant, C., Scherff, E. & Reid, L. [2015] (Eds.). International perspectives on the teaching of Literature in schools; global principles and practices. London, Routledge.
Goodwyn, A., Durrant, C. & Reid, L [2013] (Eds.). International perspectives on the teaching of English in a Globalised World. London, Routledge.
Goodwyn, A. (2010). The Expert Teacher of English. London, Routledge.
Goodwyn, A. (2005). A framework for English? Or a vehicle for literacy? English teaching in England in the age of the Strategy. English Teaching, practice and critique. 3 (3), 16-28.
Goodwyn, A. (2004). The Professional Identity of English teachers in England. English in Australia. 139, 12 (1), 122-131.


andy goodwyn (United Kingdom (The))
THE HIGHLY AFFECTIVE TEACHING OF L1 ENGLISH: A CASE STUDY IN A GLOBAL CONTEXT

Paper session ARLE 2019 Thursday, 14:00-15:30 Room T16 Chair: Valentim, Helena T.
L1 teaching, teacher effectiveness, teacher identity, affective teaching, Literature

The concept of the expert teacher has become a global phenomenon [Goodwyn, 2010]. Highly performing jurisdictions [e.g. England, Scotland, Australia, Singapore, USA, China] are developing various and diverse models which seek to recognise and reward the best teachers, enhance their status, maintain their classroom role rather than them turning to management careers. These jurisdictions share the need to attract the best graduates and then retain them as highly effective classroom teachers [Goodwyn, 2016]. These designations are usually awarded through some process of assessment against standards or criteria. Most standards are very generic with only the Highly Accomplished Teachers in the USA being both subject and age phase specific.
One set of descriptors was developed by Hattie in his 2001 meta-analysis. The study will critique these and other such descriptors of expert teaching to evaluate where they may be placed in the cognitive and affective domains. The more general global model of teacher effectiveness has [arguably] become very much focused on the cognitive domain, on teacher ‘performance’ closely related to test results and other measurable outcomes.
This study asks ‘What is a highly affective teaching and what might be a valuable definition’? The, the current working definition is teaching which is in itself emotionally charged and engages students’ emotions in their learning of a topic or concept’.
L1 English is a subject that engages students in developing their understanding of many things but essentially much focus is on language and literature and their inter-relationship. Literary texts were never written to be studied, but are in particular designed to engage readers’ feelings and life experiences. This exploratory case study follows one teacher [who is part of a larger affective teaching project] over the course of several teaching episodes, reflecting on the nature of L1 English, of students’ emotional engagements and of what might characterise highly affective teaching. The research seeks to offer some modest evidence of what teaching is when it is affective and tentative directions for future research.
Goodwyn, A. (2016). Expert Teachers: an International Perspective. London, Routledge.
Goodwyn, A. (2010). The Expert Teacher of English. London, Routledge.
Hattie, J. (2003) Teachers make a difference: what is the research evidence? Paper presented at The Australian Council for Educational Research Conference


John Gordon (United Kingdom (The))
UNDERSTANDING NARRATIVE VOICE THROUGH CLASSROOM LITERATURE DISCUSSION

Paper session ARLE 2019 Friday, 11:00-12:30 Room T15 Chair: Ruivo, Alexandra
This paper examines literature teaching to develop students’ understanding of narrative voice in novels. The paper attends closely to the apparent duality of this pedagogy, alternating between a) immersive reading of the novel aloud and b) discussion framing students’ critical orientation to narrative voice. The key research question addressed by examining transcript data is:

how do teachers guide students’ understanding of narrative voice when reading novels in class?

Transcripts shared here represent literature discussion in two secondary classrooms. The paper takes an ethnomethodological perspective, making a micro-analysis of interaction to identify subtle but significant facets of talk that support students’ learning around literature. Data derives from a completed research project in the United Kingdom investigating shared novel reading in both formal and informal settings. The study generated transcripts representing literature discussion in six secondary schools, two primary classrooms, university seminars and reading groups.

Research methods adapted Conversation Analysis (Sidnell and Stivers, 2013) for literary study, to account for the introduction of the text to discussion and its influence on the pattern of talk. In particular, this paper draws on the concept of heteroglossia (Bakhtin, 1986) to theorise the entry of the text’s narrative voice to conversation. The text’s introduction to talk is conceived as part of a dialogic chain partially determined by the teacher but also shaped by student contributions.

Results of analysis suggest that literary pedagogy for discussion of narrative voice is defined by teachers’ versatile switching between immersive and selective performative reading aloud and declarative, overtly distanced critical orientation. Both are significant for developing students’ intermental and intramental understanding of narrative voice. Teachers skilfully combine the two to realise the text’s narrative voice as a presence in the public forum of the classroom, affording cognitive and affective student responses concurrently, likely to support their argumentation in writing or speech.

Keywords: Reading, literature discussion, narrative voice, Conversation Analysis

Bakhtin, M.M. (1986). Speech genres and other late essays. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Sidnell, J. and Stivers, T. (eds) (2013) The handbook of Conversation Analysis. London: Blackwell.


Aslaug Fodstad Gourvennec & Heidi Höglund & Maritha Johansson & Kristine Kabel & Margrethe Sonneland (Norway)
LITERATURE IN THE NORDIC CURRICULA: A STUDY OF THE CONCEPT OF LITERATURE AND LEGITIMIZATION FOR LITERARY EDUCATION IN THE CURRICULA FOR LOWER SECONDARY EDUCATION

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 11:30-13:00 Room T14 Chair: Araújo, Teresa
Education in the Nordic countries has many common features across national borders. Within L1 education in general, and literary education in particular, the Nordic countries have influenced each other within the Scandinavian language area (see e.g. Elf & Kaspersen, 2012). This dialogue between the Nordic L1 subjects allows for comparative analysis of curricula. Such analysis has been made on the notion of multimodality (Elf, Gilje, Olin-Scheller & Slotte, 2018); however, this paper is the first to investigate notions of literature and literary education. While teaching practices and notions of what is regarded as valid scientific theory alter slowly, curricula may be said to change rapidly as part of ongoing political governance (Krogh, 2003). In this paper, we understand curricula as documents rendering cultural representations of literary education, or what we with Gee (2014) frame as cultural models.

In this paper, we investigate notions of literature and literary education expressed in the Danish, Finnish, Norwegian and Swedish L1 curricula for lower secondary education. Using a discourse analytical approach (Gee, 2014), we study the concept of literature and the legitimization for literary study within the L1 subject as expressions of cultural models of literature and literary education. Preliminary findings show that in the curricula of all four countries, an extended concept of text is manifest; that is, there is no hierarchical division between literary texts and other texts. Literature is legitimized both as a study object and as a means for identity development, formation and linguistic development; however, the legitimizations are emphasized differently in each of the curricula. There are also variations in how specific or open the curricula are in terms of teaching methods. In conclusion, we discuss the educational challenges and opportunities that arise in the comparison of cultural models of literature and literary education manifested in the Nordic curricula.

Keywords: curricula; literary education; cultural models; lower secondary education, Nordic L1

References:

Elf, N. F. & Kaspersen, P. (Eds.). (2012). Den Nordiske skolen - fins den?: didaktiske diskurser og dilemmaer i skandinaviske morsmålsfag. Oslo: Novus.
Elf, N. F., Gilje, Ø., Olin-Scheller, C. & Slotte, A. (2018). Nordisk status og forskningsperspektiver i L1: Multimodalitet i styredokumenter og klasserumsrumspraksis. In M. Rogne, & L. Rune Waage (Eds.), Multimodalitet i skole- og fritidstekstar: Ein vitskapleg antologi. (pp. 71-104). Oslo: Fakbokforlaget.
Gee, J. P. (2014). An introduction to discourse analysis: theory and method (4th ed.). London: Routledge.
Krogh, E. (2003). Et fag i moderniteten: Danskfagets didaktiske diskurser. Odense: Syddansk Universitet. Det Humanistiske Fakultet.


Aslaug Fodstad Gourvennec (Norway)
FIGURED WORLDS AMONG TEACHERS CO-TEACHING CLASSES WITH RESPECTIVELY STRONG AND POOR LITERACY-DEVELOPMENT

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 15:45-17:15 Room T9 Chair: Neumann, Astrid
Figured Worlds Among Teachers Co-Teaching Classes with Respectively Strong and Poor Reading Development

Previous research on the effect of increased teacher-student ratio (T-S ratio) on student learning has proven inconclusive (cf. Solheim, Rege & McTigue, 2017). One suggested explanation for small effects has been that teachers do not seem to optimize the opportunities presented by having fewer students (Hattie, 2005). In order to increase knowledge about the complex relation between teaching and students’ learning outcome when T-S ratio is increased, the present paper investigates the co-teaching teachers’ figured worlds (Gee, 2011) concerning the social practice of early literacy instruction. The study is based on interviews with teachers participating in a large randomized controlled trial (RCT): Two Teachers in the class (TT). The RCT investigates the effect of having two teachers (compared to one) in literacy instruction in L1 classrooms, for students’ reading development in 1st and 2nd grade (6–7 years old). The sample includes six co-teaching couples, understood as extreme cases. Three of the couples have taught classes that show strong reading development measured as growth in word level decoding and reading comprehension during 1st and 2nd grade. The three other couples have taught classes with poor reading development. The data consists of twelve in-depth interviews, one with each of the participating teachers, carried out in January-February 2019. Through a discourse analytical approach (Gee, 2011) to the pieces of language that the interviews constitute, I investigate which aspects of the participants, activities, setting(s) and resources the teachers render significant (Gee, 2011) within the social practice of early literacy instruction. The findings from the individual interviews are compared with those from the co-teacher’s interview. Subsequently, characteristics from each of the couples will be compared across the sample. Finally, I discuss possible implications of the findings for the composition of co-teaching couples.

Keywords: teachers’ figured worlds, early literacy instruction, co-teaching, teacher-student ratio

References

Gee, J. P. (2011). An introduction to discourse analysis: theory and method. London: Routledge.
Solheim, O. J., Rege, M., & McTigue, E. (2017). Study protocol: “Two Teachers”: A randomized controlled trial investigating individual and complementary effects of teacher-student ratio in literacy instruction and professional development for teachers. International Journal of Educational Research, 86, 122–130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2017.09.002
Hattie, J. (2005). The paradox of reducing class size and improving learning outcomes. International Journal of Educational Research 43, 387-425.


Marta Gràcia & Maria-Josep Jarque & Sonia Jarque & Carles Riba (Spain)
THE EVALOE-SSD, A DIGITAL TOOL FOR THE PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF TEACHERS

Paper session ARLE 2019 Friday, 11:00-12:30 Room T11 Chair: Gonçalves, Matilde
Abstract

School is a natural context where the communicative strategies used by teachers when interacting with students are essential for the development of their communicative competence (Hamre, Hatfield, Pianta, & Jamil, 2014, Mercer, 2010). The goal of this study was to build, implement and validate a digital system (EVALOE-SSD) with the purpose of contributing to teacher’s professional development through reflective self-evaluation and decision-making to improve oral and signed competence of their students. The design combines the multiple case study with the Design Based Implementation Research. The data collection and analysis follow a mixed (qualitative and quantitative) methodology. The participants include 8 teachers from 8 different types of schools and their student groups. The EVALOE-SSD is a digital system that includes different resources. The main one is a 30-item questionnaire with three response options grouped into five dimensions (instructional design, conversation management by the teacher, conversation management by students, communicative functions and teacher strategies; students’ communicative functions). It includes a description of each dimension and each item. Also, it incorporates a set of "aids" in several support types (written text, audio, video, image) that teachers can consult while performing the self-assessment, and when they subsequently have to take decisions about what action or strategy they will introduce in their next classes. For 5-6 months, we followed the teachers’ weekly use of the tool to self-assess their classes, make decisions, and introduce changes in their classes. During the same period, the researchers made 4 classroom observations of each teacher with their students and evaluated them with the tool. The experience was used to introduce changes in the tool to improve its usability. The results highlight that the teachers perceive it, initially, as a complex tool. The more they become familiar with it, the more they appreciate its usefulness. The teachers contributed to a great extent to the improvement of the tool with their assessments. The results also indicate differences among the teachers concerning their involvement, motivation, knowledge and use of the tool, as well as their self-perception of the degree to which its use has improved their teaching practice and their students’ skills.

Keywords: professional development, tool, oral competence, teachers, students

Hamre, B. K., R. C. Pianta, J. T. Downer, J. DeCoster, A. J. Mashburn, S. M. Jones, J. L. Brown, et al. 2013. “Teaching through interactions: Testing a developmental framework of teacher effectiveness in over 4,000 classrooms”. The Elementary School Journal 113 (4): 461-487.

Mercer, N. 2010. “The analysis of the classroom talk: Methods and methodologies.” British Journal of Educational Psychology 1: 1-14.


Anna Guzy (Poland)
WAYS TO STIMULATE CHILDREN'S LINGUISTIC ACTIVITY IN THE FIELD OF NAMING EMOTIONS

Short presentations (poster) and extended discussion ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 14:30-15:30 Room T14 Chair: Fontich, Xavier
Background: The subject of the research is connection with the language and emotional development of children . Four basic emotions were selected for the assessment and analyzes according to Robert Pluchik's typology: anger, joy, sadness and fear (included both: positive and negative emotions).
Material and methods: From January 2014 to July 2018 almost 340 pupils from 9-12 years have been examined (the sample was various and representative). I have a few research questions: 1. Are literary texts, ie. therapeutic beauties useful for stimulating understanding and naming of emotional states by children at a younger school age? 2. How do children define basic emotions: both positive and negative. 3. Which literary and therapeutic texts were the most helpful for the respondents?
The main research method was an experiment with a separate experimental and control group. In each group, pupils filled in an identical questionnaire (own design), in which they created a definition of individual emotions, described the situations in which they feel them, as well as created artistic instantiation (drawings) of emotions. In the experimental group the task was preceded by a lesson on which the concept of emotion was introduced (using literary texts, therapeutic fables), in the control lesson on the subject of emotions, literary texts or therapeutic fables were not introduced.
Results: The results of the study show that literary texts, especially fairy tales and therapeutic stories are helpful during lessons on naming emotional states in children at a younger school age.
Main references:
T. Borowska: Emotions of children and young people: resources - development. Katowice 2006
Feeling and understanding: Early emotional development. K. McCartney, D. Phillips (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of early childhood development, Blackwell, Malden, MA (2006), pp. 317-337.
A. Shields, S. Dickstein, R. Seifer, L. Giusti, K.D. Magee, B. Spritz: Emotional competence and early school adjustment: A study of preschoolers at risk. Early Education and Development, 12 (2001), pp. 73-96.


Ida Gyde & Peter Fregerslev (Denmark)
L1 TEACHERS BELIEFS OF GRAMMAR TEACHING IN LOWER SECONDARY SCHOOLS COMPARED WITH TEACHER BELIEFS FROM L2 AND L3 LANGUAGE TEACHERS

Paper session ARLE 2019 Thursday, 11:00-12:30 Room T10 Chair: Bremholm, Jesper
Field: Grammar has often been a contested part of L1 teaching (Hertzberg 2001, Myhill 2014 ), and in this regard it is possible for the study to contribute with knowledge of L1, L2 and L3 teachers reasons for grammar teaching. Our project is part of a large national study on grammar teaching in L1 (Danish), L2 (English) and L3 (German) languages in secondary school i Denmark (Gramma3, 2018-19). While the national study generally explores how grammar teaching is taking place and is conceived in the language classroom, this paper focuses on how teachers of languages explicetly justify grammar teaching. In this paper we focus primarily on Danish as first language supplemented with perspectives from English and German as foreign languages . We will discuss how different teacher beliefs are essential for ongoing considerations of developing practices of grammar teaching.

The research questions we focus on are : Which understandings do language teachers in L1, L2 and L3 in lower secondary schools give for teaching grammar, and how are their understandings of grammar and grammar teaching?

Theory and method: The national study is based on a social semiotic theory with a multilevel view upon grammar, and the research is a focused etnographic study containing observations in L1, L2 and L3 classes and interviews with the teachers involved. In the national study data from 7 schools are included. In this paper we focus on data from 9 interviews from 3 schools. We have used double blind coding.

Key findings: Our findings indicate a need for further development of grammar teaching. On the one hand, different tendencies appear within different languages. On the other hand, we find a connection between teachers understandings of grammar, their way of teaching grammar and their beliefs of grammar teaching.


References: Funke (2018) Herzberg (2001) Myhill (2018), Macken-Horarik, Sandiford, Love & Unsworth (2015)


keywords: grammar, teacher beliefs , grammar teaching,


Ida Gyde (Denmark)
TITLE: L1 TEACHERS BELIEFS OF GRAMMAR TEACHING IN LOWER SECONDARY SCHOOLS COMPARED WITH REASONS FROM L2 AND L3 TEACHERS

Field: Grammar has often been a contested part of L1 teaching (Hertzberg 2001, Myhill 2014 ), and in this regard it is possible for the study to contribute with knowledge of L1, L2 and L3 teachers reasons for grammar teaching. Our project is part of a large national study on grammar teaching in L1 (Danish), L2 (English) and L3 (German) languages in secondary school i Denmark (Gramma3, 2018-19). While the national study generally explores how grammar teaching is taking place and is conceived in the language classroom, this paper focuses on how teachers of languages explicetly justify grammar teaching. In this paper we focus primarily on Danish as first language supplemented with perspectives from English and German as foreign languages . We will discuss how different teacher beliefs are essential for ongoing considerations of developing practices of grammar teaching.

The research questions we focus on are : Which understandings do language teachers in L1, L2 and L3 in lower secondary schools give for teaching grammar, and how are their understandings of grammar and grammar teaching?

Theory and method: The national study is based on a social semiotic theory with a multilevel view upon grammar, and the research is a focused etnographic study containing observations in L1, L2 and L3 classes and interviews with the teachers involved. In the national study data from 7 schools are included. In this paper we focus on data from 9 interviews from 3 schools. We have used double blind coding.

Key findings: Our findings indicate a need for further development of grammar teaching. On the one hand, different tendencies appear within different languages. On the other hand, we find a connection between teachers understandings of grammar, their way of teaching grammar and their beliefs of grammar teaching.

References: Funke (2018) Herzberg (2001) Myhill (2018), Macken-Horarik, Sandiford, Love & Unsworth (2015)


keywords: grammar, teacher beliefs ,grammar teaching


Manar Halwani (Sweden)
MOTIVATION AND ENGAGEMENT TO LEARN SWEDISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE BY IMMIGRANT ADULT PROFESSIONALS

Motivation and Engagement to learn Swedish as a Second Language by Immigrant Adult professionals:

Abstract for the study


The study focusses on immigrant adults’ motivation and engagement to learn Swedish as a second language. Immigrants who have reached a higher level of education in their home country need to master Swedish in order to complete their education/accredit their professional training and integrate in the Swedish labour market. Adult immigrants learn basic Swedish through Swedish for Immigrants (SFI) or/and The Short Road (Korta Vägen) programmes during the two years of their establishment plan. However, after these two years many immigrants’ Swedish is still weak and does not meet the Swedish language requirements of their profession. For example, almost 40% of doctors with non-EU/EES education have failed the medical accreditation test due to language difficulties even when their medical knowledge is sufficient for accreditation (Läkartidningen, 2017). Understanding where the difficulties lie for these academically trained professionals is important, and one aspect that might assist in providing more appropriate teaching that might ameliorate some of these challenges is an understanding of how these students’ motivation with its flows and ebbs interacts with engagement. In other words, motivation for learning professional medical Swedish may affect learners' engagement when constructing, prioritizing, and developing specific linguistic and grammatical aspects in the Swedish language. Via questionnaires and interviews with adult immigrant professional learners of medical Swedish, this study develops a model of interaction between Directed Motivational Currents (Dörnyei et al. 2016) and Engagement with Language (Svalberg, 2009) that affords clearer investigation of the dynamics of processing a second language. Specifically this affords the investigation of relationships between:
1. Facilitative motivation structure and cognitive engagement
2. Positive emotionality and affective engagement
3. Goal-oriented motivation and social engagement
This will provide a better understanding of how learners navigate different situations to develop L2 skills, engage autonomously with the professional language being learnt, and continue interacting with other, including native, speakers of the L2.

References

Dörnyei, Z, Henry, A. & Muir, CH. (2016) Motivational Currents in Language Learning: Frameworks for Focused Interventions. New York: Routledge.

Läkartidningen. (2017), 114: EIR4. http://lakartidningen.se/Aktuellt/Nyheter/2017/02/Fler-lakare-men-fortsatt-brist-pa-specialister/

Svalberg, A. M. L. (2009). Engagement with Language: Interrogating a Construct. Language Awareness, 18(3), pp. 1–17.

Sveriges kommuner och landsting, 2018. Retrieved 2018 December 14 from https://skl.se/arbetsgivarekollektivavtal/snabbsparnyanlanda/larareochforskollarare.11468.html


Thorkild Hanghøj (Denmark)
STUDENT POSITIONING TOWARD WRITING JOURNALISM ABOUT GAMES AND GAME CULTURE

Paper session ARLE 2019 Thursday, 11:00-12:30 Room T15 Chair: Skarstein, Dag
The aim of this paper is to present findings from the on-going Design-Based Research project “Game Journalism”, which explores possibilities for positioning secondary students as writers when producing journalism about games and game culture in L1. The project revolves around the development and use of the Game Journalism platform (spiljournalist.dk), where students can publish their journalistic articles. The students’ texts represent a hybrid form between established school journalistic genres in Danish as a subject and game journalism outside school contexts produced by a mix of dedicated gamers and professional journalists (Zagal et al., 2009).

The paper draws on earlier work (Hanghøj & Nørgaard, 2018), which analyzed six students’ game journalistic texts and data from subsequent student interviews about the texts. This lead to the identification of three different student voices when writing game journalism: “gamers”, “non-gamers”, and “journalists”. The gamer voice primarily represented knowledge and experience related to gaming. By contrast, the non-gamer voice represented critical approaches to games and game culture. Finally, the voice of the journalist concerned an identification with conducting journalistic work. In the current paper, I will try to expand and detail students’ positions toward producing game journalism based on additional data collection of texts and interviews from four different classes located at three different secondary schools.

Our analysis is informed by the scenario-based domain model (Hanghøj & Nørgaard, 2010), which suggests that students’ game-related literacy practices can be understood as an interplay of knowledge practices across four different domains: the pedagogical domain of schooling, the domain of disciplinary knowledge (Danish as L1 subject), the domain of everyday life (e.g. game activities), and the scenario-specific domain of producing game journalism, which primarily exists outside school contexts. Moreover, I draw on Dialogical Self Theory (Ligorio, 2010) in order to describe how the students take up different I-positions when approaching games as a journalistic topic within a school context.

In this way, the current study contributes to the growing field of game-related literacy research by exploring how students’ interest in, experience with and attitudes toward games can be meaningfully transformed into subject-related knowledge within a L1 context.

References

Hanghøj, T. & Nørgaard, J. (2018). Writing Game Journalism in School: Student Voices on Games and Game
Culture. Proceedings of the Connected Learning Summit 2018, MIT, Boston.
Ligorio, M. B. (2010). Dialogical relationship between identity and learning. Culture & Psychology, 16(1), 93-107.
Zagal, J. P., Ladd, A., & Johnson, T. (2009). Characterizing and understanding game reviews. In Proceedings of the 4th international Conference on Foundations of Digital Games (pp. 215-222). ACM.


Jens Jørgen Hansen (Denmark)
CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DIDACTICAL PRINCIPLES FOR WRITING INSTRUCTION

Paper session ARLE 2019 Thursday, 11:00-12:30 Room T16 Chair: Torres Villamil, Maria Juddy
Keywords: design principles, writing instruction, literacy theory

This study is based on a design-based research project with the aim to develop design principles (Fidalgo et all, 2018) for writing instructions for primary and secondary schools (Hansen 2018). The research question is to determine what theoretical view of literacy different design principles are based on? The theoretical framework is literacy theory with three discourses of writing instruction (Ivanič, 2004): 1) as a multimodal approach where writing is a rhetorical purpose-oriented organization of semiotic resources, 2) as a cognitive approach, where writing is a process based on different writing strategies and 3) writing as sociocultural approach where writing is embedded in a social practice with experiments with writing roles and identity. Data is constructed through analysis of research literature and the various suggestions for design principles that serve as guidelines for good writing instruction. E.g. Smidt (2017) presents 10 theses for good writing education in order to develop the students' writing development. Dombey (2013) also presents 10 principles that can guide writing teachers for the development of good writing. Olinghouse & Wilson (2012) appoints 7 skills that should be at the center of teaching with a focus on developing students' writing. Burnett and Merchant (2015) point out how new principles are linked to the emergence of new digital technologies and point to 9 principles that need to leverage digital resources for richer, differentiated, and flexible writing. Graham & Perin (2007) collects in a meta-analysis 15 elements that help to develop students' writing. Bazerman (2015) presents 8 principles that can support students' writing development. Andrews & Smith (2011) points to 6 principles that good writing education should focus on.
Methodologically, the project linked to the literature review (Randolph 2009) and analyzes in relation to the three above-mentioned approaches. The study will provide a critical perspective on the concept of design principles and their more or less reflected basis in a particular literacy tradition (Sturdy 2015) and learning vision.
The results of the study point at the importance of developing a critical approach to design principle. Design principles are not just practical and neutral guidelines for managing and developing a classroom practice but are rooted in a certain literacy theory with certain norms for learning and teaching writing.


Andrews, R., & Smith, A. (2011). Developing writers: Teaching and learning in the digital age: McGraw-Hill Education (UK).
Bazerman, C. (2015). What do sociocultural studies of writing tell us about learning to write. Handbook of writing research, 24-40.
Burnett, C., & Merchant, G. (2015). The challenge of 21st‐century literacies. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 59(3), 271-274.
Dombey, H. (2013). What we know about teaching writing. Preschool and Primary Education, 1, 22-40.
Graham, S., & Perin, D. (2007). A meta-analysis of writing instruction for adolescent students. In: American Psychological Association.
Fidalgo, R., Harris, K. R., & Braaksma, M. (Eds.). (2018). Design principles for teaching effective writing: Theoretical and empirical grounded principles. Brill.
Hansen, J. J. (2018). Skrivedidaktik: Den multimodale-, kognitive-og sociokulturelle position. In Digital Skrivedidaktik (pp. 39-74): Akademisk Forlag.
Ivanič, R. 2004. Discourses of writing and learning to write. Language and Education, 18, 220–245.
Kringstad, T. & Kvithyld, T. (2014). Fem prinsipper for god skriveopplæring. Viden om læsning, Nr. 15.
Olinghouse, N. G., & Wilson, J. (2012). Strategic, meaningful, and effective writing instruction for elementary students. Fundamentals of literacy instruction & assessment, pre-K-6, 205-224.
Randolph, J. J. (2009). "A guide to writing the dissertation literature review." Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation 14(13): 1-13.
Smidt, J. (2017). Ti teser om skrivning i alle fag. In J. Smidt, R. Solheim, & A. J. Aasen (Eds.), På sporet af god skriveundervisning : en bog for lærere i alle fag (pp. 284 sider). Kbh.: Nota.
Hansen, J. J. (2018). Skrivedidaktik: Den multimodale-, kognitive-og sociokulturelle position. In Digital Skrivedidaktik (pp. 39-74): Akademisk Forlag.
Smidt, J. (2017). Ti teser om skrivning i alle fag. In J. Smidt, R. Solheim, & A. J. Aasen (Eds.), På sporet af god skriveundervisning : en bog for lærere i alle fag (pp. 284 sider). Kbh.: Nota.


Irit Haskel-Shaham (Israel)
COLLEGE STUDENTS’ KNOWLEDGE ABOUT WRITING A SEMINAR PAPER

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 09:30-11:00 Room Auditorium 3 Chair: Cardoso, Adriana
There is only one good, knowledge and one evil, ignorance - Socrates(1)

The seminar course taught in all academic institutions of higher education in Israel is the pinnacle of the bachelor's degree studies in which academic writing plays an essential role. Writing a seminar paper is a major challenge for many students. It requires coordinating several cognitive abilities and strategies. One important component, without which writing cannot be performed, is the knowledge stored in Long Term Memory [LTM] (Eyal, 2007; Hayes, 1996). Two main kinds of knowledge are necessary: Declarative Knowledge– knowing that - consists of linguistic, pragmatic, discourse, and sociocultural knowledge, such as knowledge on the subject and on the addressees. (Baggetun & Wasson, 2006; Hayes, 1996). Procedural Knowledge – knowing how – refers to the use of language in variant circumstances properly in order to accomplish assignments successfully. Researches show that metacognitive knowledge and writing successful products are positively related (Haskel-Shaham, 2011; Schoonen & de Glopper, 1996; van Drie, Janssen, & Groenendijk, 2018).
Our aim in the current on-going research is to analyze the quality and the quantity of the different kinds of knowledge that students have on writing a seminar paper, and to investigate the development of this knowledge after two semesters. In order to examine the nature of this knowledge, we asked students to write a letter of advice to their colleagues who are about to write a seminar paper in order to lead them towards a good and successful product (adopted from: Schoonen & de Glopper, 1996).
We use a qualitative research tool: content analysis. We consolidated a coding scheme that emerged from the students’ advice. All letters of advice were analyzed and categorized by the researcher and colleagues. In my presentation I will elaborate on the process of the analysis and on the results.
The importance of this research is that it aims to shed light on one of the most important components in the writing process. By being aware of it and by fostering it, we might help our students to accomplish the challenge of writing a well-designed seminar paper.

(1) Socrates as quoted in Diogenes Laertius' Lives of Eminent Philosophers

Keywords: Academic Writing, knowledge about Writing, Writing Process and Products.

Bibliography
Baggetun, R., & Wasson, B. (2006). Self-regulated learning and open writing. European Journal of Education, 41, 453–472. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1465-3435.2006.00276.x
Eyal, N. (2007). The wonders of the memory and the deceits of forgetfulness. Tel-Aviv: Arye Nir. Pub. House. Retrieved from: https://www.hebpsy.net/articles.asp?id=1086 [in Hebrew]

Haskel-Shaham, I. (2011). Writing Assessment Model as a Writing Generator - Thesis submitted for the degree of “Doctor of Philosophy”. Submitted to the Senate of the Hebrew University. [in Hebrew]


Hayes, J. R. (1996). A new framework for understanding cognition and affect in writing. In C. M. Levy, & S. Ransdell (Eds.), The science of writing. Theories, methods, individual differences and applications (pp. 1- 27). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Schoonen, R. & de Glopper, K. (1996). Writing performance and knowledge about writing. In: Rajlaarsdam, G.; Couzijn, M. & Van den Berg, H. Effective teaching and learning to writing. Amsterdam. U. Press. PMid:8599961

Van Drie, J., Janssen, T. & Groenendijk, T (2018). Effects of writing instruction on adolescents’ knowledge of writing and text quality in history. Contribution to a special issue in honor of Gert Rijlaarsdam making Connections: Studies of Language and Literature Education. L1- Educational Studies in Language and Literature, 18, pp. 1-28. https://doi.org/10.17239/L1ESLL- 2018.18.03.08



Sigal Hason (Israel)
STATE-RELIGIOUS ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS’ PERCEPTION OF THE READING BOOK’S ROLE AS A SOURCE OF SOCIAL INFORMATION

Paper session ARLE 2019 Friday, 14:00-15:30 Room T12 Chair: Gonçalves, Matilde
(The proposal is based on the doctoral dissertation presented to the Department of Information Science, Bar Ilan University).

Israel is a multicultural society and the religious sector also comprises diverse subsectors: according to the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), 55.3% of students are in secular state schools, 25.55% are in independent orthodox religious schools, and 19.15% in national-religious schools.
Each subsector seeks to create the educational system that conforms to its outlook and lifestyle. Orthodox Judaism espouses observance of Jewish laws, belief in their perpetuity, and reservations about introducing changes. This self-differentiation also manifests in the sector’s approach towards secular society and the policymakers, and influences all areas of the individual’s life. The national religious education system seeks to integrate life in modern society, including openness towards new ideas while simultaneously preserving traditional values. In this context books become important sources of social information, allowing the student to encounter social change and enabling the teacher to engage in dialogue with students around reading (Hermann, Be'ery, HellerCohen, Lebel Mozes, & Kalman, 2014).
Social informatics (a branch of Information Science) views the book as a tool for coping with situations of conflict as well as confronting the social and cultural changes of the information revolution of the twenty-first century (Baruchson-Arbib, 2000).
The current study examines how teachers in the national religious education system cope with dilemmas relating to the choice of books, and the considerations they apply when choosing activities related to reading. It also studies which perceptions serve as the basis for dialogue with students when encouraging reading for pleasure.
Qualitative research tools were used in the study. This included primarily the analysis of semi-structured interviews (N=43) while cross-referencing policy documents which represent the organization’s philosophy and assist its intra-organizational socialization process (Raz, 2004). The large number of sources enabled a greater understanding of the phenomenon (Shlasky & Alpert, 2007).
Our findings show that reading, the book, and dialogue around reading books fill different functions at the school. Reading is viewed as having practical functions, the book is ascribed an academic-learning role, and for teachers to engage in emotion-based discourse which promotes the development of personal identity information.
References
Central Bureau of Statistic (CBS) (2015). Israel Statistical Yearbook: Students of Grades 1-6 and academic attendance from 5774 (2014) through 5775 (2015), and according to supervisory body, gender, and year of immigration. Retrieved on 12 December 2018 from http://www.cbs.gov.il/shnaton66/st08_17.pdf
Baruchson-Arbib, S. (2000). Bibliotherapy in school libraries: an Israeli experiment. School Libraries Worldwide, 6(2), 102-110.
Hermann, T., Be'ery, G., Heller, E, Cohen, C., Lebel, Y., Mozes, H., &Kalman, N. (2014). The National- Religious Sector in Israel. Jerusalem: The Israel Democracy Institute
Raz, A. (2004) Organizational Culture: Ranna: The Open University Press.
Shlasky, S., Alpert, B. (2007) Ways of writing qualitative research from Deconstructing Reality to Its construction as a Text. Tel aviv: Mofet Publishing


Elias Heikkonen (Finland)
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEXTUAL AND CONTEXTUAL KNOWLEDGE IN ASSESSING AND DEVELOPING LITERARY LITERACY

Pre-conference ARLE 2019 Tuesday, 14:30-16:00 Room T10 Chair: Pieper, Irene
Discussants: Pieper (Germany); Gonçalves (Portugal)
Paper session ARLE 2019 Friday, 14:00-15:30 Room T16 Chair: Levine, Sarah
The relationship between textual and contextual knowledge in assessing and developing literary literacy
Literature education faces a perennial challenge in the summative assessment of students’ literary literacy, especially when conducted on a regional, national or even international level. Two central reasons for this are the variety of textual practices in different literary texts and the unlimited variety of contexts texts can be related to. Depending on the task and the form of assessment this variety requires different amounts of textual and contextual knowledge from the student.
Assessment institutions manage this challenge through different approaches to both the tasks and their assessment: for example by defining a canon of literary texts, giving local freedom to the selection of literary texts for the tasks or by de-emphasizing the meaning of contextual knowledge and focusing on assessing textual knowledge.
Different approaches not only entail different conceptions of assessing literary literacy, but also the nature of literary literacy itself. They also have impact on literature education because high-stakes assessment affects teaching through its institutional importance and because of the general requirement for reciprocity between teaching and assessment.
Assessment in general can be examined from the properties of 1) validity 2) reliability 3) impact and 4) resources required (Harlen 2007). These properties also interact with one another: changes in one affect changes in one or more of the others. Examining how these properties are valued in relation to one another can provide insight when comparing different approaches to literary literacy assessment
In this paper I will examine through document analysis how upper secondary educational institutions in Finland and elsewhere approach literary literacy assessment in L1 from three aspects:
a) managing the relationship between textual and contextual knowledge
b) valuing the different properties of assessment
c) defining (explicitly or implicitly) literary literacy itself
My goal is to show that these aspects are interdependent on one another and a change in one can have an important effect on the others. Another goal is to show that because of the assessment’s wider impact on literature education all three aspects should be sufficiently taken into consideration when developing the assessment of literary literacy.

Bibliography:
Alderson, J. Charles (2000): Assessing Reading. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Hall, Geoff (2005): Literature in Language Education. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Fiebich, Peggy – Thielking, Sigrid [Hgg.] (2010): Literatur im Abitur – Reifeprüfung mit Kompetenz? Bielefeld: Aisthesis Verlag.
Harlen, Wynne (2007): Assessment of Learning. SAGE Publications ltd.
Leutner, Detlev, - Fleischer, Jens - Grünkorn, Juliane - Klieme, Eckhard (2017): Competence Assessment in Education : Research, Models and Instruments. Cham, Switzerland : Springer.

Keywords: literature education, literary literacy, assessment of literary literacy, textual knowledge, contextual knowledge



Ria Heilä-Ylikallio & Mindy Svenlin & Heidi Höglund & Sofia Jusslin & Anders Westerlund & Dag Skarstein & Anna Nordenstam (Finland)
BEYOND, CROSSING OR ERASING BOUNDARIES? AN AESTHETIC, LANGUAGE-STRENGTHENING AND CREATIVE COLLABORATION IN UPPER SECONDARY SCHOOL

Short presentations (poster) and extended discussion ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 14:30-15:30 Room T11 Chair: Costa, Ana Luísa
This poster presents an overview of a project with focus on developing and studying innovative language-strengthening teaching pedagogies in a Swedish context in Finland. The national curriculum for upper secondary school highlights that an increasing part of the education should be collaborative, creative and aesthetic (Finnish National Agency for Education 2014).

In the project, two Swedish speaking upper secondary schools collaborated on different levels. One of the schools is located in a bilingual environment, whereas the other is located in a Finnish language environment. With a distance of 200 km between the schools, two classes collaborated on writing and producing a musical. Prior to the writing of the musical, the students engaged in reading contemporary literature texts on migration, which contributed with a foundation for the writing processes. The literary reading was planned and completed in collaboration among four teachers in the two schools. The project offered opportunities for the students to develop their literacy practices through language-strengthening, communicative and aesthetic learning processes. Drawing on sociocultural theory (Kostouli 2009) and applying principles of action research (Kemmis et al. 2009), the aim of the project was to develop practices in order to strengthen the Swedish language in the school situated in the Finnish language environment.

Several researchers with their respective research interests are involved in this musical project. The researchers study trust in leading aesthetic learning processes, collaborative writing, meaning-making in musical dance, literary teaching, and language-strengthening writing pedagogies.

In total, 35 students and 4 teachers participated in the project. The data consist of audio, video and screen recordings, focus group interviews, empathy based stories, photos, students texts (manuscript) and researchers’ notes. The project started in December 2017, and the collaborative musical Condemned premiered in November 2018.

In conclusion, this poster will elaborate on the respective research interests within the project by presenting individual studies and preliminary results. We discuss how the project goes beyond, crosses or perhaps erases linguistic, geographical and subject-specific boundaries.


References:

Finnish National Agency of Education (2014): National Core Curriculum for General Upper Secondary School. Helsinki: Finnish National Agency of Education
Kemmis et al. (2009). Action Research as a Practice-Based Practice. Educational Action
Research. 2009, Vol.17(3), p.463-474
Kostouli, T. (2009): A Sociocultural Framework: Writing As Social Practice. Beard, R.,
Myhill, D., Riley, J. & Nystrand, M. The SAGE Handbook of Writing Development.
pp 98- 116.London: Sage


Ayoe Quist Henkel & Birgitte Stougaard Pedersen & Sarah Mygind (Denmark)
CHILDREN’S MULTISENSORY READING

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 09:30-11:00 Room T15 Chair: Schneuwly, Bernard
In step with the growth of technical media such as mobile phones and tablets, the conditions for literature reading is changing: in a digital age novice and seasoned readers alike are offered oppportunities to change between interfaces of different media (Hayles 2002, Engberg 2014, Drucker 2014) The reader reads, listens, sees, touches or does something with texts which come in the shape of various formats such as paper books, audio books and interactive sites. And the sensorial modes in which reading takes place in this intermedial landscape of texts change the act of reading itself. In the project ”Reading Between Media – Developing and Encouraging Children´s Multisensory Reading in a Digital Age” we investigate the characteristics of this multisensory reading via different interfaces. In our paper we present a pilot study from the project: on the basis of qualitative empirical studies of children’s reading of the same text in three different formats, i.e. audio book, paper book and interactive site, we focus on the implications of the different media experiences for the children’s reading act and reading process.
The project is based on theory on digital literature, interface and performative materiality (i.a. Hayles 2002, Andersen and Pold 2011, Drucker 2014, Engberg 2014); the aim is to examine children’s interaction with the various literary interfaces and their integration of visual, auditive and tactile sense appeal in order to operationalize theory and analysis into concrete strategies and possible actions for reading in a digital age.

Keywords: multisensory reading, interface, literature, text formats

References
Andersen, Christian Ulrik og Søren Pold (2011): Interface Criticism – Aesthetics Beyond Buttons. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press.
Drucker, Johanna (2014): Graphesis. Visual Forms of Knowledge Production. Cambridge. MA: Harvard University Press.
Engberg, Maria (2013): “Performing Apps Touch and Gesture as Aesthetic Experience.” Performance Research 18:5. S. 20-27.
Hayles, N. Katherine (2002): Writing Machines. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.


Lia Hermida & Marta Gràcia (United States)
ORAL LANGUAGE TRAINING WITH THREE TEACHERS OF ECUADOR USING EVALOE-SSD DIGITAL APPLICATION: SELF-ASSESSMENT, MAKE-DECISION AND INTRODUCTION OF CHANGES IN CLASSES

Short presentations (poster) and extended discussion ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 14:30-15:30 Room T15 Chair: Elf, Nikolaj
School is a natural context where the communicative strategies used by teachers when interacting with students are essential for the development of their communicative competence (Mercer, 2010).
The school context is one of the systems that promotes communication skills in children, so that the school, specifically the interactions given in the classroom microsystem, promote the development of linguistic competence. The mediation of the teacher allows the child to use language as a tool to manage their learning. (Acosta, 2005, Bronfenbrenner 1987, Coll, Onrubia, and Mauri, 2008)
Previous research on Decision Support Systems (SSD) shows that the use of this tool allows decisions to be made taking into account different approaches, hence EVALOE-SSD is structured so that the teacher can self-evaluate their teaching practice related to the teaching of communicative and linguistic competences and making decisions to improve this practice. (Bolloju, Khalifa and Turban, 2002, Gràcia, et al., 2015).
The goal of EVALOE-SSD research in Ecuador is to validate the use of this tool, and analyze how this use contributes to the development of students' communicative and linguistic competence. Through action research and the study of cases, the challenge is to know how the use of SSD can contribute to the development of learning environments that encourage communication and linguistic skills. The data collection and analysis follow a mixed methodology (qualitative and quantitative). Participants include 3 Early Education teachers and their student groups. The EVALOE-SSD is a digital system that includes different resources. The main one is a 30-item questionnaire with three response options grouped into five dimensions (instructional design, conversational handling by the teacher, conversational handling by the students, communicative functions and teaching strategies, communicative functions of the students). It includes a description of each dimension and each element. In addition, it incorporates a set of "aids" in various types of support (written text, audio, video, image) that teachers can consult while performing the self-assessment, and when they subsequently have to make decisions about what action or strategy they will undertake and introduce into your next classes. For 7 months, we followed the teachers' weekly use of the tool to self-assess their classes, make decisions and make changes in their classes. During the same period, the researchers made 7 observations in each teacher's classroom with their students and evaluated them with the tool. The experience was used to introduce changes in the tool to improve its usability.
The results highlight that teachers perceive EVALOE-SSD initially, as a complex tool. The more they become familiar, the more they appreciate its usefulness. Considering the social customs and cultural areas changes in the form of teaching and structure of the classes are evidenced. The results also indicate differences among teachers regarding their participation, motivation, knowledge and use of the tool, as well as their self-perception of the degree to which their use has improved their teaching practice and the skills of their students. Keywords Professional development, tool, oral competence, teachers, students.


Keywords
Professional development, tool, oral competence, teachers, students.


Bibliography
• Acosta, V. (2005). Evaluación, intervención e investigación en las dificultades del lenguaje en contextos inclusivos. Revisión, resultados y propuestas. Revista de Logopedia, Foniatría y Audiología.
• Bolloju, N., Khalifa, M., & Turban, E. (2002). Integrating knowledge management into enterprise environments for the next generation decision support. Decision support Systems.
• Bronfenbrenner, U. (1987). La Ecología del Desarrollo Humano. Barcelona: Paidós.
• Coll, C., Onrubia, J., y Mauri, T. (2008). Ayudar a aprender en contextos educativos: el ejercicio de la influencia educativa y el análisis de la enseñanza. Revista de Educación.
• Gràcia, M., Galván, M., Sánchez, M., Vega, F., Vilaseca, R., y Rivero, M. (2015). Valoración de la Enseñanza de la Lengua Oral. Escala EVALOE. Barcelona: GRAO.
• Mercer, N. (2001). Palabras y Mentes. Como usamos el lenguaje para pensar juntos. Barcelona: Paidos.


Jeanette Hoffmann (Italy)
SIDEWALK FLOWERS – PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN TALK, WRITE AND DRAW TO GRAPHICALLY TOLD STORIES

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 15:45-17:15 Room T6 Chair: Uusen, Anne
Key Words: Reader Response, Picture Books, Language Acquisition, Classroom Education, Participation

Abstract

Stories told through images, like those in graphic novels awaken a great fascination, (particularly) in young readers, boys and girls alike. Reading, seeing, and imagining are central to the reception process. Contrary to perspectives of a pragmatically oriented approach of research on ‘reading literacy’, which emanates from the competent reader, this paper will take into account the reception processes and social practices from the perspective of the research on ‘emergent literacy’ (Wieler 2013). Therefore, it will show the children and their individual appropriations of graphically told stories in an open, educational context.

Within the current qualitative empirical study “Narrating in Images and Texts – Graphic Novels in German Lessons” (Hoffmann 2017) different learning groups of mono- and multilingual primary school students read various graphic novels and wordless picture books, for example the wordless graphic story “Sidewalk Flowers” (2015) by Jon Arno Lawson and Sydney Smith. The children were watching a picture-book cinema and at the same time talking about it. The story is told from the perspective of a small girl walking home with her father, picking up sidewalk flowers and seeing the world in her own way.

Against the background of an ethnographic research paradigm, we collected different data types. We videotaped and transcribed the classroom discussion and documented the texts the children wrote and the images they drew afterwards to what became important to them. The wide research questions are: how do children approach the narrative challenges of graphic stories and which linguistic, literary, and aesthetic experiences will be visible in the communicative acquisitions?

In the analysis of methodically selected key incidents (Kroon/Sturm 2007) from the various perception data (discussions, texts, images), we reconstruct by conversation analyses and by searching for traces of patterns the linguistic, literary and aesthetic experiences of the children. In the analyses, it becomes obvious that all of the heterogeneous students can participate in the reception process in a playful way and that they gain experiences concerning signals of fictionality, language games, intermediality, perspectives, colour symbolism etc.

References

Hoffmann (2017): Graphic Novels as an Invitation to Read, See and Imagine. In: Filoteknos. Children’s Literature – Cultural Mediation – Anthropology of Childhood. Vol. 7. Pp. 40-53.

Kroon, Sjaak/Sturm, Jan (2007): International Comparative Case Study Research in Education: Key Incident Analysis and International Triangulation. In: Herrlitz, Wolfgang/Ongstad, Siegmund/van de Ven, Piet-Hein (2007): Research on Mother Tongue Education in a Comparative International Perspective. Theoretical and Methodological Issues. Amsterdam/New York: Rodopi. Pp. 99-118.

Lawson, Jon Arno/Sydney Smith (2015): Sidewalk Flowers. Toronto: Groundwood Books.

Wieler, Petra (2013): Varianten des Literacy-Konzepts und ihre Bedeutung für die Deutschdidaktik. In: Abraham, Ulf/Albrecht Bremerich-Vos/Volker Frederking/Petra Wieler (Eds.) (2013): Deutschdidaktik und Deutschunterricht nach PISA. Neuauflage. Stuttgart: Fillibach bei Klett. Pp. 47-68.


Lieke Holdinga & Tanja Janssen & Gert Rijlaarsdam ()
WRITING FROM SOURCES IN HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY COURSES: TEACHERS’ PRACTICES AND BELIEFS

Short presentations (poster) and extended discussion ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 14:30-15:30 Room T14 Chair: Fontich, Xavier
Writing is daily business for students in secondary education, in all subjects. It is a default practice to assess content knowledge. Writing in the content subjects can also support knowledge construction and enhance learning (Bangert-Drowns, Hurley, & Wilkinson, 2004; Klein, 1999; Klein & Boscolo, 2016), but only if the type of writing task is carefully considered, and instruction and support are available. In such cases, students may write to learn, and incidentally or structurally improve their writing skills. With little extra investment, the writing-learning process in the content areas can contribute to the general writing skills of students, which is now mostly the domain of the language teacher, who must deal with large groups and few hours per class. The call for better writing skills from society and higher education cannot be answered by the language teacher alone: therefore it might be a good investment to revise the writing tasks in the content areas into writing education, taking into account that disciplinary writing requires discipline-specific genre-knowledge (Bazerman, 1991).

The aim of the present study is to gain more insight in the current practice and beliefs of history and philosophy teachers in Dutch secondary education (12th grade), when it comes to domain-specific writing from sources. These insights serve as a starting point for designing and testing series of lessons to develop students’ discipline-specific writing from sources, with support for teachers in how to teach discipline-specific writing.
Data will be collected through stimulated recall interviews with 20 teachers of history and philosophy from different secondary schools in the Netherlands. Main questions are what writing from sources entails in each subject, which writing processes are needed and which didactics and support are currently provided by teachers. These variables might very well differ from subject to subject.
Data collection will take place January-March 2019.

References
Bangert-Drowns, R. L., Hurley, M.M., & Wilkinson, B. (2004). Effects of school-based writing-to-learn interventions of academic achievement: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 74(1), 29-58.
Bazerman, C. (1981). What written knowledge does: Three examples of academic discourse. Philosophy of the Social Sciences, 11, 361-388.
Klein, P.D. (1999). Reopening inquiry into cognitive processes in writing-to-learn. Educational Psychology Review, 11(3), 203-270.
Klein, P.D., & Boscolo, P. (2016). Trends in research on writing as a learning activity. Journal of Writing Research, 7(3), 311-350.


Elena Ioannidou & Elisavet Kiourti (Cyprus)
“WRITE, MATE! SPELLING DOES NOT COUNT”: DEVELOPING A SOCIAL LITERACY PROGRAM FOR L1 IN THE PRISON SCHOOL IN CYPRUS

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 11:30-13:00 Room T16 Chair: Hansen, Jens Jørgen
The current paper explores the design and implementation of a Social Literacy Program (SLP) among inmates in the central prison in Cyprus for a period of eighteen months. The program was based on the philosophy of literacy as a social practice (Street 1995) and it aimed to opt away from skill-based, autonomous and corrective models of literacy education that are widespread in prison education. The Social Literacy Program was theoretically informed by critical literacy (Comber et al 2006), multimodality, social semiotics (Halliday 1978), genre awareness (Martin 2006) and non-formal education. The rationale was to offer to the inmates an alternative approach to texts, language and literacy in order to engage them with social themes and create a space where they could voice their representations about the world.

The current paper describes the design of the SLP, its philosophy and rationale; it also portrays instances and episodes from the implementation process in order to shed some light on the way the students-inmates reacted and positioned themselves towards the literacy program, focusing on specific case studies.

The methodology was structured in two phases. The first phase included the design of the programme, the development of materials, the selection of texts and genres and the shaping of individualised and collective classroom tasks. The second phase covered the implementation process in which rich ethnographic data was collected: participant observations of literacy classes, texts-artefacts produced by the students–prisoners and the teacher–researchers’ reflective diaries.


The main findings indicate that the inmates were very responsive to this type of literacy education since it provided them space to reflect on their own experience, freedom to express themselves and produce texts, away from corrective educational models. This type of literacy formed a platform for representation, enactment and in some aspects empowerment. Finally, it was appropriate for inmates of varied educational and social background.

References
Comber, B., H. Nixon et al 2006. “Urban Renewal From the Inside Out: Spatial and
Critical Literacies in a Low Socioeconomic School Community”. Mind, Culture and Activity 13 (3): 228-246.
Halliday, M. A. K. 1978. Language as a Social Semiotic. London: Edward Arnold.
Martin, J. R. 2006. “Metadiscourse: Designing Interaction in Genre-based Literacy
Programs.” In Language and Literacy: Functional Approaches, edited by R. Whittaker, M. O’Donnell, and A. McCabe, 95–122. London: Continuum.
Street, B. V. 1995. Social Literacies: Critical Approaches to Literacy in Development,
Ethnography, and Education. London: Longman.


Julie Marie Isager (Denmark)
STUDENTS’ PREPARATORY PROCESSES AND CONCEPTIONS OF ORAL EXAMS IN UPPER-SECONDARY DANISH HIGH SCHOOLS

Pre-conference ARLE 2019 Tuesday, 16:30-18:00 Room T11 Chair: Awramiuk, Elżbieta
Discussants: Awramiuk (); Rijlaarsdam (Netherlands (the))
Short presentations (poster) and extended discussion ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 14:30-15:30 Room T14 Chair: Fontich, Xavier
Introduction
The presentation is an in-progress part of a ph.d. project - an ethnographically inspired exploratory investigation of students' preparatory processes, their expectations and conceptions of high stakes oral exams in their final year of study in the Danish general upper secondary school advanced level - gymnasium. Theoretical inspiration spring from the tradition of rhetoric.
In May the Danish ministry will decide which two or three disciplines each student is to attend shortly before the exam season in June. Oral exam formats differ depending on the school subject, but usually students present and discuss with examiners for 20 minutes.

Research questions: How do students perceive the oral exam situation and its criteria? How do students act to be prepared and how do they explain these actions? Which materials and interactions inspire the perceived criteria and preparatory processes?

Methods & Data: In my fieldwork I followed four case-students age 18-20 in three classrooms in two schools for five months in the spring semester 2018 preparing for their oral exams. The four students attended a total of 10 disciplines taught by 18 teachers. Materials are fieldnotes, audio-recorded observations of teaching, observation of oral exams, interviews (with 15 students), students’ notebooks, social media-interactions between students ect.

Analysis will focus on two case-students’ trails in preparing for the exam to illustrate details, timing and social contexts for their understandings of the criteria and actions. Theoretical interests (for now) are concepts of rhetorical invention and construction of universal audiences.

Tentative results and significance: At the present analytical stage, it seems that written notes play a particularly important part in students’ preparatory processes. Written notes are organized, consulted, produced, evaluated, and shared. Students analyze the situational features of the oral assessment situation in painstaking detail. The ethnographically inspired study amongst students will (hopefully) be able to illuminate students’ perceptions on a very sensitive topic that would be hard for an insider to gain access to because of the complicated social dynamics in classrooms and assessment regimes.

Key words: Oral exam, case study, rhetoric, invention, students’ perspective

References

Huxham, M., Campbell, F., & Westwood, J. (2012). Oral versus written assessments: A test of student performance and attitudes. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 37(1), 125–136. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02602938.2010.515012
Joughin, G. R. (2003). Oral assessment from the learner’s perspective: The experience of oral assessment in post -compulsory education (Ph.D.). Griffith University (Australia), Australia. Hentet fra http://search.proquest.com/docview/305268419/abstract/9FE883360C4A4F09PQ/1
Kvifte, B. H. (2011). Muntlig eksamen sett fra studentperspektiv: en undersøkelse blant lærerstudenter ved Høgskolen i Østfold. Hentet fra https://brage.bibsys.no/xmlui/handle/11250/147658
Rai, C., & Druschke, C. G. (Red.). (2018). Field rhetoric: ethnography, ecology, and engagement in the places of persuasion. Tuscaloosa: The University of Alabama Press.


Dieter Isler & Claudia Hefti & Anke Börsel & Anne-Grete Kaldahl (Switzerland)
TEACHER´S TALK IN DIFFERENT GRADES AND ACROSS SUBJECTS

Symposium ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 11:30-13:00 Room T6
Oracy preserves more attention again. Resultantly teacher´s questions and teacher´s language is required in various disciplines. IRE-schemas are known as advises for teaching (Mehan 1979). Furthermore, these schemas can be used and developed by researchers. Oracy as a non-permanent language skill can be conserved via audio- and videotapes. That enables researchers to find answers not only about time on task, but also enables discourses between teachers and the plenum or single students. They can detect influences of oral language on development of content in subjects or speaking behaviour in special learning groups too. Teachers capture the role of a speaking model (Kleinschmidt 2016).
We would therefore like to discuss which contributions perfectly fit into the oral language education within a variety of subjects and ages. Resultantly, our symposium presents three distinct papers in order to display an overview of the language use in oracy from primary until secondary school students.
Firstly, Dieter Isler and Claudia Hefti will present an intervention study in a pre- post-design in kindergarden classes. The intervention supports teachers to promote the production of oral texts in everyday life communication. Consequently, the teachers preserved individual video-based coaching instructions and a coursework, that has been invented for a small group. The presenters would like to focus on the new instrument to measure teachers' interactive support.
The second paper of Anke Börsel about effective teacher´s talk is based on hypothesis of interactional language acquisition. In her explorative video-study she is researching language awareness of teacher´s talk in secondary school classes. She attempts to investigate a variety of specific micro-scaffolding and feedback skills in language sensitive frames.
Anne-Grete Kaldahl discusses an integration of oracy in the Norwegian school reform. Teachers have to teach oracy across the curriculum. She presents a rhetoric topos analyse of interviews with nine tenth-grade teachers. Her expected complex oracy construct obtains subject characteristics and features across various disciplines.

A picture from theory into practice, from hypothesis building to hypothesis proofing using quantitative to qualitative methods is necessary to restart the view on oracy in school´s teaching talk and its rhetorical use at school.

references:
Kleinschmidt, Katrin (2016). Sprachliches Lehrerhandeln als Bestandteil der professionellen Kompetenz von Lehrerinnen und Lehrern – Konturen eines wenig beachteten Forschungsfeldes. In Leseräume. Zeitschrift für Literalität in Schule und Forschung (3), 98-114.
Mehan, Hugh (1979). Learning lessons. Social organitation in the classroom. Cambridge/London: Harward press.
Skinner, Barbara (2017). Effective teacher talk: a threshold concept in TESOL. In English Language Teaching Journal 71 (2), 150–159.


Anna Janus-Sitarz (Poland)
HOW TO TALK IN THE CLASSROOM ABOUT POLITICALLY INCORRECT LITERARY MASTERPIECES?

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 11:30-13:00 Room T14 Chair: Araújo, Teresa
The changes to the National Curriculum, implemented in Poland in 2017, afresh provoked the debate on the status of literature in schools as part of a grand national narrative (Goodwyn, 2012). The list of old literary works to be read obligatory by students as the ‘cultural heritage’ gives no place for Polish teachers to choose all kinds of literature, from many cultures. Furthermore, the new school reading canon underlines the role of books that perpetuate harmful stereotypes and omits the new literature which presents different perspectives on migration or the acceptance of otherness.
The crucial question for the Polish researchers is: Should the works of Nobel laureate, Henryk Sienkiewicz and other outstanding writers, presenting racism or antisemitism, be still read in schools, especially during the rise of nationalist rhetoric? The main challenge for the L1 teachers is: How to talk in the classroom about politically incorrect masterpieces?
Trying to answer these questions I will refer to the works of Rorty (2000) or Booth (1988) who have already described the problem of educational responsibility for introducing works evoking moral doubts. I will discuss the opportunities of implementing some of their conclusions in teaching and teacher education. Based on the analysis of instructions regarding Sienkiewicz in eight most commonly used primary and secondary -level textbooks and the scenarios prepared by two groups of pre-service teachers I will present the possibilities and doubts related to the introduction of controversial works to the school curriculum.
The results show that most text-books underline contribution of Sienkiewicz to cultural heritage and offer a wide range of activities around his books. However they ignore such controversial aspects of novels as intolerance to a different religion or national diversity. I will also present the essential differences between the projects of the group of students who prepared their scenarios on Sienkiewicz after discussing the contemporary literature with a small immigrant as a hero and the second group that did projects without such introduction. It turns out that the earlier reading of literature developing empathy has an impact on the understanding of the need for critical reading of politically incorrect masterpieces.

Goodwyn A., (2012) The Status of Literature: English Teaching and the Condition of Literature Teaching in Schools, in English in Education 46(3). 
Booth W.C., (1988) The Company We Keep. An Ethics of Fiction, Berkeley.
Rorty R., (2002) Philosophy and Social Hope, Penguin, New York.

Literature teaching, literary reading, National curriculum


Maritha Johansson & Anna Nordenstam (Sweden)
READING CHALLENGING LITERARY TEXTS IN SCHOOL AN INTERVIEW STUDY WITH SWEDISH TEACHERS AT THE INTERNATIONAL BACCALAUREATE PROGRAM

Paper session ARLE 2019 Friday, 11:00-12:30 Room T12 Chair: Pereira, Iris Susana
Keywords: literature, challenging texts, reading, literature teaching, International Baccalaureate Program

Former research has shown that Swedish upper secondary school pupils have difficulties reading and understanding more complex literary texts (Johansson 2015). Recent studies within the L1-field indicates that reading challenging texts can lead to increased motivation (Blok Johansen 2015; Sønneland & Skaftun 2017) and deeper understanding of literary texts (Guthrie & Lutz Klauda 2015; Johansson 2017; Skaftun & Michelsen 2017).

The aim of this study is to investigate how teachers describe their work with challenging texts. To be able to do so, the study focuses on a context where reading of literary texts is in the centre of interest, where literature studies are important and where the teachers are forced, by regulations, to choose certain literary texts, namely the International Baccalaureate Program. The study tries to understand what factors are the most important to motivate pupils and make them work with challenging literary texts.

The study has a qualitative design and uses a semi structured interview method. 12 Swedish teachers have participated in the interviews, performed by the researchers. The interviews have been transcribed and analysed through a thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke 2008). The teachers were asked to develop their view on teaching literature at the IB-program, i.e. its’ advantages and inconvenients, their text choices, their teaching methods and the final exams.

The theoretical framework for the study is Bruners (1986) notions of syntagmatic (linear) and paradigmatic (non-linear) thinking. Syntagmatic thinking in literature reading is linked to identification and empathy, while paradigmatic thinking activates analytic and scientific aspects.

The results show that all of the teachers enjoy teaching literature at the IB-program, mostly because of the possibility to work with challenging texts. They also say that, even though not all of their students are readers when they start, they develop an interest in reading and a deeper understanding of literary texts, which is explained both by close reading and reader response perspectives on literary texts. In this way, both syntagmatic and paradigmatic thinking are activated in the classroom. The final exams are also described as important, both for the mixed methods used in the classroom and for the students work with the texts. The key to success when working with challenging texts seems to be related to time; the time to help students develop a deeper understanding of the texts, and the necessity of re-reading.

References

Blok Johansen, Martin (2015). ”Jeg har forstået den sådan, at den ikke skal forstås” – når 6.A. læser Franz Kafka”, Acta Didactica vol. 9 no. 1 2015 https://journals.uio.no/index.php/ adno/article/viewFile/1391/1321
Braun, Victoria & Clarke Victoria (2008). ”Using thematic analysis in psychology” Qualitative Research in Psychology 3:2, s. 77-101.
Bruner, Jerome (1986). Actual minds, possible words. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Guthrie, John T. & Lutz Klauda, Susan (2014). ”Effects of Classroom Practices on Reading Comprehension, Engagement and Motivations for Adolescents”. Reading Research Quarterly, 49 (4), s. 387-416.
Johansson, Maritha (2015). Läsa, förstå, analysera. En komparativ studie om svenska och franska gymnasieelevers reception av en narrativ text. Linköping: Linköpings Universitet.
Johansson, Maritha (2017). ”En litteraturundervisning som utmanar”. In Berg Nestlogh & Larsson (red.). Svenska – ett kritiskt ämne. Svensklärarföreningens årsskrift 2016
Skaftun, Atle & Michelsen, Per Arne (2017). Litteraturdidaktikk. Oslo: Cappelen Damm Akademisk.
Sønneland, Margrethe & Skaftun, Atle (2017). ”Teksten som problem i 8A: Affinitet och tiltrekningskraft i samtaler om « Brønnen »”. Acta Didactica Norge, vol. 11, nr 2, s. 1-20.


Sofia Jusslin & Heidi Höglund (Finland)
POETRY TEACHING THROUGH DANCE AND VISUAL TEACHING PEDAGOGIES: A SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW

Paper session ARLE 2019 Friday, 11:00-12:30 Room T14 Chair: Araújo, Teresa
Recently, the teaching of poetry using aesthetic methods has increased in the literature classroom (see Kleppe & Sorby, 2018). As an art form, poetry creates and challenges intellectual, emotional and aesthetic experiences, which is closely related to experiences gained in dance and visual arts. Still, there exists no systematic overview of the research conducted on poetry teaching through dance and visual methods. To bridge this gap, this paper presents a systematic literature review of research on poetry teaching that uses dance and visual teaching pedagogies. In the systematic literature review (Bajares, Forsberg & Wengström, 2013), we turn our interest both towards the teaching of poetry reading and poetry writing to gain a comprehensive overview of poetry teaching situated in primary and secondary educational settings. The study is limited to peer-reviewed articles written in English published between 2000 and 2018. The research questions guiding this paper are: (1) What arguments are raised for using dance and visual teaching pedagogies in poetry teaching? (2) What research designs are used to study dance and visual teaching pedagogies in poetry teaching? (3) What findings and implications are presented for poetry teaching using dance and visual teaching pedagogies? In this paper presentation, we present our findings, identify research gaps and discuss possibilities for further research, in order to add to the body of knowledge of poetry pedagogy.

Keywords: poetry teaching; dance; visual arts; literary education; systematic literature review;

References

Bajares, K. E., Forsberg, C., & Wengstöm, Y. (2013). Systematiska litteraturstudier i utbildningsvetenskap: vägledning vid examensarbeten och vetenskapliga artiklar [Systematic literature reviews in educational sciences: guidance in theses and scientific articles]. Stockholm: Natur & Kulur.
Kleppe, S. L., & Sorby, A. (eds.) (2018). Poetry and pedagogy across the lifespan. Disciplines, classrooms and contexts. London: Palgrave Macmillan.


Kristine Kabel & Jesper Bremholm & Thorkild Hanghøj (Denmark)
UNDERSTANDING GAME DESIGN ACTIVITIES AS LITERACY PRACTICES IN A SCHOOL CONTEXT: OUTLINE FOR A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

Paper session ARLE 2019 Friday, 14:00-15:30 Room T11 Chair: Coppen, Peter-Arno JM

In this paper, we propose to present a theoretical framework for understanding and describing literacy practices in classrooms that have adopted a game design pedagogy. This framework is developed as part of the qualitative strand of the research project Game-Based Learning in the 21st Century (GBL21), a five years large-scale intervention project launched in December 2017. The overall aim is to explore how and to what degree students develop 21st century skills through a game design pedagogy in different school subjects. In this paper, we focus in particular on data from the L1 classroom in lower secondary.

The GBL21 project is based on a mixed methods methodology, and the interventions will be carried out at 20 schools in Denmark and will consist of 4 specially designed game-based units in each of the subjects Danish (as L1), mathematics, and science in both 5th and 7th grade. Games include digital as well as analogue games, and we understand game design pedagogy as relating to the process of designing games, exploring game worlds, and reflecting on game activities in an educational context.

The research question addressed in the qualitative strand is: How to describe and understand the students’ domain-specific literacy practices in relation to idea generation and modelling of game designs? This question is explored with a focused ethnographic methodology (Knoblauch, 2005).

In this paper, we present the current theoretical framework for studying students’ domain-specific literacy practices. The framework is exemplified with data from a recent pilot study in lower secondary Danish L1 (age 13-14) consisting of classroom observations (12 lessons), collected student assignments, and interviews with participating teachers (2) and students (6). The theoretical framework is informed by the 3D model of literacy (Green & Beavis, 2012), social semiotic notions of multi-literacies (New London Group, 1996) as well as the scenario-based domain model (Hanghøj et al., 2018).

References
Green, B. & Beavis, C (2012). Literacy in 3D: An integrated perspective in theory and practice. Camberwill: ACER Press.

Hanghøj, T., Misfeldt, M., Bundsgaard, J. & Fougt, S. S. (2018). Unpacking the Domains and Practices of Game-Oriented Learning. In: Arnseth, H. C., Hanghøj, T., Misfeldt, M., Henriksen, T. D., Selander, S. & Ramberg, R. (Eds.). Games and Education: Designs in and for Learning. New York: Sense Publishers, 47-64.

Knoblauch, H. (2005). Focused ethnography. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung, 6(3). doi: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004

The New London Group. (1996). A Pedagogy of Multiliteracies: Designing Social Futures. Harvard Educational Review, 66(1), 60-93. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.17763/haer.66.1.17370n67v22j160u


Sotiria Kalasaridou (Greece)
TEACHING HOLOCAUST IN LITERATURE CLASSES IN GREECE: TEACHING APPROACHES AND STUDENT RESPONSES

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 09:30-11:00 Room T14 Chair: Araujo, Luis
My key idea highlights, for the first time in research about Greek secondary education, the relation between the teaching of the Holocaust in literature classes and the responses of the students.
The research is based on both the theoretical framework of the Pedagogy of Trauma and Critical Media Literacy Pedagogy as well as the results and findings of empirical researches which are related to the teaching of the Holocaust in a global context. The research project focuses on the meaning and power of personal story in teaching of the Holocaust in literature classes through the simultaneous use of images. The material to be taught in classes put the students in touch with as many writing genres as possible that represent the Holocaust. The qualitative research was conducted by using ethnography method and more specifically the participant observation. The study focuses on 32 recorded literature lessons. The data is transcribed and coded with MAXQDA using the qualitative content analysis. Individual sequences are selected and analysed by using discourse analysis focus on subject learning.
The main results of the students’ responses concern: a. Τhe interpretation of central aspects and the decoding of neuralgic symbols in respect of the Holocaust. b. The way in which the texts bring controversial issues regarding Holocaust into conversation in the classroom. c. The definition of the meaning of “Auschwitz” in a universal and cultural framework. d. The development of arguments in the classroom about controversial issues regarding the representation of the Holocaust. e. Students' familiarising of the simultaneous use of the written and visual texts in Holocaust teaching.


Teaching Holocaust; Pedagogy of Trauma; Qualitative research

Caruth, C. (1996). Unclaimed Experience: Trauma, Narrative, and History. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Critchell, K. & Sharples, C. (2015). Holocaust Education: Teaching Approaches and Student Responses. Centre for German – Jewish Studies & University of Sussex.
Eckmann, M., Stevick, D. & Ambrosewicz – Jacobs, J. (Eds.) (2017). Research in Teaching and Learning about the Holocaust: A dialogue beyond the borders. International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance. Berlin: Metropol Verlag + IHRA.
Pieper, I & Bredel, U. (2015). Integrative Deutschdidaktik. Paderborn: Ferdinand Schöningh.


Agnieszka Kania (Poland)
(MIS)UNDERSTANDING HOLOCAUST LITERATURE. RECEPTION OF TADEUSZ BOROWSKI AND PRIMO LEVI BY POLISH AND ISRAELI READERS.

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 09:30-11:00 Room T14 Chair: Araujo, Luis
Key words: Holocaust literature, context in understanding, fact and fiction literature

The participants of the project were college students of English Studies from Israel (50 people) and university students of Polish Studies from Poland (30 people). They would all educate about the Holocaust in the future. The two groups communicated in English by exchanging e-mails with essays written on various topics.

One of their tasks was to express comments on two narratives concerning the reality of the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp:
- “This Way for the Gas, Ladies and Gentlemen” by Tadeusz Borowski (Polish). The short story, blending fact and fiction, is based on the author’s experience as a political prisoner of Auschwitz and resembles a part of a memoir.
- “If Tis Is a Man” by Primo Levi (Italian Jewish). The memoir describes the author’s stay in Auschwitz.

The objective of this activity was to compare participants’ reception of the same literary texts. While all participants had no problem understanding Levi’s memoir, Borowski’s story appeared far more difficult to comprehend for the first Israeli group as its context hadn’t been introduced beforehand. When that group presented their essays it became clear that they had completely misunderstood the story. They accused the author-like narrator of anti-Semitism and perceived him part of the Nazi regime. The explanation of the author’s technique, offered afterwards, helped to calm their emotions and change initial interpretation.

What could be the cause of that process? Borowski’s works depicting dehumanization (Glasner-Heled, 2007) are very complex. It is a standard practice in Poland to introduce the author’s exceptional writing style and to discuss human condition in the time of death and humiliation. Explaining Borowski’s philosophy of literature and presenting him as a compassionate man prevents possible false and unfair conclusions This approach was not adopted in the case of Israeli group one which provoked heated discussion about Polish-Jewish relationships in the camp. The other Israeli groups, given the background before reading, expressed sympathy to all the prisoners and discussion about the moral condition of humankind was raised.

The case clearly demonstrates the importance of teacher’s knowledge and necessity to introduce the proper context of Holocaust literature (Lindquist, 2008; Shawn & Goldfrad 2008).


Lindquist, D. H. (2008). Informed COMMENTARY: Five Perspectives for Teaching the Holocaust. American Secondary Education Vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 4-14.
Glasner-Heled, G. (2007). Reader, Writer, and Holocaust Literature: The Case of Ka-Tzetnik. Israel Studies Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 109-133.
Shawn, K. Goldfrad, K. Ed. (2008) The Call of Memory: Learning About the Holocaust Through Narrative. A Teacher’s Guide. Teaneck: Ben Yehuda Press.


Merja Kauppinen (Finland)
RENEWING THE EVALUATION OF LEARNING OUTCOMES IN FINNISH/SWEDISH AS NATIONAL L1S AND LITERATURE – HOW AND FOR WHAT PURPOSE?

Paper session ARLE 2019 Friday, 11:00-12:30 Room T12 Chair: Pereira, Iris Susana
As there are no national evaluations in the Finnish basic education, it is the Finnish Education Evaluation Centre who collects sample-based information about learning outcomes in different school subjects. The attainments of the most important content areas of mother tongue and literature are assessed every 4th year. The core aim is to ensure educational equity, which concerns especially reading and writing literacy skills. Further the quality of language and literature teaching, and producing knowledge for developing teaching and decision-making on regional and school level are important aims.
The line of comprehensive and developing evaluation has been strengthened lately (cf. Lundgren 2009). For the first time, the evaluation in mother tongue and literature is administered digitally in the spring of 2019, which means new possibilities but also problems to solve. In this paper, the aims and contents of the evaluation are discussed from the point of view of the learning objectives set in the national core curriculum (2014), and the digitalization process of evaluation. The research questions are 1) to what extend can the objectives of mother tongue and literature be assessed by means of a digitally administered test, and 2) what is the added value of the digital system for the evaluation of learning outcomes in mother tongue and literature? The data consists of the documentations of planning and implementing the evaluation process, that are analyzed by means of an evaluation research method (Check & Schutt, 2012). Several critical issues, which have been observed during the analysis will discussed in this paper.
The assessment criteria for each content area (acting in interactive situations, interpreting and producing texts, and understanding language, literature and culture) are stated in the national core curriculum in relation to the teaching objectives (National Core Curriculum 2014). To implement the evaluation of the subject, the objectives had to be modified according to the aims of learning. Further, only part of the objectives could be assessed by means of the digital system. This is a shortcoming as the aim of the evaluation is to measure extensively the achievement of the students at the final phase of the compulsory education.

Keywords: evaluation, learning outcomes, mother tongue and literature

References

National Core Curriculum for Basic Education 2014. Helsinki: Finnish National Board of Education.
Check, J. & Schutt, R. K. 2012. Evaluation Research. In J. Check & R. K. Schutt (eds.) Research Methods in Education. SAGE.
Lundgren, U. P. 2009. Evaluation and Educational Policymaking. In International Handbook of Educational Evaluation. SAGE.



Souhaila Khamlichi & Yamina El Kirat El Allame (Morocco)
THE MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION IN MOROCCO BETWEEN THE OFFICIAL DISCOURSE AND THE CLASSROOM PRACTICES

Morocco is a multilingual society where different languages are in use. In addition to the two mother tongues, namely Amazigh and Darija, Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) is the official language of the country and the language of instruction according to the Moroccan constitution. French, the colonial language still holds a very prestigious and dominant position and stands as the language of instruction of science in higher education. Recently, Morocco has shifted to the use of French as the language of instruction of science starting from primary school.
Last September, a heated debate was launched in Morocco after the introduction of few Darija words in some textbooks. The public was very critical of the fact and considered Darija to be a corrupt form of Arabic, which is not fit for education.

The aim of this study is to investigate the language of instruction and the classroom practices in order to reveal to what extent the Moroccan Constitution is respected. The study is based on exhaustive fieldwork research relying on class observation, interviews and surveys. The main hypothesis underlying the study stipulates that the public higher education’s linguistic practices do not reflect the Moroccan educational language policy. The study addresses and tries to answer three main research questions, namely:
1. What is the language of instruction at the university level?
2. Why is this language used?
3. What are the teachers and students’ attitudes towards the use of Darija in class?

The answers to these questions will reveal the classroom practices.

Keywords: L1; Language policy; Multilingualism; Higher educational system; Language of instruction.


Elisavet Kiourti (Cyprus)
“SHUT THE FUCK UP AND PLANT THE BOMB FAST”:RECONSTRUCTING LANGUAGE AND IDENTITY IN FIRST PERSON SHOOTER GAMES

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 15:45-17:15 Room T11 Chair: Bulfin, Scott
Video games are often associated with increased aggression and delinquent behavior of the players claiming “consistent relation between violent video game use increases in aggressive behavior, aggressive cognitions, aggressive affect, and decreases in prosocial behavior, empathy and sensitivity to aggression” (American Psychological Association 2015:11). Research across disciplines, though, indicates that gaming contexts are far more complex and demanding environments than publicly assumed: Video games are rich contexts for learning. Talk-in-interaction in video games is a highly performative event where those who take part are ascribed specific roles and participation membership; they follow certain rituals and rules and they embed contextual knowledge and literacy practices.

Drawing on the framework of Sociolinguistics (Fairclough 2001), Theory of Politeness (Allan and Burridge 2006), Unified Discourse Analysis (Gee 2015) and Frame Analysis (Goffman 1974), the current paper follows a line of ethnographic lense that focuses on a multimodal analysis of the linguistic strategies of swearing and bad language performed by four youth Cypriot gamers during gameplay of Counter Strike: Global Offensive (CS:GO).

The data of the research reveal that video games function as frame social spaces in which swearing and bad language practices have effective purposes. More specifically, players use swearing as a linguistic strategy with an aim to prevent individual or team-based performative face-loss when communicative violations occur during gameplay. Secondly, the use of swearing and expletives functions as linguistic strategy to cool stress and to ensure in-group bonding. Finally, players use swearing and expletives as fast language mechanisms to provide feedback to their co-players when they employ low performative actions during gameplay. Players, in other words, break the rules of politeness for the sake of effective gameplay and to protect and maintain their positive identity as gamers.

References:

Allan, K. and K. Burridge (2006), Forbidden words: taboo and the censoring of language.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

American Psychological Association (2015), APA Review Confirms Link Between Playing
Violent Video Games and Aggression [online]. Available from: http://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/2015/08/violent-video-games.aspx (Accessed 12 June 2018).

Fairclough, N. (2001), Language and power, Harlow, Eng.: Longman.

Gee, J. P. (2015), Unified discourse analysis: language, reality, virtual worlds, and video
Games, London: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.

Goffman, E. (1974), Frame Analysis: an essay on the organization of experience,
Cambridge:Harvard University Press.


Christiane Kirmse & Anna Seeber & Florian Hesse (Germany)
BELIEFS IN READING AUTOBIOGRAPHIES OF GERMAN L1 TEACHER STUDENTS.

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 11:30-13:00 Room T15 Chair: Faulkner, Julie
The project LeBiS (German acronym for ‘reading autobiographies of pre-service teacher students’) investigates teacher students’ beliefs about the importance of reading. It is consistent with a recent study by Mayer (2017) who argues that past research did not sufficiently pay attention to this domain, but predominantly focusses on the literary socialization of children and adolescents (Groeben/Hurrelmann 2004).

An investigation of beliefs is considered to be relevant for two different reasons. First, they influence the reading practises of teacher students in terms of the reading choices they make, the number of texts they read, and the reflection of compulsory readings in university courses. That might determine their future reading and teaching practices and, therefore, is probably connected to learners’ reading behaviour. This hypothesis corresponds to the function of beliefs as filters, frames or guides that is frequently mentioned in the literature (Fives/Buehl 2012). Second, knowledge about teacher students’ beliefs is also relevant for the design of curricula at university. The major question is, then, how texts in seminars attach to students’ knowledge, motivation, and needs for their development as professional readers.

LeBiS is designed as an exploratory project that does not seek to test these relations, but which focusses on describing and reconstructing implicit beliefs of pre-service teacher students. To this end, N = 83 students at the beginning of their studies were asked to write reading autobiographies (Graf 2007). Reading autobiographies are short essays in which students reflect on the importance of reading in their lives. The advantage of reading autobiographies is that students can freely select and elaborate on topics they consider to be relevant. In order to reconstruct beliefs in the data, a qualitative data analysis has been applied. In-depth analyses concerning teacher students’ beliefs on their current and future reading practices will be presented.

Keywords: beliefs; teacher students; L1 teaching; reading autobiographies; qualitative data analysis

Fives, H., & Buehl, M. M. (2012). Spring cleaning for the “messy” construct of teachers’ beliefs: What are they? Which have been examined? What can they tell us? In K. R. Harris, S. Graham, T. Urdan, S. Graham, J. M. Royer, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), APA handbooks in psychology. APA educational psychology handbook, Vol. 2. Individual differences and cultural and contextual factors (pp. 471-499). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.

Graf, W. (2007). Lesegenese in Kindheit und Jugend. Einführung in die literarische Sozialisation. Baltmannsweiler: Schneider Verlag Hohengehren.

Groeben, N., Hurrelmann, B. (Eds.)(2004). Lesesozialisation in der Mediengesellschaft. Ein Forschungsüberblick. Weinheim: Juventa.

Mayer, J. (2017). Wege literarischen Lernens. Eine qualitativ-empirische Studie zu literarischen Erfahrungen und literarischem Lernen von Studierenden in literarischen Gesprächen. Baltmannsweiler: Schneider Verlag Hohengehren.


Christiane Kirmse (Germany)
RESEARCH ON EXPERTS’ AND NOVICES’ LITERARY READING PROCESSES. TEACHERS’ AND STUDENTS’ STRATEGIES OF DEALING WITH POINT OF VIEW.

Paper session ARLE 2019 Thursday, 11:00-12:30 Room T12 Chair: Doecke, Brenton
A main goal of teachers of German Language (L1) is to develop literary competence. One central issue for understanding narrative texts is dealing with point of view. In the special case of literary texts, mental models of readers depend on the narrators and the characters point of view. So, the question is how readers in school bring together individual perspectives with narrators and characters perspectives. This paper presents how teachers, as experts of literature in school, and 14- to 16-year-old school students deal with point of view in literary texts with internal focalization.

We know from studies of ANDRINGA (1996) that students had problems with understanding point of view. Thinking aloud transcripts of STARK also showed problems of ninth-grade-students with narrative texts when it is not clear who is speaking (STARK 2012).

Teachers should be able to guide the reading processes of their students. However, we do not know how teachers, as experts of literature in school, deal with point of view. Moreover, existing studies investigate only the reading processes of the students. This study focusses on students and teachers.

The concept of “Perspective structure”, which is used in English studies, offers a good theo-retical grounding for research on point of view (NÜNNING 2001). Internal focalization means that the perception of the fictional world is clear linked to a narrator, looking and speaking through the eyes of a character (GENETTE 1988). That’s typical for short stories in school. This qualitive study relies on approximately equal age student groups like the research of STARK. In contrast to other studies, I am using not one but two narrative German short stories. So, I can explain observations on text characteristics.

The texts were presented to the teachers of German language (N=12) and to the ninth- and tenth-grade-students (N=12). They thought aloud while and after reading. The individual in-terviews (N=24; Duration: 60-90 minutes) were evaluated with the help of methods of quali-tative content analysis. The idea is to describe types of dealing with point of view.

Keywords: literary understanding, point of view, internal focalization, think aloud method, qualitative analysis

Literature:
ANDRINGA, Els (1996): Effects of 'narrative distance' on readers' emotional involvement and response. In: Poetics 23, pp. 431–452.
GENETTE, Gérard ([1983] 1988): Narrative Discourse Revisited. Ithaca: Cornell UP.
NÜNNING, Ansgar (2001): "On the Perspective Structure of Narrative Texts." W. van Peer & S. Chatman (eds.). New Perspectives on Narrative Perspective. Albany: SUNY, pp. 207-223.
STARK, Tobias (2012): Zum Perspektivverstehen beim Verstehen literarischer Texte: Ausge-wählte Ergebnisse einer qualitativen Untersuchung. In: I. PIEPER und D. WIESER (eds.). Fachliches Wissen und literarisches Verstehen. Studien zu einer brisanten Relation. Frankfurt a. M./ Bern: P. Lang, pp. 153-169.


Martin Klimovič & Iveta Kovalčíková (Slovakia)
WHAT SLOW AND/OR INNACURATE READERS REPORT ON HOW THEY LEARN FROM TEXT

Paper session ARLE 2019 Friday, 14:00-15:30 Room T14 Chair: Lobo, Maria
Fast and accurate decoding of words during reading is a prerequisite for efficient text comprehension (Perfetti, 1985; Stanovich, 1991). Attention acts as a regulatory mechanism in processing text information. While poor readers switch their attention between decoding words and comprehending text, proficient readers are able to decode words automatically, so their attention is focused more on making meaning of the text (LaBerge & Samuels, 1974). Good readers thus have a capacity to employ reading strategies effectively when learning from text. The aim of the study is to analyze and interpret pupils' accounts on the strategies that they apply when reading textbooks (in Science and Homeland Studies school subjects). The data have been collected from interviews and standardized reading test scores. Pupils' reflections on their reading strategies were compared with their results achieved in the reading test (reading speed and reading accuracy). Preliminary comparison (the sample of 29 4th graders) indicated some variability in pupils' procedures and strategies applied when learning from text in relation to their reading test scores. The good readers, unlike their less proficient peers, reported a wider range of reading strategies employed. The projected sample size for this research is more than 100 pupils meeting the selection criteria, such as grade (4th graders), age (from 10- to 11-year-old children), executive functioning and self-regulation (measured by The Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System). The data obtained will be instrumental in answering the question: Is reading speed a factor determining the range of reading strategies employed when learning from text? (The research is sponsored by APVV grant agency, No. APVV-15-0273).

Keywords: reading speed, reading accuracy, learning from text, 4th graders.

References:

LaBerge, D. & Samuels, S. J. (1974). Toward a Theory of Automatic Information Processing in Reading. Cognitive Psychology, 6 (2), pp. 293–323.

Perfetti, C. A. (1985). Reading Ability. New York: Oxford University Press.

Stanovich, K. E. (1991). Changing models of reading and reading acquisition. In L. Rieben & C. A. Perfetti (Eds.), Learning to read: Basic research and its implications (pp. 19-31). Hillsdale, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.


Grażyna M. Krasowicz - Kupis & Katarzyna Wiejak (Poland)
ASSESSING READING COMPREHENSION IN POLISH CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

Reading comprehension is the basis of education, communication and human well-being. In Poland, there has so far been no comprehensive tool to allow psychometric and clinical assessment of this ability. Starting from the concepts of the SVR – Simple View of Reading (Gough i Tunmer 1986) and The Complete View of Reading CVR (Francis, Kulesz, Benoit 2018), the team of specialist from Educational Research Institute and the Institute of Psychology at Maria Curie Sklodowska University prepared a multidimensional test, aimed at assessing the reading comprehension from the first year of education to the adolescence, inclusive. The tool has scales for the assessing of the semantic and lexical aspect, general knowledge and reasoning, various types of inferences and metalinguistic abilities.
First three stages of the scale constrution are finished – test items preparing, pre-pilot study as well as the psychometric validation studies, so the last version prepared for normalisation will be presented on the conference.
References:
1. Gough, P. B., & Tunmer, W. E. (1986). Decoding, Reading, and Reading Disability. Remedial and Special Education, 7, 6-10.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/074193258600700104
2. Francis, D.J., Kulesz, P.A., Benoit, J.S. (2018) Extending the Simple View of Reading to Account for VAriation Within Readers and Across Texts: The Complete View of Reading (CVR). Remedial and Special Education, 39 (5).
https:// doi.org/10.1177/07419325 18772904

Keywords: reading, reading comprehension, psychometric test, semantics, lexicon, metalinguistic
abilities


Michael Krelle & Veronika Österbauer & Antonia Maria Bachinger & Gabriele von Eichhorn & Marcel Illetschko (Germany)
TEXT PROCEDURES IN ARGUMENTATIVE PERFORMANCES BY 4TH GRADE STUDENTS

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 15:45-17:15 Room T10 Chair: Pereira, Luísa A.
Numerous models illustrating writing skills make use of the concepts of writing processes and text products. For L1 didactics in German, Helmuth Feilke (2012) introduces the theory of “procedures”, an intermediate level located between the writing process and the finished text, similar to what other authors called e.g. patterns or frame-markers (Smith, 2003; Hempel & Degand, 2008). Feilke makes a distinction between writing procedures and text procedures ("Literale Prozeduren"; Feilke, 2012). Writing procedures refer to the writing process as a whole (e.g. planning, penning a text and revising). We will concentrate on text procedures, which focus on different levels of text organization, including lexical elements like collocations, syntactical patterns and textual phenomena. (Feilke, 2012, p. 7-11, 17-18)

For their correct use, students need discourse knowledge, which includes for example intra- and intersentential marking devices, genre structures and constraints (Weigle, 2007, p. 30). Text procedures have a salient form and serve recurring communicative purposes in writing. They are functional units that are represented in the formal aspects of language (”first… second”, “on one hand… on the other hand” etc.).

In our presentation, we will evaluate the relevance of these procedures for argumentative writing competencies in 4th grade. We will focus on the following questions: (1) How often do students use text procedures? (2) Are text procedures a key indicator for argumentative writing competencies at 4th grade level? To answer these questions, we will analyze student performances on two items used in the national assessment BIST-Ü in Austria in 2015. From this large-scale assessment, a sample of 1000 student performances per item was drawn. These 2000 texts will be rerated according to the model of Feilke (2012). We will compare the results to the original ratings from the 2015 assessment regarding text quality.

The model of text procedures is currently used in teacher training programs. Thus, our aim is to review the significance of these procedures to determine writing competencies. Additionally, we hope to draw conclusions for teacher training.

Feilke, H. (2012). Was sind Textroutinen? Zur Theorie und Methodik des Forschungsfeldes. In H. Feilke & K. Lehnen (Eds.), Schreib-und Textroutinen. Theorie, Erwerb und didaktisch-mediale Modellierung. (pp. 1-31). Frankfurt a.M.: Peter Lang.
Hempel, S. & Degand, L. (2008). Sequencers in different text genres: Academic writing, journalese and fiction. Journal of Pragmatics 40/4, 676-693.
Smith, C. S. (2003). Modes of Discourse. The Local Structure of Texts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Weigle, S. C. (2007). Assessing writing (Vol. 4). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Karen A Krepps (United States)
TEXT CONSTRUCTION IN PRESCHOOL

Short presentations (poster) and extended discussion ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 14:30-15:30 Room T10 Chair: Awramiuk, Elżbieta
Research demonstrates that writing is a foundational piece of children’s overall literacy development. Additionally, early writing skills are strongly correlated with later reading abilities (National Early Literacy Panel, 2008; Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998). Even though young children accumulate much information regarding concepts of print and experiment with “writing” from an early age, the processes they use and the products they create look different than those of older children and adults.
Given the importance of writing to literacy development, it is useful to increase our understanding of how young children “write” using alternate and multiple modes (i.e. drawing, dialogue, play, and technology) before being able to communicate with conventional written language. Additionally, recognizing intention in a child’s text may only become known as adults watch or listen as the text is created. This is particularly applicable for children in preschool classrooms. This study is carried out as an observational case study to investigate what types of texts preschool children create and how they accomplish this within the context of their preschool environment. Research questions are: What kinds of text do preschool children create? How do preschool children describe what they are doing and why they are doing it as they create text? How do children respond to a classroom center framed as a site for “writing”?
By carefully observing children within the natural boundaries of their classroom in the process of creating text, extensive stories can be developed (Dyson & Genishi, 2005; Stake, 1995). Observational field notes, informal interviews and artifacts are the primary sources of data. A constant comparative method of analysis will be used to code, categorize, and find patterns among the data. These analyses will inform early childhood educators as to the text-making process of preschool children. It is hoped that results of this study may lead educators to determine ways of encouraging children to become confident “writers” in preschool.

References

Dyson, A. H., & Genishi, C. (2005). On the case: Approaches to language and literacy research. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

National Early Literacy Panel. (2008). Developing early literacy: Report of the National Early Literacy Panel. Washington, D.C.: National Institute for Literacy.

Snow, C., Burns, M. S., & Griffin, P. (Eds.). (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

Stake, R. E. (1995). The art of case study research. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.


Ellen Krogh & Anna Nordenstam & Dag Skarstein & Ria Heilä-Ylikallio (Denmark)
THE EMERGENCE OF THE L1-RESEARCH FIELD IN A NORDIC PERSPECTIVE

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 15:45-17:15 Room T12 Chair: Wijnands, Astrid
The research field of L1-education – or L1-didactics – is young in the Nordic countries. Since the turn of the century, we have however, seen the emergence of national and Nordic research networks, conference and publication series, research programs, and the designation of positions as professors and associate professors (Ongstad, 2012). Studies of Nordic L1-research have taken stock of the disciplinary sub fields, but empirical studies of L1 didactics as a unitary field are in demand. The present study is a Nordic project, aiming at investigating the emergence of Nordic L1-research and its present profile(s) through PhD research within the field.
The study examines abstracts of Danish (n 32), Finnish (n 63), Norwegian (n 37) and Swedish (n 84) L1-didactic PhD dissertations defended between 2000 and 2017. Results show that the three major content fields are research on reading as a basic skill; research on writing; and research on the teaching and reading of literature. Further, the field has become more internationally oriented. The field is expanding through the period, except in Finland which has had a stable high number of dissertations. Growing governmental funding of PhD education can be related to policy reforms emphasizing research-based education and academization of teacher education. Analyses conclude that the research field has developed to become a professionalized region (Bernstein 2003, Holmberg & Nordenstam 2016). Thus, a subject didactic focus is generally prominent. A new trend is, however, emerging in the second half of the period. This trend can be understood in the perspective of Lambert’s (2017) second “hypothetical future” (2017), a research field concerned with skills and competences, and Ongstad’s idea of “strong didactization” (2012) as a movement towards general didactics.

Keywords: Nordic L1 research, expanding field, professionalized region, subject didactic focus, skills and competences

References
Bernstein, B. (2003). Education, symbolic control, and social practices. In Bernstein, B. Pedagogy, Symbolic Control and Identity, 2nd ed. Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Holmberg, P. & Nordenstam, A. (2016), Svenska med didaktisk inriktning. Ett forskningsområde i rörelse (Swedish as L1 didactics. A research field on the move). Höglund, H. & Heilä-Ylikallio, R. (eds.) (2016). Framtida berättelser (Future narratives). Vasa: Åbo Akademi.
Lambert, D. (2017). Powerful disciplinary knowledge and curriculum futures. In: N. Pyyry et al. (eds.), Changing subjects, changing pedagogies: Diversities in school and education. Publications in Subject Didactics 13. Finnish Research association for Subject Didactics, pp. 14–33.
Ongstad, S. (2012) (ed.) Nordisk modersmålsdidaktik. Forskning, felt og fag (Nordic L1 didactics. Research, field and subject). Oslo: Novus




Eunsun Kwon & Byeonggon Min (Korea (The Republic Of))
THE POWER AND LIMITS OF INTEREST: CONNECTED LEARNING IN ADOLESCENTS' CIVIC LITERACY PRACTICES

In South Korea’s L1 education, an interest has been emphasized as a motivation variable to promote youths’ engagement in reading and writing activities. In the connected learning framework (Ito at al., 2013), interest is considered more than a psychological state of engagement and rather as a crucial, enduring context for young people’s learning and a gateway to connect students’ daily learning within digital media environment to academic achievement, career development, or civic engagement. By adopting the connected learning framework, we examined what interest is actualized in adolescents’ civic literacy practices and how the study participants’ individual interests drive learning in and from practice in different ways.

In a year-long qualitative study, we collected data from a high school online journal club that exemplified the principles of connected learning by linking members' individual interest, peer relations, and civic engagement together. We also recruited three students with distinctive interests in terms of contents, digital tools, and activity goal among the club members. The data included interviews from the students, field notes, researchers’ reflections, and student-created digital productions. By tracking the students’ strategies for five participatory practices - investigation, circulation, production, dialogue and feedback, and mobilization (Rundle et al., 2015), we were able to capture different approaches in the practices from the three students and especially how interacted with their peers as participants of a sustained community (Lave & Wenger, 1991).

The research findings were as follows: (1) The students’ interests actualized in literacy practices were not only an expression of their individual pursuits but were also integrated with their literate identities, which were constructed from their past experiences. (2) While high school students’ clear interests encouraged them to be willing to struggle with difficulties, they could limit their strategic approaches to specific participatory practices not associated to their interests. (3) While peer support was a significant resource for students to exchange and extend their interests to enhance their academic/civic literacy, some students had little perception of it. Furthermore, the study suggested effective ways for L1 teachers to meet the individual needs of diverse students with various interests and organize peer support in L1 classrooms.

Kew word: interest, civic literacy practice, connected learning

Reference
Ito, M., Gutiérrez, K., Livingstone, S., Penuel, B., Rhodes, J., Salen, K., ... & Watkins, S. C. (2013). Connected learning: An agenda for research and design. BookBaby.
Lave, J., Wenger, E., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation (Vol. 521423740). Cambridge: Cambridge university press.
Rundle, M., Weinstein, E., James, C., & Gardner, H. (2015). Doing civics in the digital age: Casual, purposeful, and strategic approaches to participatory politics. (No. 2, pp. 93-100). Working Paper. Youth and Participatory Politics Research Network. Oakland, CA.


Ann Sylvi Larsen (Norway)
“THE CATASTROPHE” – NARRATIVE WRITING IN A NORWEGIAN 10TH GRADE

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 09:30-11:00 Room T14 Chair: Araujo, Luis
Keywords: creative writing, narrative knowledge, cultural repertoire
What are the images of catastrophe in fictional narratives written by a group of Norwegian 10th graders and which cultural tools and narrative structures do they use when creating such stories? The paper explores narrative texts from a Norwegian 10th grade class, where the students were asked to imagine a sudden catastrophic event and how the surroundings and the society changed after the event. The study is a part of an ongoing project about narrative knowledge and understanding (see Bruner 1986). The empirical data of the study is 51 narrative texts with the title “The Catastrophe”, written during a two hours workshop conducted by a Norwegian author.
The main theoretical approach is a narrative, hermeneutic perspective, combined with genre analyses and a cultural analytic perspective. The way we interpret reality is culturally contingent and filtered through symbolic forms like myths, religion, narrative form, images etc (e.g. Bruner 1991, Holm 2012). Studies regarding children’s writing clearly show that they draw on a cultural repertoire, but also that they are actively interpreting and making sense of their experiences (e.g. Dyson 2016).
Preliminary results show that terror and ecological crises are motif in several stories, where the most used pictures is an aircraft crashing into a skyscraper, a car driving into a crowd of people or a gigantic wave flowing over the city. In several narratives, we face war or warlike conditions. The students use well known images and narrative structures from news media, TV and movies, and also from dystopian novels. The given assignment stimulated the creativity by giving the students an opportunity to create a fictional world where a worst-case scenario happens. The stories show that the catastrophe narrative’s sudden event is fruitful in the creation of narratives. In a wider sense, the stories give a picture of what anxieties the children have for the future, but also how a wider cultural context affects their understanding. Finally, the results will be discussed in the light of theories of narrative knowledge and understanding, and implications for education.


Bruner, J. (1991). The Narrative Construction of Reality. Critical Inquiry, Vol 18, No 1 pp 1-21. Hentet fra https://www.jstor.org/stable/1343711?seq=pef-reference#references_tab_contents
Bruner, J. (1986). Actual Minds, Possible Worlds. Cambridgre Mass: Harvard University Press.
Dyson, A. (2016). Children’s Writing. The Sage Encyclopedia of Contemporary ECE Sage: Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Holm, I.W. (2012). The cultural Analysis of Disaster. In C. Meiner, K. Veel (Eds.), The cultural life of catastrophes and crises (pp 15-32). Walter de Gruyter (Consepts for the Stydy of Culture, Vol. 3).


Natalie Lavoie (Canada)
HOW DOES LANGUAGE SUPPORT THE PRODUCTION OF TEXTS BY PRIMARY SCHOOL BOYS AND GIRLS?

Learning to write is challenging for elementary school pupils, particularly boys, who show poorer writing performance than girls (Herbert & Stipek, 2005, MELS, 2012). Offering them motivating and meaningful writing activities is therefore a big challenge for teachers (Colognesi & Lucchini, 2018). Since student generally enjoy interacting with their peers, why not take advantage of this interest and allow them to write in pairs? If this opportunity is given to them, what are their exchanges? How do these exchanges support the writing of texts? To date, few studies have compared boys’ interactions with girls’ and the impact of these interactions on the quality of texts produced. The purpose of this study was therefore to 1) describe the content of interactions of girls and boys in grade 6 (11-12 years old) when producing a dyad text and 2) compare the quality of texts produced by these students according to the writing context (alone and by two). 33 dyads participated in this study (n = 66, 35 girls and 31 boys). Students planned, wrote and edited / corrected a story individually and then in a dyad. Their writing performance (syntax, punctuation, vocabulary, text structure, lexical and grammatical spelling, length of writing) and interactions (frequency, content, number) were evaluated and compared. The first analyzes (mean) show that the exchanges, which mainly concerned the content of the story (F = 113, G = 99), the lexical spelling (F = 17.66, G = 16.67) and grammatical (F = 15.49, G = 13.42), allowed boys, more than girls, to take advantage of the dyad writing situation (G productions: alone = 77.29%, in dyad = 85.08%, productions F: alone = 84.14%, in dyad = 88.37%).


Sarah Levine & Karoline Trepper & Rosalie Hiuyan Chung ()
TEACHER AND STUDENT UPTAKE OF AN AFFECT-BASED APPROACH TO LITERARY INTERPRETATION

Paper session ARLE 2019 Friday, 11:00-12:30 Room T14 Chair: Araújo, Teresa
Keywords: Affect, Literary Interpretation, Classroom Discussion, Professional Development

In classroom discussions of literature, students often struggle to see past the “one right interpretation” they believe teachers seek, and teachers, despite their best intentions, find themselves defaulting to such “one right interpretation” discourses in the classroom. Consequently, discussions about literature tend to be teacher-led and focused on “known-answer” questions (Nystrand et al., 2003) and students may not experience the rich, personal literary transactions and nuanced interpretations that many teachers wish for their students. To address this challenge, this study examines the degree to which one affect-based approach to literary interpretation supported students in various aspects of literary reading, and supported teachers in different aspects of literary discussion facilitation. This study followed a cohort of U.S. secondary English Language Arts teachers through a summer professional development program and an academic year. Teachers learned an affect-based approach to literary interpretation, called “up/down/both/why,” where readers learn to make subjective evaluations of textual tones and moods to develop textual interpretation. The approach draws on research on the relationship between affective response and “literariness” (e.g. Miall & Kuiken, 1994) as well as transactional and reader response theories (e.g. Rosenblatt) and attempts to address both cognitive and discourse challenges of literary interpretation. The study asks: To what extent did students apply the approach to different aspects of literary interpretation, such as building connotation, evaluating characters, and developing thematic inferences; and to what extent did teachers use the approach with different texts and question types? The research team examined transcripts of nine teachers’ classroom videos before and after the professional development to analyze teacher and student uptake of the strategy. We used emergent and collaborative coding for all coded transcripts. As compared to the pre-PD class discussions, students made more interpretive statements, while teachers asked fewer questions overall. Student participation was significantly higher in post-PD classroom discussions, as compared to baseline discussions.These findings indicate that affect-based interpretive approaches are flexible enough to be taken up across various aspects of interpretation, inquiry, and text type. The study also surfaces the complexity of classroom instruction during discussions of literature.

References
Miall, D. S., & Kuiken, D. (1994). Beyond text theory: Understanding literary response.
Discourse processes, 17(3), 337-352.
Nystrand, M., Wu, L. L., Gamoran, A., Zeiser, S., & Long, D. A. (2003). Questions in time:
Investigating the structure and dynamics of unfolding classroom discourse. Discourse
processes, 35(2), 135-198.
Rosenblatt, L. M. (1994). The reader, the text, the poem: The transactional theory of the literary
work. SIU Press.


Sarah Levine ()
AFFECT IN THE CLASSROOM: TEACHING AND LEARNING LITERARY READING AND RESPONSE

Keynote Friday, 09:30-10:30 Room Auditorium 1 Chair: Valentim, Helena T.
A body of cognitively-oriented research suggests that in classroom settings, high school students struggle to move beyond summarizing or moralizing in their responses to literary texts. However, a body of socioculturally-oriented research shows that beyond school settings, students can be skilled and nuanced readers who draw on their everyday interpretive resources to engage in rich transactions with literary texts. In this talk, I’ll highlight affective response as a fundamental everyday interpretive resource that students and teachers can invite into the classroom. I’ll explore a set of related classroom studies of an affect-based interpretive heuristic that guides readers to: Attend to their emerging affective responses as they read a text; identify the nature of those responses on a positive to negative continuum; and reflect on and articulate why or how aspects of a text contributed to those responses. Small and large-scale studies indicate that this heuristic plays several roles in supporting students’ transactions with literary texts in classroom settings, including: Helping students move from summary to interpretation; helping students attend to negative aspects of texts that they tend to ignore in other cases; and helping teachers disrupt conventional school-based discourses that lead to “one answer” models of literary reading and make room for students to engage in richer and more multi-layered responses to literature.


Anne Lind & anne b svenkerud (Norway)
THEORY MEETS PRACTICE. CLASSICAL TEXTS IN THE PRIMARY SCHOOL CLASSROOM.

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 11:30-13:00 Room T14 Chair: Araújo, Teresa
Revised Version.
Abstract at ARLE conference 2019. Anne Bergljot Svenkerud, Anne Lind.
Key words: Classical texts - literacy - teacher education - adaptation - thematic analysis
Theory meets practice. Classical texts in the primary school classroom
Background
Teacher education in the second year of Norwegian at Oslo Metropolitan University emphasizes a canon of classical texts by authors such as Henrik Ibsen (1867), Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson (1857), and children’s classics by Astrid Lindgren (1959) and Tove Jansson (1963). Students often find these older texts challenging to work with. An assignment the students get is to choose one of the texts from this curriculum and adapt it to pupils in primary school (5th, 6th, 7th grade) (Weinreich 1997). Three of the students’ teachers wanted to investigate how the students applied the theoretical knowledge they had acquired at the teacher education to their practical work in the classroom; and if this would enhance their understanding of both texts and didactics. Our project was undertaken in the spring of 2018 where the teacher educators visited the students at their practitionary schools to see the results of their work. They chose different adaptations; dramatizing scenes, station work with fairytales, music, drawing, dance, different writing assignments, and digital picturebook.
Methods
Our methods were observation in the classroom, interview of twelve students, each of them by their tutor, and close reading of students’ texts, which were didactic descriptions of their adaptations. For analyzing the transcribed interviews we chose a thematic analysis following the guidelines of Braun & Clarke (2006).
Results
The topics the students thematize led us to form three themes: The students’ attitudes towards classical texts, their literary competence and their knowledge of literary didactics and adaptation. We found that the students were fond of reading generally, but had little knowledge of classical texts, and thought it was “old and heavy stuff.” The next finding was that a change of attitude took place in preparing for the adaptation and that all students were positive to the texts after the adaptation process, both to read them and to use them in primary school. Finally we found that pupils at the age of 10-13 clearly could relate to issues in these texts and enjoyed the adaptation of them, and that this fact generated enthusiasm and motivation in the students.
Discussion
On this background we will discuss two main issues at the ARLE conference, one concerning reasons why the students changed their attitudes towards classical texts. The other question deals with how classical texts can be adapted to pupils in primary school (Rosenblatt 2001).
Bibliography
Braun, V. & Clarke, V. (2006) Using thematic analysis in psychology. In Qualitative research in Psychology; 3.
Calvino, I. (1999) Why read the Classics? London. Jonathan Cape.
Ibsen, H. (1867/2009). Peer Gynt, et dramatisk dikt. Oslo, Vigmostad og Bjørke.
Ibsen, H. (1862/1987). Terje Vigen, I Ibsen, H. Terje Vigen; Brand; Peer Gynt; Gengangere. Oslo. Aschehoug.
Jansson, T. (1963). Det usynlige barnet. I Jansson, T. Det usynlige barnet og andre fortellinger. Oslo. Aschehoug.
Rosenblatt, Louise M (2001). The literary transaction. Evocation and Response. I Theory into Practice.
Weinreich, T. (1997). Barnelitteraturens egenart. Adaptation. I Nye veier til barneboka (red.) Harald Bache-Wiig. Landslaget for norskundevisning (LNU) . Oslo: Cappelen akademiske forlag.


Eva Lindgren (Sweden)
WRITING IN THE 21ST CENTURY – GLOBAL EDUCATIONAL DISCOURSES ABOUT WRITING

Over the past few decades literacy in people’s everyday life has transformed from reading of printed sources, such as books, papers and magazines to writing in digital media. An increased focus on writing for a variety of purposes, to communicate, respond or discuss on social media, to document repairs on a car, or write a petition for the local policy makers all require different writing skills. Becoming a writer not only requires knowledge and practise but perhaps most importantly it requires voice. In this paper I move beyond the national contexts and discuss how education globally views writing, i.e what discourses there are about writing per se and the purposes of writing and writing education. Educational documents produced by the key international literacy sponsors the UN, OECD and the EU are analysed using a discourse analytical approach. The starting point for the analysis is Ivanič (2004, 2017) framework of discourses of writing, with a particular focus on voice and participation in society. The analysis was conducted in several steps including careful selection and close reading. Preliminary results show an emphasis on writing as a social practice, in particular writing for work purposes, writing as a skill and writing to enhance life chances. Discourses that support writing for participation in society through making ones voice heard is rare, implicating potential difficulties for the fostering of democratic citizens and for all children (and adults) to acquire the necessary tools to fully practice their freedom of speech and respond to others' view-points.


Ludmila Liptakova & Dávid Dziak (Slovakia)
CHILDREN´S UNDERSTANDING OF A PROSOCIAL LITERARY ROLE MODEL

Paper session ARLE 2019 Friday, 14:00-15:30 Room T15 Chair: Pieper, Irene
The aim of this paper is to present the preliminary empirical results of qualitative research that examines the junior-age-children´s understanding of a prosocial behavior present in fairy tale characters. The reasons for this research were the unsatisfying results in the PIRLS reading literacy measures achieved by Slovak pupils on the one hand, and the underrated position the formative function of literary texts has in Slovak classroom practice on the other hand. Besides other theories the research builds on the premise that literary text has „the potential to encourage prosocial behavior in children, but this aspect has been only minimally explored“ (Aram, Deitcher, Shoshan, & Ziv, 2017, pp. 157–158).
Our research has qualitative, exploratory character; therefore, hypotheses are not formulated. On the contrary, an inductive approach is utilized. The focus is put on three key concepts: prosocial behavior, literary characters, and children´s reading comprehension. The research sample consists of both a set of literary texts (fairy tales) and the groups of pupils (3rd and 4th graders). The research was conducted in four phases: 1) theoretical analysis of prosocial behavior with focus on child´s prosocial development (see Schroeder & Graziano, 2015); 2) content analysis of Slovak fairy tales and the identification of characters with prosocial behavior (see Stanislavová, 2013); 3) designing the literary prosocial role models; 4) examination of children´s fairy tale reading comprehension and their understanding of the prosocial literary role model. In the last research phase the procedure of shared reading was used (see e.g. Tennent, 2015). The empirical data were collected via the research methods of observation, semi-structured interview and content analysis of children´s multimodal text reflection.
Preliminary research findings imply the positive impact of shared reading on children´s successful inference making. Moreover, shared reading of the selected fairy tales seems to promote children´s processing of their individual interpretation of prosocial behavior found in literary characters. The findings may be beneficial for elaborating the shared reading strategies in primary literary education, what would foster the formative function of literary reading.

References
Aram, D., Deitcher, D. B., Shoshan, T. S., & Ziv, M. (2017). Shared Book Reading Interactions within Families from Low Socioeconomic Backgrounds and Children’s Social Understanding and Prosocial Behavior. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, 16(2), 157–177.
Schroeder, D. A., & Graziano, W. G. (Eds.) (2015). The Oxford Handbook of Prosocial Behavior. New York: Oxford University Press.
Stanislavová, Z. (2013). Éthos a poésis v umeleckej tvorbe. Štúdie o literatúre pre deti a mládež [Ethos and Poesis in Works of Art (Studies on Children’s and Juvenile Literature]. Prešov: Prešovská univerzita v Prešove.
Tennent, W (2015). Understanding reading comprehension. Processes and Practices. London: SAGE.


Hengyi Liu ()
DEVELOPMENT OF MULTILITERACIES: BILINGUAL STUDENTS’ LITERACY LEARNING IN AN AFTER-SCHOOL PROGRAM

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 11:30-13:00 Room T11 Chair: Viegas, Filomena B.
This ethnographic study reports on an after-school program in Massachusetts that incorporates different genres of multiliteracies such as social media and Hip-Hop production. Through an on-going nine-month investigation it considers implications for the literacy development of young bilingual students in an after-school setting. The after-school program takes place in a regional public middle school and is structured to offer enrichment activities and popular literacies to develop students’ ability to more critically read their world (Freire & Macedo, 1987). The program welcomes bilingual students and gives them the opportunity to share their stories with the local community by video-recording events, taking pictures, producing newsletters and self-reflecting on special experiences. This ethnographic study uses qualitative methods including participant observation, interviews, the collection and analysis of students’ artifacts. For all of the data collected, the researcher uses open coding for repeating, emergent themes and argues that bilingual students develop literacy in both their first language and English from every aspect of their entire learning experience, not simply from schooling. The article contributes to our understanding that formed and transformed identities, socially and culturally situated learning, and skills used in the production of meaning are major factors that influence bilingual students’ literacy development in an after-school setting.

Freire, P., & Macedo, D. (1987). Literacy: Reading the word and the world. Massachusetts: Bergin & Garvey Publishers, INC.


DAN LIU & Michel Favriaud (France)
‘ECOPOETRY’ AS A BASIC PART OF READING LEARNING

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 15:45-17:15 Room T14 Chair: goodwyn, andy
‘Ecopoetry’ as a basic part of reading learning

From baby talk to social language, children need to go through a laborious process of reading learning (from implicit learning to explicit learning) through epilinguistic steps (Gombert, 1992). However, according to PIRLS and PISA surveys, not all children succeed in stepping into reading. We wonder whether there exists a complementary way or a special reading environment when formal reading in school fades or even fail under certain circumstances.
Poetry, especially modern poetry, seems to offer us a way out by bridging pupils’ emotion and imagination up to their reflexivity towards language. This ecological environment of reading learning through poetry called “ecopoetry” in our paper may assume this complementary role together with teacher’s proper guidance. This study targets those non-enhanced students who suffer from spelling problems, the lack of self confidence or merely the indifference towards language; moreover, it also aims at those normal ones by stimulating and deepening their reflexivity towards language through poetry, therefore improving their reading levels.
To partly solve this problem, we adopt the qualitative method (semi-conductive interviews) to collect our data in French elementary schools, followed by the content analysis to our case studies: six pupils (5-8 years old) from distinguished reading phases, together with their teachers were interviewed from 2015 to 2016. This two-year interview demonstrated us the psychological, imaginative, emotional and linguistic nurture of poetry. It revealed us how poetry could be practiced in class under appropriate professional gestures from adults and how the “ecopoetry” (see more in Favriaud 2017) contributes to refine a new definition of reading. We wonder 1) what relations pupils from 5 to 8 years old could weave in reading through their establishment of ecopoetry in different contexts (including school, family, class etc.) and 2) to what extent the construction of ecopoetry could help children to deal with distinctive relations during reading? Our research has offered us a preliminary answer to these questions, that is, poetry performs distinctive roles in different reading stages with children's distinctive “ecopoetry”. Meanwhile, the establishment of ecopoetry evolves with the growing age of children.

Key words: ecopoetry, reading, poetry, pupils



Bibliography:

FAVRIAUD Michel, VINSONNEAU Maryline, POLETTO Michel (2017) Les Chemins de poésie d’ALEP – Poétique et didactique du dire-lire-écrire à l’école primaire, Limoges: Lambert-Lucas.
LIU Dan (2018) The role and effect of poetry in reading for 5-8 years old, directed by M. Favriaud, Université de Toulouse Jean-Jaurès.
RIEBEN, L., & PERFETTI, C. (1989) L'apprenti lecteur: recherches empiriques et implications pédagogiques (1),Paris: Neuchâtel,
GOMBERT, J.-É (1992) Metalinguistic development, The University of Chicago Press.
WINICOTT, D. W. (1971) Playing and reality, 21, London and New York: Routledge Classics..
COLLOT, M.(1997) La matière-émotion, Paris Presses Universitaires de France.
BURGOS, J. (1982) Pour une poétique de l'imaginaire, Paris: Seuil.
CHRISTIN, A. M. (2001)"De l’image à l’écriture." Histoire de l’écriture, de l’idéogramme au multimédia, Paris Flammarion.
JORRO, A. (2006) L'agir professionel de l'enseignant, Paper presented at the Séminaire de recherche du Centre de Recherche sur la formation - CNAM.
MERRIAM, S. B. (2009) Qualitative Research - A guide to design and implementation, United States of America: Jossey-Bass.
MILES, M., & HUBERMAN, M. (1994) Analyse des données qualitatives, Paris :De Boeck


Elizabeth Ka Yee Loh (China)
SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY AND THE FACILITATION OF SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 15:45-17:15 Room T11 Chair: Bulfin, Scott
Abstract:
Effective learning requires the concurrence of cognitive and affective factors. The cognitive mechanism helps us to learn, while the affective factors maintain our learning persistence. Second language learning poses great challenges to the learners in culturally-diverse classrooms, and many students are giving up due to the resulting difficulties. This study, guided by the self-determination theory, examines how education technology can help create social-contextual conditions that effectively facilitate secondary school students’ learning of English and Chinese as second languages (ESL & CSL) with their own initiatives by fulfilling three innate psychological needs, namely competence, autonomy, and relatedness (Ryan & Deci, 2000).

Ethnic minority students (N=150) from 3 secondary schools in Hong Kong were invited to use a self-developed mobile app named “mLang” to learn ESL and CSL for one year. They were asked to create their own multilingual, multimodal e-flashcards under different topics that reflected their own experiences and worldviews (autonomy). With customised pedagogical designs, teachers supported their students’ use of e-flashcards as shared learning objects, which became part of their curriculum content for learning and sharing (relatedness). Through the participants’ interactions around the e-flashcards, they reported feeling self-competent, autonomous and socially-related in their ESL and CSL learning, implying development of self-determined motivation (Deci & Ryan, 1995). Following a design-based research (DBR) approach involving triangulation of quantitative and qualitative data from pre- and post-tests, lesson studies, interviews, and text analysis of students’ learning outcomes, it was found that the experimental group outperformed the control group significantly in reading and writing. The results showed that “mLang” had been able to multiply and energise the participants’ ESL and CSL vocabulary learning, while paving the way for faster transition to reading and writing (Loh, Shum & Ki, 2018).

Keywords: Self-determination theory; education technology; second language acquisition; pedagogy

References:
Deci, E. L. & Ryan, R. M. (1995). Human autonomy: The basis for true self-esteem. In M. Kemis (Ed.), Efficacy, agency, and self-esteem (pp. 31-49). New York: Plenum.
Loh, E. K. Y., Sun, K. W., Ki, W. W., & Lau, V. M. K. (in press). IT Assists Chinese as a Second Language Learning: mLang Pedagogy. In E. K. Y. Loh, P. W. Y. Chou, W. W. Ki & M. S. K. Shum (Eds.), Teaching and learning of Chinese in the multilingual and multicultural contexts. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
Ryan, R. M. & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68-78.



Elizabeth Ka Yee Loh & CHAN Sing Pui Tikky (China)
LANGUAGE, TENSION AND AGENCY: TEACHER IDENTITY FORMATION IN CHINESE AS A SECOND LANGUAGE (CSL) EDUCATION FOR ETHNIC MINORITY KINDERGARTENERS

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 11:30-13:00 Room T15 Chair: Faulkner, Julie
This research investigates the trajectory of identity transformation of a female Pakistani teacher from a CSL learner to a CSL teacher for Non-Chinese Speaking (NCS) kindergarten children of ethnic minority backgrounds (Tse & Loh, 2014). Drawing on sociocultural theories of Learning and poststructuralist theories of language, the notion of discourse (Norton, 2009) is applied to conceptualize the power relationships and tensions between NCS children, parents, teachers and administrators within the activity systems (Engestrom, 1987) of both the kindergarten and university-based project team communities. The study focuses on the discursive construction and negotiation of the Pakistani teacher’s identities (Pavlenko & Blackledge, 2003), development of teacher knowledge as well as her empowerment of the ethnic minority kindergarteners through improving their proficiency of Chinese as one of the mainstream languages under the socio-political systems and language education policies in the Hong Kong multicultural and multilingual society. Following an ethnographic qualitative case study design, the one-year longitudinal research collected various texts including semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions, lesson observation videos as well as documents of teacher lesson plans and student works. Both discourse analysis and narrative analysis were adopted to interpret the data addressing research questions focusing on how different sociocultural and institutional discourses shaped and were shaped by the identity transformation of the teacher and how she exercised her creative agencies in motivating the NCS children and enhancing their Chinese language proficiency meanwhile developed her teacher professional knowledge.

Engestrom, Y. (1987). Learning by Expanding: An Activity Theoretical Approach to Developmental Research. Helsinki Orienta-Konsultit Oy.

Norton, B. (2010). Language and Identity. In N. Hornberger and S. McKay (Eds.), Sociolinguistics and language Education. pp.349-369. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.

Pavlenko, A. & Blackledge, A. (Eds.). (2003). Negotiation of identities in multilingual contexts. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.

Tse, S. K. & Loh, E. K. Y. (2014). Zen Yang Jiao Fei Hua Yu You Er You Xiao Xue Xi Zhong Wen (How to teach Non-Chinese-Speaking kindergarten children to learn Chinese effectively?). Beijing: Beijing Normal University Publishing Group.


Paula López & Raquel Fidalgo (Spain)
EFFECTS OF PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN STRATEGY-FOCUSED WRITING INTERVENTION ON FOURTH-GRADE SPANISH TEACHERS AND STUDENTS’ OUTCOMES

Paper session ARLE 2019 Thursday, 15:45-17:15 Room T15 Chair: Santos, Ana Lúcia
As in other countries, in Spain students experience severe problems mastering writing (Ministerio de Educación, 2010). The use of evidence-based practices in schools is critical to overcoming problems with writing. In the writing domain, one of the most effective evidence-based methods for writing instruction is strategy-focused instruction (Graham & Harris, 2018). The main goal of the present study focuses on the examination of teachers and students' outcomes following practice-based professional development (PBPD) for strategy-focused instruction in writing.
The sample comprised ten fourth-grade teachers and 250 students distributed in ten classes from several schools with similar features. Teachers were randomly allocated to three experimental conditions. In the first experimental condition (N=4), teachers implemented a strategy-focused instruction focus on planning and drafting processes. In this condition teachers participated in a PBPD program. In the second experimental condition (N=4), teachers implemented the same strategy-focused instruction program than in the previous condition but without PBPD for teachers. In the control condition (N=2), teachers implemented a writing program focus on product knowledge about high-quality texts without any kind of strategy instruction. The programs in all conditions comprised six sessions implemented over six consecutive weeks. The study followed a pretest-posttest-follow up design. In each assessment moment, students wrote two compare-contrast essays about topics that were close for students. The topics were counterbalanced between assessment moments and conditions. Students’ writing performance was assessed by holistic measures of product quality. Also, as students wrote with smartpens that allow us to collect bursts and pauses data and measures of thinking aloud the students’ writing process. Qualitative observations were considered to determine outcomes regarding teachers’ fidelity of implementation in the treatment conditions. Teachers also completed a questionnaire about their beliefs and attitudes toward the teaching of writing before and after the implementation of the intervention. Social validity was also assessed. The study will be carried out in the coming months, so data are not yet available. The results will reveal the effects of PBPD in strategy-focused instruction on students and teachers outcomes. Research funding: EDU2015-67484-P, MINECO/FEDER.

Keywords: Writing instruction; Professional Development; Strategy-focused instruction; Evidence-based practices

References:

Ministerio de Educación (2010). Evaluación general de diagnóstico de 2009. Educación primaria. Cuarto curso. Informe de resultados [2009 Diagnostic General Evaluation. Primary education. Fourth year. Results report]. Madrid: Secretaria General Técnica, Subdirección General de Documentación y Publicaciones.

Graham, S., & Harris, K. (2018). Evidence-Based Writing Practices: A Meta-Analysis of existing meta-analysis. In R. Fidalgo, K. Harris and M. Braaksma (Eds.), Design principles for teaching effective writing: theoretical and empirical grounded principles (pp. 13–37). Leiden: Brill Editions.


Rasmus Fink Lorentzen (Denmark)
DIGITAL LITERACY AND CODE (CODE, COLLABORATION & DESIGN)

Paper session ARLE 2019 Friday, 11:00-12:30 Room T11 Chair: Gonçalves, Matilde
By Rasmus Fink Lorentzen, Associate professor, PHD, Teacher Training Education, VIA UC, Denmark

This research project is in collaboration with Ulf Dalvad Berthelsen, PHD, Aarhus University.

Keywords: digital literacy, learning design, coding

The aim of this ongoing research project is to develop and apply learning designs, which integrate the visual coding software Scratch in existing curriculum in the Danish secondary school, thus achieving a better understanding of teaching practice aimed at developing digital literacy.

Background:
Digital multimodal texts dominate the contemporary media world and thus challenge the way we understand the term literacy (The New London Group 1996). In this project, we use the overall term digital literacy (Lankshear & Knobel, 2015) to describe the ability to create and use digital text specifically in computer games. In specific, we focus on the process of coding multimodal animations using the visual block coding software called Scratch (Resnick, 2017).

Research question:

• What characterizes learning designs, which integrates Scratch in the school subject Danish as a first language?
• Which teacher competencies are necessary in order to integrate these learning designs in a school context?

The theoretical framework is multimodal theory (Kress, 2010). This allows us to perceive digital texts as a combination of motivated signs e.g. a language of its own.

The research design of the project is based on a Design-based research-methodology (Barab & Squire, 2004). We have developed and tested several learning designs in cooperation with 7 teachers at a local school. These interventions took place during a year, which has led to a plentitude of data.

Data:
Learnings designs, Scratch designs and think aloud-video recordings of teachers designing plans.

Preliminary findings:
1. Students seem to benefit from working in experimental ways more similar to informal literacy cultures outside school.
2. Teachers integrate and reflect upon Scratch in design workshops, but find it difficult to change practices in their classrooms. The biggest challenge seems to be of cultural kind: teachers do not perceive themselves in relation to computer games and programming. They lack professional terms, which causes them to treat digital texts superficially.

References:
Barab, S., & Squire, K. (2004). Design-based research: Putting a stake in the ground. The journal of the learning sciences, 13(1), 1–14.

Kress, G. (2010). Multimodality - A Social Semiotic Approach to Contemporary Communication. London, New York: Routledge.

Lankshear, C., & Knobel, M. (2015). Digital Literacy and Digital Literacies. Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, Special Issue 2015(2015), 8–21.

Resnick, M. (2017). Lifelong Kindergarten - Cultivating Creativity through Projects, Passion, Peers and Play. MIT Press.


Anna Ślósarz (Poland)
MULTIMEDIA THEMATIC MODULES (MTM) AS LITERATURE TEACHING METHOD

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 15:45-17:15 Room T9 Chair: Neumann, Astrid
KEY WORDS: literary text, multimedia learning, multimedia thematic modules, MTM, cognitive amalgamates.

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY: After getting to know the text thoroughly, it is advisable to compare or juxtapose it with deliberately chosen multimedia message, touching the same topic. It may be for example: feature film – not necessarily an adaptation of this literary work, video clip, TV report, theatrical performance, illustrated magazine article etc.).
Such arrangement of text and multimedia is Multimedia Thematic Module (MTM) – a combination of literary and multimedia text on the same subject, supporting the interpretation of the output text. Multimedia become an instrument for embedding the interpretation of the original text in realities of the world in which the student lives and in the current interpretation universe (Eco 1999: 170; Kalaga 2001: 132). Thus MTM defined the theoretical framework and at the same time MTM is teaching method. Preliminary research shows that MTMs facilitate understanding of the literary text as well as heroes and authors as representatives of social groups (Kotarba 2019). Thus, MTM contributes to the deepening of the understanding of the literary text and triggers updated reading (Fish 1989).
MTMs were implemented on an occasional basis by Polish teachers (Ślósarz 1986; Nurczyńska-Fidelska et al. 1993: 125-194; Marzec 1996; Ślósarz 2001; Regiewicz 2006; Fatyga 2010; Konieczna 2011; Bobiński 2016: 219-227; 237-240; Ślósarz 2013, 2018; Kotarba 2019). In 1990, the film analysis was introduced into the national program of teaching the Polish language. In Australia from at least 1995 until today literary texts are systematically discussed during English language lessons as a main parts of MTMs (NSW Educational Standards Authority...). It’s worth mentioning that Australia, according to the “Human Development Reports” elaborated by United Nations Development Programme, is at the forefront of education achievements together with Norway and Switzerland.

RESEARCH QUESTION: How literary text is understood and memorized when it is perceived alone (readed quietly) and how in targeted amalgamation with multimedia? To what extent understanding, memorization and evaluation of literary text can be modified in meta-perceptive context of thematically related multimedia?

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK: According to the cognitive theory of multimedia learning, learning from words, sound and images is more effective than from words alone (Mayer 2004: 4). But the basis for comparison of literary text and multimedia message should be precised in the purpose to direct attention to the problem, for example: Langue, identity and Culture, Worlds of upheaval, Intersecting world (NSW Education Standards Authority). This is why arise intentionally texts-binding cognitive amalgamates (Fauconier & Turner 1998) associated literature and multimedia. MTM method also refers to discourse analysis drawing attention to points of view of the authors representing different social environments and exposes the differences in the means of expression of both texts (Ślósarz 2013, 2018).

METHODOLOGY: Qualitative research. Methods: observations, analysis of documents, interviews with teacher and students (Creswell 2012: 212-224). Preliminary study: watching lessons in Poland and Australia, implementation MTM to several primary and higher secondary schools in Poland with teachers and students as candidates for teachers – students' achievements were compared with those in control classes working without MTM (Ślósarz 2013: 461-613). Basic research: lessons about the novel "Lalka" ("The Doll", 1890) by Bolesław Prus were conducted. Discussion of the novel was related to the film "Jobs" by Joshua Michael Stern (USA 2013). Students' essays will be analyzed, especially remembering the content of the reading and evaluation of the hero of the novel under the influence of the film. The essays will be compared with the assignments by students from the control class who have not watched the film.

DATA: Lesson plans, students’ assignments, surveys and interviews with students and teachers.

RESULTS: Initial research have shown that comparison as the simplest cognitive operation in the framework of MTM reveals thematic analogies between literature and multimedia. In addition, it introduces the reference of the literary text to contemporary realities. Initial results will be checked in the next study, that has already begun.

REFERENCES:
Bobiński W. (2016), Wykształcić widza. Sztuka oglądania w edukacji polonistycznej [Educate the viewer. The art of watching in Polish language education], Kraków: Universitas.

Creswell J.W. (2012), Educational research. Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research, Boston: Pearson.

Eco U. (1999), Czytanie świata [Reading the world], transl. M. Woźniak, Kraków: Wydawnictwo Znak [Znak Publishing].

Fatyga A. (2010) Literatura i ekran czyli spotkania z filmem na lekcjach języka polskiego [Literature and screen or meetings with film in Polish language lessons], Kraków: Wydawnictwo Edukacyjne [Educational Publisher].

Fauconnier G., M. Turner (1998), Conceptual Integration Networks, „Cognitive Science” Vol. 22 (2), pp. 133-187, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1207/s15516709cog2202_1 20.02.2019.

Fish S. (1980) Is there a text in this class?, Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Konieczna E. (2011), Filmowe obrazy szkoły. Pomiędzy ideologią, edukacją a wychowaniem [Film images of the school. Between ideology, education and upbringing], Kraków-Katowice: Uniwersytet Śląski [Silesian University].

Kalaga W.H. (1997), Nebulae of discourse: interpretation, textuality, and the subject, Frankfurt: Peter Lang Verlag.

Kotarba E. Multimedialny moduł tematyczny czyli film na lekcjach języka polskiego [Multimedia theme module or film in Polish language lessons] (in print).

Marzec A., 1996, Ze słowa na obraz. Lektury szkolne na ekranie [From words to pictures. School readings on the screen], Kraków: Impuls.

Mayer R.A. (2009), Multimedia learning. New York: Cambridge University Press.

NSW Education Standards Authority (2018), English. Stage 6. Prescriptions: Modules, Electives and Texts. Higher School Certificate 2019-2023,
http://educationstandards.nsw.edu.au/wps/wcm/connect/f2ef71a2-ea7c-4b96-92f6-398fe141925c/english-stage-6-prescriptions-2019-2023.pdf?MOD=AJPERES&CVID= 20.02.2019.

Nurczyńska-Fidelska E., B. Parniewska, E. Popiel-Popiołek, H. Ulińska (1993), Film w szkolnej edukacji humanistycznej [Film in school humanistic education], Warszawa – Łódź: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.

Regiewicz A. (2006), Dialog filmu z literaturą. Scenariusze lekcji dla liceum i technikum [Dialogue of the film with literature. Lesson scenarios for high school and technical school], Gdańsk: Gdańskie Wydawnictwo Oświatowe [Gdańsk Educational Publishing House].

Ślósarz A. (1986) Film na lekcjach języka polskiego, odczyt pedagogiczny [Film on Polish language lessons, pedagogical reading]. Text unpublished, awarded by Oddział Doskonalenia Nauczycieli w Krakowie [Teachers Training Department in Krakow].

Ślósarz A. (2001), Lektury licealne a kino komercyjne. Aksjologiczny wymiar edukacji filmowej [High school lectures and commercial cinema. The axiological dimension of film education], Kraków: Universitas.

Ślósarz A. (2013), Ideologiczne matryce. Lektury a ich konteksty. Postkomunistyczna Polska – postkolonialna Australia [[Ideological matrices. Readings and their contexts. Post-communist Poland – post-colonial Australia], Kraków: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu Pedagogicznego [Pedagogical University Scientific Publishing].

Ślósarz A. (2018), Interpretanty lektur. Produkty medialnego przemysłu [Interpretants of school readings. Products of media industry]. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu Pedagogicznego [Pedagogical University Scientific Publishing].

United Nations Development Programme „Human Development Reports” http://hdr.undp.org/en/global-reports 20.02.2019.


Maria Luna & Ruth Villalon & Isabel Martínez-Álvarez & María del Mar Mateos & Elena Martín (Spain)
HOW UNDERGRADUATES USE AN ONLINE WRITTEN GUIDE SCAFFOLD WHEN THEY NEED TO WRITE AN ARGUMENTATION?

Paper session ARLE 2019 Thursday, 14:00-15:30 Room T9 Chair: Costa, Ana Luísa
Writing an argumentation from contradictory texts is a complex task with strong potential for fostering learning and reflection (Andrews, 2010). Although research has shown that even students at higher education struggle with this type of tasks, they are often proposed with scarce guidance (Mateos et al. 2018). Moreover, open universities and the availability of virtual campuses at traditional or on-site universities are increasing and some authors have used technologies to implement virtual scaffolds (Nussbaum, 2012). This paper presents results from a study consisting in testing an intervention aimed to improve undergraduates’ argumentative writing in a virtual environment supported by Moodle. Specifically, we focused here on students’ representation of the task (Mateos et al. 2008) and students’ use of a written guide.
The participants were 34 undergraduates enrolled in a subject called Psychology of Learning in an online University. In the context of an activity, the participants wrote a preliminary synthesis from two texts which presented conflicting information about a topic; afterwards, the students followed a virtual environment where they answered several questions which guided them through the reading of two new texts and the writing of a second synthesis. The environment provided them also with instructional videos and a graphic mediator. Before and after the intervention, their declared argumentative strategies and their perceptions of self-efficacy in argumentative writing were measured. Finally, they provided an assessment of the aids received and a reflection on their learning process.
The results show that the students improved the degree of integration in their final synthesis and, after the intervention, there were positive changes in their declared argumentative strategy and in their perception of competence. There was also analysed how the students’ used the written guide, specifically, how they answered to different questions of the guide. The most interesting results focus on how these answers were related to the structure and degree of integration of the final syntheses. This study illustrates, among other aspects, how these students represented the task and how the technology has been used and could be improved to implement a successful intervention on argumentative writing in a distance higher education environment.


Keywords: academic writing, instructional design in writing, intervention study, educational technology, writing and reading

References:

Andrews, R. (2010). Argumentation in higher education. Improving practice through theory and research. New York: Routledge.

Mateos, M., Martín, E., Cuevas, I., Villalón, R., Martínez, I., & González-Lamas, J. (2018). Improving written argumentative synthesis by teaching the integration of conflicting information from multiple sources, Cognition and Instruction, 36 (2), 119-138. doi: 10.1080/07370008.2018.1425300.

Mateos, M., Martin, E., Villalon, R., & Luna, M. (2008). Reading and writing to learn in secondary education: Online processing activity and written products in summarizing and synthesizing tasks. Reading and Writing, 21, 675-697.

Nussbaum, E. M. (2012). Argumentation and student-centered learning environments. D. Jonassen & S. Land (Eds.), Theoretical foundations of learning environments (2nd ed.; pp. 114-141). New York, NY: Routledge


Anna Lyngfelt (Sweden)
DESIRE MANIFESTED BY YOUNG STUDENTS’ MULTIMODAL TEXT PRODUCTION

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 15:45-17:15 Room T9 Chair: Neumann, Astrid
The aim is to discuss text production by multilingual students in L1 classrooms as a manifestation of literacy, revealing the text producers’ cause to act: their desire. Literacy is understood as a reading and writing competence, that is possible to explain by Spinoza’s idea of ‘striving’; the aim is to explain the ‘striving’ behind what Heath (1983) once stated as ‘literacy events’. Also, it aims at bridging the gap between individually oriented, cognitive research and literacy research developed by Barton (1994), stressing literacy as social practice. The methods used, are multimodal text analysis (Bearne, 2009) and individual interviews with the students about their intentions with their writing. Comparisons are made between what the students intended to do, and the result of their text production (regarded to be manifested ‘desires’); by analysis of a written assignment, and interviews with the students, the students’ text production is investigated. Data was collected within the DILS project, involving three classes in early primary school in Sweden, with pupils aged 7-9. The focus here, is on the work in one of the schools, in which the students not necessarily choose the majority language for communication.

Altogether, the students’ text production demonstrates a variety of desire; it could be characterized as immanent manifestation of cognitive development as well as social positioning. Four examples of text production get special attention. Two of them demonstrate a discrepancy between the students’ desire to express themselves, and their texts from a communicative perspective. That one of the students is inclined to manifest himself as a text producer, without communicative intensions, is focused; his intention is to understand something on his own, not primarily to communicate with others.


References

Barton, D. (2007). Literacy. An Introduction to the Ecology or Written Language. MA: Blackwell.

Bearne, E. (2009). Multimodality, literacy and texts: Developing a discourse. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 9 (2), 156-187.

Heath, S. B. (1983). Ways with Words: Language, Life, and Work in Communities and Classrooms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Spinoza, B. (1983). Etik. Göteborg: Daidalos.


Marco Magirius & Sören Ohlhus & Daniel A. Scherf (Germany)
METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO THE LITERATURE CLASSROOM

Symposium ARLE 2019 Thursday, 14:00-17:15 Room T10
=======================
Symposium and Round-table discussion: METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO THE LITERATURE CLASSROOM
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(Brief note on the format: In order to discuss the wide range of methodological approaches to literature in the classroom in an appropriate framework, we have taken the creative liberty of combining the formats of the symposium and the round table. The symposium in the following abstract therefore contains a total of four presentations. The general discussion will then take place in the format of the round table, to which further panelists have been invited.)
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SYMPOSIUM
METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO THE LITERATURE CLASSROOM
=======================

In international research, a growing number of research projects investigate the practices, structures and effects of literature teaching from a perspective of Mother Tongue Education. The methodological premises of these studies as well as the chosen ways of data collection, processing and interpretation are diverse. While on one hand this is a sign of a lively research landscape, on the other hand it can be a challenge for the scientific dialogue across methodological boundaries. Furthermore, differences in teaching as well as research traditions in various countries can lead to a lack of comprehensibility concerning the “state of the art” in this field of research.
Due to the importance and breadth of this topic, we would like to discuss it in two related formats: A symposium and a round table discussion, that are linked together.
For the symposium, we have invited researchers who will present their current projects, representing a variety of methodical approaches:

- In the project of Louise Rosendal Bang, DEN, CONVERSATION ANALYSIS is used to reconstruct the sequential organization of literary learning processes and is combined with coding of data fragments,
- In the project of Miriam Harwart and Daniel Scherf, GER, DOCUMENTARY METHOD was chosen to reconstruct the implicit knowledge of the lessons’ participants),
- through INTERPRETATIVE CODING, used by Iris Winkler, GER, characteristics of teaching shall become visible,
- and the MIXING of different methods poses its own methodological challenges in the project TAMoLi, presented by Dominik Fässler, Steffen Siebenhüner, Andrea Bertschi-Kaufmann, Irene Pieper and Katrin Böhme, CH/GER.

The presentations should provide the impetus for a discussion of overarching questions on methodological approaches in the field of literature teaching. Such questions would include:

- How do different methodological approaches affect the constitution of the research object?
- How can the different perspectives complement each other in order to arrive at a more comprehensive picture of literature teaching?
- What are the practical difficulties of working with (findings of) different methods?

The subsequent discussion will be expanded in a subsequent round table discussion.

CHAIR: Marco Magirius (GER), Sören Ohlhus (GER); Daniel Scherf (GER)

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PRESENTATIONS IN THE SYMPOSIUM
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Louise Rosendal Bang, Aarhus University, Denmark

IS THERE A LITERARY CONVERSATION IN THIS CLASS?

In this PhD study the method of conversation analysis is used to investigate the literary conversation as it takes place in five different Danish secondary schools, five gymnasiums and at five author schools. Each session is audio recorded and data from the recordings is transcribed in order to clarify the general character of the teachers’ verbal didactical strategies when facilitating the literary conversation. From this clarification the aim is to point out the remarkable observations and to describe them and their related implications.
A central theme of the literary classroom conversation is how the world is understood, both through the readings of fictive stories and through the dialogic conversation about the stories. The tradition of conversation analysis corresponds to this by analyzing how people understand the world, but also by analyzing how people build and maintain order and norms in their existence. In this study conversation analysis is used in an unconventional way regarding how the teachers build and maintain the norms of organizing the literary conversation. A descriptive and unprejudiced approach is a common approach in conversation analysis, but research already shows that the literary classroom conversation holds a strong tendency for teacher-driven questions. The Nordic research tradition has developed different categories of teacher questions in literary classroom conversations. The types are divided into open questions that calls for student engagement and dialogue and closed questions that requires short student answers. This way of practicing conversation analysis includes observations specifically oriented towards these types of questions. Furthermore, it focuses on teacher and student utterances that are not questions and the character of these utterances.
Conversation analysis focuses mainly on social interaction in general. It also has a solid foundation in task- and institution-centered interactions. The data of the present study explores the different norms of practicing the literary conversation in the schooled institutions and the more artistic author schools in order to develop new opportunities for school teachers to talk about literature in many different ways.

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Miriam Harwart (Goethe Universität Frankfurt), Daniel Scherf (PH Heidelberg)

TEACHING LITERATURE ON THE HORIZON OF SUBJECT AND TEXT MATTERS

In literature classrooms, texts are used as medium for realizing learning goals. One of this might be to impart orientations which ways of ‘’reading literature” are appropriate for school and/or for every day reading. Against this background, what kind of learning objectives can actually be observed in literature classroom? What are teachers and students beliefs about appropriate ways of reading literature? These are the questions pursued by the research project „Dimensions of quality in the Literature Classroom: a video based study on interactive talk in literature education (GeföLit)”.
In order to get insights into the “hidden curriculum” of literature classrooms, the “documentary method” (Mannheim 1922; Bohnsack 2003) is used to reconstruct the beliefs of all participants in the interaction of literature lessons. To this end, four lessons in grade 8 (Secondary School) including interactive talk about the exposition of the novel “Scherbenpark” by Alina Bronsky where videotaped and analyzed following a reconstructive approach.
Using the “documentary method”, researchers commit themselves to tenets of Karl Mannheim (1922), who stated that (every day) social interaction is highly automated – so the interacting subjects themselves do not even know about their utilized knowledge. Therefore, such knowledge is hard to access and need to be reconstructed by focusing the documentary level of meaning.
The documentary method, as can be shown by analyzing four videotaped literature lessons, is suitable for the scientific reconstruction of the beliefs of the participants. Actually quite varying orientations were reconstructed; as well it could be shown that “Involved Reading”, which is a highly promoted goal of literature classroom in Germany (Spinner 2006), is a category, which is suitable for describing different types of orientations in literature classroom. However, it seems to be risky to reflect on the use of certain scientific concepts for practical teaching using these findings on its own, as it is impossible to decide on the effects of the reconstructed orientations on students interaction and learning processes. For this reason, triangulation concepts can be discussed subsequently.

References

Bohnsack, Ralf (2003): Rekonstruktive Sozialforschung. Einführung in qualitative Methoden. 5. Auflage. Opladen: Leske + Budrich
Mannheim, Karl (1922): Beiträge zur Theorie der Weltanschauungs-Interpretation. In: Jahrbuch für Kunstgeschichte, XV, 4.
Spinner, Kaspar H. (2006): Literarisches Lernen. Praxis Deutsch 200, 6-16.

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Iris Winkler

INVESTIGATING TEACHING QUALITY VIA A HIGHLY INFERENTIAL CODING SCHEME – CHANCES AND CHALLENGES

The context of the presentation is a research project aiming to investigate the relationship between teacher beliefs, teaching characteristics and learning outcomes in German L1 literature classes. The teaching characteristic mainly focused on is the potential for cognitive activation. Cognitive activation is one of three basic dimensions of teaching quality that has proved to influence the students’ learning outcome (Praetorius et al., 2018). Cognitively activating teaching can generally be described as challenging for the students and as inspiring for them to reflect deeply on the taught content. A first step of the research project was to conceptualize and operationalize cognitive activation domain-specifically (Winkler, 2017). As an interim research result the paper presents and discusses a highly inferent coding system for the rating of cognitive activation in L1 literature classes. The coding system was developed based on the pilot data of the study (6 videotaped literature lessons on the same short story in grade 8, lower secondary, N = 6 classes, 6 teachers, 107 students). In an iterative process, a theory-based category system was restructured and adapted several times considering the pilot data. Methodologically, by analysing the videos it comes to an interplay between case observation, content analysis, defining categories and quality rating. In this way, an interpretative process leads to encodable and thus quantitatively processable information with respect to the main study. Quality criteria of the research approach were met by the control of inter-rater reliability and by validating codings communicatively. The developed coding system offers a very close description of domain-specific teaching characteristics and integrates an empirical and normative view on teaching quality. However, using a codingscheme cannot just mean counting “hits”, but is highly interpretative.

References

Praetorius, A. K., Klieme, E., Herbert, B. & Pinker, P. (2018). Generic dimensions of teaching quality: the German framework of Three Basic Dimensions. ZDM Mathematics Education, 50(3), 407-426.
Winkler, I. (2017). Potenzial zu kognitiver Aktivierung im Literaturunterricht. Fachspezifische Profilierung eines prominenten Konstrukts der Unterrichtsforschung. Didaktik Deutsch, 43, 78-97.

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Dominik Fässler, Steffen Siebenhüner, Andrea Bertschi-Kaufmann, Irene Pieper & Katrin Böhme

COMBINING DIFFERENT METHODS TO ASSESS DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES:
the bi-national project TAMoLi – Texts, Activities and Motivations in Literature Education in Lower Secondary

Since the first PISA-study 2000 (OECD, 2000) a stronger focus on the notion of reading competence was implemented in the curricula for German as L1 in German speaking countries, thus potentially affecting the ways of dealing with literature. Traditionally, literature education has been oriented towards encounters with literature in the light of personal development. Supporting reading motivation has long been a priority. Are these aims loosing ground because of the current turn towards literacies? Empirical evidence on what goes on in the literature classroom is scarce.
The bi-national project TAMoLi focusses on literature- and reading education. We investigate aims and procedures of teachers in lower secondary (grades 8 and 9) in German-speaking Switzerland and Germany (Lower Saxony) and how students experience reading- and literature instruction. Besides, we assess the potential differences regarding literature education in the different school tracks and the two countries.
We chose a QUANQUAL Sequential Explanatory Design, in which a quantitative phase is followed by a qualitative (Ivankova, Creswell & Sticks, 2006). In the quantitative part we administered teacher (N = 115) and student (N = 2.173) questionnaires to investigate teachers’ orientations and aims in lower secondary as well as the perception of teaching on the part of their students and the students’ reading motivation. We also asked the teachers to record all texts, audio and visual media they used in the classroom during the period of 5 month (text and media collection). For investigating instructional goals and didactic approaches during the qualitative phase of our study, we selected a limited number of classes (CH: 9, D: 12) and videotaped at least one lesson per selected class where a literary texts (mostly a short story) was discussed. Furthermore we conducted interviews with teachers and selected students (4 of each class).
The paper explains the design and its individual components, focusing on the texts and media used for instruction. It provides insights into the integration of the different data sources in the quantitative (questionnaires, text and media collection) as well as the qualitative part (teacher interviews) and discusses challenges and opportunities of mixed methods research in educational contexts.

References

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). (2000). Measuring student knowledge and skills: The PISA 2000 assessment of reading, mathematical and scientific literacy. Paris: OECD. [Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). (2001). Lernen für das Leben: Erste Ergebnisse der internationalen Schulleistungsstudie PISA 2000. Paris: OECD.]
Ivankova, N. V., Creswell, J., & Stick, S. (2006). Using Mixed-Methods Sequential Explanatory Design: From Theory To Practice. Field Methods, 18, 3–20.

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ROUND-TABLE DISCUSSION
METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO THE LITERATURE CLASSROOM
=======================
In international research, a growing number of research projects investigate the practices, structures and effects of literature teaching from a perspective of Mother Tongue Education. The methodological premises of these studies as well as the chosen ways of data collection, processing and interpretation are diverse. While on one hand this is a sign of a lively research landscape, on the other hand it can be a challenge for the scientific dialogue through across methodological boundaries. Furthermore, differences in teaching as well as research traditions in various countries can lead to a lack of comprehensibility concerning the “state of the art” in this field of research.
Due to the importance and breadth of this topic, we would like to discuss it in two related formats: A symposium and a round table discussion, that are linked together to provide a platform for the presentation and discussion of methodological approaches to research on literature education.
While the symposium “Methodological Approaches to the Literature Classroom” is intended to provide an exemplary overview of the research landscape on literature teaching, the corresponding round table discussion provides the opportunity for further discussion, informed by the presentations of the symposium and initiated by short statements of four experts with different methodological backgrounds.

In this way we want to encourage the participants to transcend methodological boundaries and ponder the benefits of different perspectives on the common research object, the literature classroom.
The following experts have confirmed their participation:

1. John Gordon, UK, Conversation Analysis
2. Ida Gabrielsen, NOR, coding/content analysis
3. Katrin Böhme/Irene Pieper/Andrea Bertschi-Kaufmann, GER/CH, Mixed methods
4. Christoph Bräuer, GER, Reconstructive approaches

Each participant is offered a short 3-5 minute presentation on the topic; after the experts have made their introductory statement, all participants are asked to contribute to the discussion.

CHAIR: Marco Magirius (GER), Sören Ohlhus (GER); Daniel Scherf (GER)


Marco Magirius (Germany)
MIXED METHODS IN L1-EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH EXEMPLIFIED BY A STUDY ON BELIEFS OF L1-TEACHER TRAINING STUDENTS ON INTERPRETING

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 15:45-17:15 Room T16 Chair: Batalha, Joana
key words: mixed methods, beliefs, literature teacher education

Contemporary research on teaching competencies and teacher education is 
often empirical. However, in the case of literary education, the 
inherent weaknesses of mono-methodic approaches are particularly 
hindersome. Qualitative studies with small sample sizes may lack 
generalizability. In quantitative studies the operationalizations
can be artificial or ambiguous resulting in issues of validity. In my 
presentation I want to claim and develop, why and how 
mixed-methods-approaches help to complementarily compensate these 
weaknesses.

This will be exemplified by my mixed-methods PhD thesis. Here I began 
by adapting and constructing questionnaires to ask 467 students of five 
German universities about their beliefs on the characteristics of 
interpreting literature. I employed various statistical algorithms like 
an LCA and ANOVAs, and used the results of these to choose 22 students 
for 60 minute guided interviews. The interview transcripts were examined mainly 
with interpretative, qualitative content analysis. By doing this I 
acquired reasons for their decisions when filling in the questionnaire 
items regarding the role of the author’s intention, the reader’s 
subjectivity or criteria for appropriateness of interpretations.

The analyzed beliefs exhibit characteristics of 'middle range 
structures' (Kelle, 2009). On one hand, the students reproduce 
institutional positions underlying the academic and schoolish methods 
of interpreting. On the other hand some students contrast their concept 
of interpreting with these institutional positions and generate 
idiosyncratic innovations. Qualitative methods are needed in order to 
assess those innovations. The frequency and the correlations with other 
constructs and thus the relevance of the findings needs to be evaluated 
quantitatively. I am going to show how my sequential design not only 
aims for triangulation to increase validity but yields complementary 
elaboration via the integration of both methods to tackle the specific 
challenges posed by the research object.



Greene, J. C.; Caracelli, V. J. & F., G. W. (1989). Towards a Conceptual 
Framework for Mixed-Method Evaluation Designs Educational Evaluation and 
Policy Analysis. In American Educational Research Association, Sage 
Publications Inc., 11, 255-274

Kelle, U. (2009). Die Integration qualitativer und quantitativer 
Methoden in der empirischen Sozialforschung [The integration of qual. 
and quan. methods in empirical social science]. Wiesbaden, Germany: 
VS-Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.

Schoonenboom, J. & Johnson, R. B. (2017). How to Construct a Mixed 
Methods Research Design. In Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und 
Sozialpsychologie, 69, 107-131.

Zabka, T. (2012). Analyserituale und Lehrerüberzeugungen. Theoretische 
Untersuchung vermuteter Zusammenhänge [Rituals and beliefs of teachers: 
theoretical inquriy of suspected interrelationships]. In I. Pieper & D. 
Wieser (Eds.), Fachliches Wissen und literarisches Verstehen. Studien zu 
einer brisanten Relation (pp. 35-52), Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Peter Lang.


Petra Magnusson (Sweden)
UNDERSTANDING L1 TEACHERS’ TALK ABOUT DIGITALIZATION AND MULTIMODALITY

Paper session ARLE 2019 Friday, 11:00-12:30 Room T11 Chair: Gonçalves, Matilde
The 2017 revisions of the Swedish curriculum, mandatory from July 2018, were made to enhance digital competence in teaching and learning as four aspects, respectively dealing with effects on society, use of digital tools, critical awareness and responsibility and problem solving. This abstract report on an ongoing study of the implementation of the revised curriculum in an upper secondary school, focusing the teachers in Swedish as L1 and L2. The material contains of audio recordings and field notes from observations of professional development work on the revisions in curricula and syllabi, on assessment of students digital presentations and of teachers planning and teaching. The interest is to contribute to the understanding of how digitalization is perceived and used by teachers in Swedish as L1 and L2 by examining what vocabulary they use, what issues and aspects of digitalization they address in their discussions and planning of teaching. Using critical discourse analysis to examine the data, preliminary results expose the teachers’ talk as to a large extent focusing themes as technical aspects as opposite to subject content. The presentation suggests how the results can be discussed as examples of teachers’ different attitudes towards the revised curricula using theory from New Literacy Studies (Lankshear & Knobel, 2011) and the concept of multiliteracies (Kalantzis & Cope, 2012).

The results are also discussed in relation to teachers’ professional agency understood in an ecological way drawing on Biesta and Tedder (2007). The area of digitalization in curriculum is perceived as something profoundly new in teachers’ professional knowledge base (Cochran-Smith & Fries, 2005), thus, in the material from the beginning of a professional development program, perceived as challenging and threatening to L1 and L2 teacher agency.


References
Biesta, G. J. J., & Tedder, M. (2007). Agency and learning in the lifecourse: Towards an ecological perspective. Studies in the Education of Adults, 39, 132–149.

Cochran-Smith, M. & Fries, K. (2005). Researching teacher education in changing times: paradigms and politics, in Cochran-Smith, M. & Zeichner, K. (Eds.) Studying Teacher Education: The Report of the AERA Panel on Research and Teacher Education Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, pp. 69–110.

Kalantzis, M. & Cope, B. (2012). Literacies. Port Melbourne, Vic.: Cambridge University Press.

Lankshear, C. & Knobel, M. (2011). New literacies. (3rd ed.) Maidenhead, England: Open University Press.


Camilla G Magnusson (Norway)
ONE TEACHER’S READING COMPREHENSION INSTRUCTION IN AN EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE ARTS CLASSROOM, AND STUDENTS’ METACOGNITIVE AWARENESS OF OWN READING PROCESSES

Paper session ARLE 2019 Thursday, 11:00-12:30 Room T11 Chair: Jusslin, Sofia
Keywords: adolescent literacy, reading comprehension instruction, case study, video observation

Background: Voluminous research has shown that explicit reading comprehension instruction is important for reading achievement. However, we know little about whether this instruction get internalized by the students, or what students think about the usefulness of comprehension activities and strategies, especially at the secondary level.

Research question: What are the prominent features of one teacher’s reading comprehension instruction in an effective language arts classroom, and what are students’ metacognitive awareness of their own reading processes?

Theory: The study is based on theories of reading comprehension instruction and how it ought to be integrated in natural classroom settings at the secondary level, in order to enhance students’ reading proficiency. Important elements are, among others, explicit strategies and vocabulary instruction (Kamil et al., 2008), and students’ metacognitive awareness of own reading (Baker, 2017).

Methodology and data: This is a case study of one teacher’s reading comprehension instruction in one classroom at the lower-secondary level. The classroom was selected based on students' gains on the Norwegian National Test in reading, which were significantly higher than the national average. Four consecutive language arts lessons have been videotaped at three different points in time, in grade 8, 9 and 10, a total of 12 lessons. Additionally, the students were interviewed. A content analysis of the data is being conducted.

Preliminary results: The observations show that the teacher focuses particularly on explicit vocabulary instruction, general learning strategies and strategies for reading comprehension, such as getting an overview of the text before reading, making stops when reading to reflect and asking questions about the text, and different ways to summarize.

In the interviews, the students explain what they normally do when they get a new text during lessons, which corroborates the analysis of the observations. They also reflect on how they would go about reading a new and complex text on their own, by reflecting on different strategies they have learnt. When explaining their preferred use of one method over another, they frequently mention trying to figure out the meaning of unknown words.


References:

Baker, L. (2017). The development of metacognitive knowledge and control of comprehension: Contributors and consequences. In K. Mokhtari (Ed.), Improving reading comprehension through metacognitive reading strategies instruction. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Kamil, M. L., Borman, G. D., Dole, J., Kral, C. C., Salinger, T., & Torgesen, J. (2008). Improving adolescent literacy: Effective classroom and intervention practices: A Practice Guide (NCEE #2008-4027). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc.


Inger Maibom & GRETE DOLMER (Denmark)
SCAFFOLDED GRAMMAR TEACHING OF WRITING AND STUDENT GROUP WORK

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 09:30-11:00 Room T6 Chair: Batalha, Joana
Scaffolded Grammar Teaching of Writing and Student Group Work

Inger Maibom, VIA University College
Grete Dolmer, VIA University College

Keywords
Explicit grammar. Students’ writing. Scaffolding.

Field
Our project is based on the conviction that an explicit and functional approach to grammar embedded in the teaching of writing has a positive effect on students’ writing. (Myhill et al. 2018). Using Vygotsky and Bruner’s concept of zone of proximal development as the underlying basis, we examine the importance of teacher scaffolding for the students’ understanding and application of metalanguage when they produce texts in groups.

Research Questions
How is teacher scaffolding of language and grammar significant for the students’ writing of texts when they work in groups?
What positions do the students take or what positions are they assigned in the group work and how does this affect their writing?

Theory and method
In the talk we present findings from two key examples. In the analysis we apply positioning theory (Hetmar 2017) with the aim of determining the importance of the roles the students take or are assigned for when writing of texts. The project is part of a large national study (Gramma3, 2018-19). This study aims at contributing with valuable insight into the importance of the teacher’s scaffolding of grammar in L1 and the importance of pupils’ group work interaction in text writing (Mikkelsen et al. 2019). The study is a focused ethnographic study (Knoblauch, 2005) with data consisting of classroom observations and interviews with teachers and students in Year 7 and 8 from 7 schools in Denmark.

Key findings
We have found different contrasting tendencies in our study. In some classrooms we see examples of limited scaffolding and teaching of grammar, whereas other classrooms are characterized by more scaffolding and explicit teaching of grammar. The extent and nature of scaffolding have an impact on the positions the students take or are assigned in the group work and this becomes important for their writing. Our findings call attention to the need of intense scaffolding and functional teaching of grammar before and during the context of writing according to the students’ needs.

References
Hetmar, V. (2017): ’Positioneringsteori og scenariebaserede undervisningsforløb’ in Bundsgaard, J. et al.(red) (2017): Hvad er scenariedidaktik? Pp 75-95. Århus: Aarhus Universitetsforlag.
Mikkelsen, Holst og Rohde (2018) Stilladsering i innovativ undervisning med it. I Bundsgaard et al. (2018) (red) Innovativ undervisning med it. Aarhus Universitetsforlag
Myhill, D. (2018). Grammar as a meaning-making resource for improving writing. Contribution to a special issue Working on Grammar at School in L1-Education: Empirical Research across Linguistic Regions. L1-Educational Studies in Language and Literature, 18, pp. 1-21. https://doi.org/10.17239/L1ESLL-2018.18.04.04
Wood, David, Jeremy S. Bruner and Gail Ross (1976): The role of tutoring in problem solving. Nottingham, Oxford and Harvard Universities. Pergamon Press. Printed in Great Britain.


Aino Mäkikalli (Finland)
POTENTIALITY OF LITERARY THEORY IN CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE EDUCATION

Paper session ARLE 2019 Thursday, 15:45-17:15 Room T16 Chair: Ohlsson, Elisabeth
How do literary theory and literature education interact? This paper investigates the ways is which the theory of literature is embedded in contemporary national curriculums and in the core L1 text books of Finnish upper secondary school. In the 1970s and 80s various literary theories were in use in classroom literary instruction. Such concepts and theories, such as new criticism, psycho criticism, impressionistic, myth, and moral critique as well as reader response or feministic theory were discussed among literary scholars and teachers in professional journals (cf. Haavikko 1971; Korolainen & Mörsäri 1988). The objective was to educate students to acknowledge the history of nation’s literature and to build up their activity as readers (Kirstinä 1988, 108). Later, poststructuralist and narratologic methods arrived to Finnish L1 literature education and have mostly dominated the field ever since. At the moment, we need more discussion about the adequate approaches to literature. Whereas the focus of teaching textual discourses in classroom has moved to the direction of mediatexts and multimodalities, the implementation of teaching fictional texts (literature) has somewhat lacked theoretical discussion. I wish to argue that due to the diminishing role of literature in L1 classes we need to pay more attention to the theory behind literary education. What could be the appropriate approach to literature in teaching in order to promote reading among the young in the Finnish school system?

Keywords: literary theory, literature instruction, Finnish Upper Secondary School

References:
Haavikko, Ritva 1971: Kirjallisuuskritiikki ja opetus [Literary criticism and instruction]. Äidinkielen opettajain liiton vuosikirja 1971. Helsinki: ÄOL.
Kirstinä, Leena 1988: Lyhyt historia [Short history of literature instruction]. Äidinkielen opettajain liiton vuosikirja 1988. Helsinki: ÄOL, 106–114.
Korolainen, Tuula & Mörsäri, Hilja 1988: Lukemisen luokkakuva [Class picture of reading]. Äidinkielen opettajain liiton vuosikirja 1988. Helsinki: ÄOL.



Anabela Malpique & Deborah Pino-Pasternak (Australia)
WRITING AND READING PERFORMANCE IN YEAR 1 AUSTRALIAN CLASSROOMS: THE ROLE OF HANDWRITING AUTOMATICITY AND WRITING INSTRUCTION

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 09:30-11:00 Room T7 Chair: Elkad-Lehman, Ilana
Theories of writing development and accumulating evidence indicate that handwriting automaticity is related to the development of effective writing skills, and that writing and reading skills are also associated with each other. However, less is known about the nature of these associations and the role of instructional factors in the early years. In Australia, results from the 2017 National Assessment Program for Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) report a continued decline in the writing performance of Year 5, Year 7, and Year 9 students since 2011 (Australian Curriculum and Assessment Reporting Authority [ACARA], 2017). Research suggests that the writing difficulties students exhibit in the early years of schooling may explain the poor quality of writing in upper primary and high schools (Kent, Wanzek, Petscher, Al Otaiba, & Kim, 2014).
For the present study, we examined multilevel predictors - individual and classroom-level factors – for the writing and reading performance of Year 1 Australian students. We addressed the following research questions: (1) Does handwriting automaticity predict, longitudinally and concurrently, the writing performance and the reading performance of Year 1 Australian students? (2) Are there any associations between the writing and the reading performance of Year 1 Australian students and the amount and types of instructional practices for writing? The current study involved 154 Year 1 children (Mage = 6.48, SD = 3.65 months; 52% female) enrolled in 24 classrooms from seven primary schools in Western Australia. Individual child-level data (i.e., handwriting automaticity, word-reading, writing quality and production) were collected and teachers completed a survey assessing the amount and type of writing instruction in their classrooms (i.e., teaching basic skills and teaching writing processes).
Results from multilevel modelling showed handwriting automaticity predicted both writing quality and writing production concurrently and longitudinally after accounting for gender and initial word reading skills. In addition, handwriting automaticity predicted reading performance longitudinally. Findings further suggested that it is not necessarily the time spent on teaching writing that matters most but what teachers do and what students do in the allocated time for writing. Implications for writing development and writing instruction will be discussed.

Keywords: handwriting automaticity; writing instruction; writing development; reading development; early education

References
Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA). (2017). NAPLAN achievement in reading, writing, language conventions, and numeracy. National report for 2017. Sydney: ACARA. Retrieved from https://www.nap.edu.au/docs/default-source/default-document-library/naplan-national-report-2017_final_04dec2017.pdf?sfvrsn=0
Kim, Y. S., Al Otaiba, S., Sidler, J. F., & Greulich, L. (2013). Language, literacy, attentional behaviors, and instructional quality predictors of written composition for first graders. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 28, 461-469. doi:10.1016/j.ecresq.2013.01.001
Kent, S., Wanzek, J., Petscher, Y., Al Otaiba, S., & Kim, Y. S. (2014). Writing fluency and quality in kindergarten and first grade: The role of attention, reading, transcription, and oral language. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 27, 1163-1188. doi:10.1007/s11145-013-9480-1


Rocío Martínez & Diego Morales (Argentina)
WHY IS IT NECESSARY TO CREATE EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FOR DEAF CHILDREN, FAMILIES, AND SCHOOLS WITH THE CONSTANT INVOLVEMENT OF THE LOCAL DEAF COMMUNITY?

The aim of this presentation is to discuss theoretical and methodological considerations in the design of a group of bilingual educational resources (Argentine Sign Language -LSA- and Spanish) for Deaf children called Señario. Señario is part of our ethnographic work with the Argentine Deaf community and responds to the anthropology-by-demand model (Segato, 2018). The Deaf community specifically demands resources designed for the sociolinguistic situation of most Deaf children around the globe: they are born to hearing families that are unaware of the benefits of early exposure to sign language and multilingualism, and they go to schools that not always respect their linguistic rights (World Federation of the Deaf, 2016).
Thus, the first educational resource that is currently being designed within the Señario project is a basic bilingual LSA/Spanish dictionary with cultural notes, oriented to Deaf children and also to their families and schools. Thanks to our ethnographic work, we were able to organize several meetings with representatives of 15 associations of the deaf to document basic LSA signs and cultural information on the Deaf community. Following the design research approach (Collins, Joseph, & Bielaczyc, 2004), we have built knowledge with the Deaf community that has allowed us to continuously refine the design of the first resource.
The theory built on this experience leads us to think that there are three main reasons why it is necessary to design educational resources with the constant participation of the local Deaf community. Firstly, there are linguistic reasons. Since we consider languages as processes that emerge from discourse (Hopper, 1988), it is of vital importance to have data consisting of people who belong to the Deaf community. Secondly, there are sociocultural reasons. There are still many wrong popular assumptions surrounding the language and culture of Deaf people in Argentina that prevent Deaf children from having early exposure to sign language and multilingualism. Deaf people have first-hand experience of the problems caused by these popular assumptions, and they can provide insightful ways for overcoming them. Lastly, there are ethic/political reasons. To support the agency of the Deaf people in all the subjects that concern them is beneficial to the process of social inclusion from the bottom-up (Musgrave & Bradshaw, 2014).

Keywords: educational resources, Deaf community, sign language, design research, anthropology-by-demand

References
Collins, A., Joseph, D., & Bielaczyc, K. (2004). Design Research: Theoretical and Methodological Issues. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 13(1), 15–42.
Hopper, P. (1988). Emergent Grammar and the A priori Grammar Postulate. In D. Tannen (Ed.), Linguistics in Context: Connecting Observation and Understanding. Norwood, New Yersey: Ablex.
Musgrave, S., & Bradshaw, J. (2014). Language and social inclusion: Unexplored aspects of intercultural communication. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics, 37(3), 198–212. https://doi.org/10.1075/aral.37.3.01mus
Segato, R. (2018). La crítica de la colonialidad en ocho ensayos. Y una antropología por demanda (2nd ed.). Buenos Aires: Prometeo.
World Federation of the Deaf. (2016). WFD position paper on the language rights of deaf children. Retrieved from https://wfdeaf.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/WFD-Position-Paper-on-Language-Rights-of-Deaf-Children-7-Sept-2016.pdf


Ana S. Martins (Portugal)
TEXT COMPLEXITY AND WORD LEARNING

Paper session ARLE 2019 Friday, 14:00-15:30 Room T10 Chair: Batalha, Joana
Vocabulary knowledge is a critical factor in reading comprehension. Although attention has been widely given to vocabulary acquisition in the early stages of schooling, as well as in a L2 learning context, research regarding L1 vocabulary growth in higher school grades is relatively scarce. Consequently, direct and explicit guidance on specific words learning strategies are virtually abandoned after primary school, L1 vocabularies being relegated to incidental learning through independent reading. Yet incidental learning accounts for low retention rates (Hulstijn et al., 1996) and little is known about which text features should be considered in order to facilitate students’ word learning (Scott, 2005). Conversely, reading comprehension only takes place if the percentage of known words in a text is 98% (Nation, 2001).
This paper presents the results of an on-going experimental study hypothesising about the influence of text complexity in L1 word retention. It is assumed that the helpfulness of text context towards word retention depends on (i) low density of unknown words in the local context; (ii) low co-occurrence of subordinate clauses and other embedded structures; (iii) co-reference (Martins, 2012).160 9th grade students of Portuguese (L1) attending Portuguese public schools are randomly assigned to two condition groups. The experimental condition group read a simplified informational text; the control condition group read a highly complex text. Marginal glosses of 20 target words are provided in both texts, along with glosses of non-target words. A pre-text and post-test addressing the target words are delivered before and after the treatment applied to both groups. Results for meaning accuracy delivered in the post-test are measured using a T-test for unpaired samples.
This study aims at contributing to the knowledge of the textual determinants facilitating vocabulary acquisition and suggests generalisations about textbooks writing procedures.

Keywords: vocabulary, reading comprehension, text complexity

References

Hulstijn, J. H., Hollander, M., & Greidanus, T. (1996). Incidental vocabulary learning by advanced foreign language students: The influence of marginal glosses, dictionary use, and recurrence of unknown words. The Modern Language Journal, 80 (3): 327-339.
Martins, A. S. (2012). Simplificação textual: operações em sequências transfrásicas. Textos selecionados, XXVII Encontro Nacional da Associação Portuguesa de Linguística, Lisboa APL: 437-450.

Nation, I.S.P. (2001). Learning Vocabulary in Another Language, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Scott, J. A. (2005). Creating opportunities to acquire new word meanings from text. In E. H. Hiebert & M. L. Kamil (Eds.), Teaching and Learning Vocabulary: Bringing research to practice, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum: 69-91.



Antoneli Matos Belli Sinder (Canada)
CANONICAL BRAZILIAN LITERATURE TEXTS IN PORTUGUESE LANGUAGE CLASSES

This article examines the didactic treatment and practice of canonical Brazilian literature texts in Portuguese language classes. The study investigates the importance of this matter in a contemporary curriculum, and its relevance and possible implications for Brazilian students in the senior years of Elementary School and the juniors in High School in a learner-centered approach (Willis & Willis 1996; Larsen-Freeman 1986; David Nunan, 1990). This is a point of crucial challenges and specific issues that involve cultural models and heritage, diversity in identities and backgrounds, aesthetic preferences, and students as more active agents on their own language learning (Graves, 1996; McDevitt, 2004; Breen & Littlejohn, 2000). Taking these aspects into consideration, this article aims to provide an overview of the relationship between the use of literary canon texts (as authentic material) and language learning, based on the premise that these texts could play a unique and vital role in teaching (McGrath, 2013).


Johannes Mayer (Germany)
BOOK READING AS A SHARED MULTIMODAL ACTIVITY

Paper session ARLE 2019 Friday, 11:00-12:30 Room T15 Chair: Ruivo, Alexandra
Studies show the importance of shared book reading interactions within families as a basic factor for language acquisition, literacy and literary enculturation (f.e. Wieler 1997). Especially dialogic reading supports verbal and cognitive development in the early childhood (Whitehurst et al. 1988). Joint reading of picture books, for instance also creates an emotional intense situation where early literary experiences are embedded in interactions with a significant adult that scaffolds the literary learning processes with a temporary supportive interpersonal framework: a learning format (Bruner 2002). Perceptions of aesthetic structures can be a starting point for a conversation or narration, furthermore ambiguity, understanding and non-understanding can be a part of a shared reception and experience.
The explorative multiple case study examines situations of shared book reading in families, in pre-school and in primary school that were documented on camera and transliterated with GAT2. The reconstructive ethnographic analysis follows the analytical concept of key events or key incidents as a specific means of controlled data reduction and interpretation (Kroon/Sturm 2002) and focusses on aspects of multimodality in interactions between children, adult and peer.
The analysis shows ways in which modes of meaning interface with oral, visual, audio, gestural, and other patterns of meanings in literary experiences. The co-occurrence of different semiotic resources and inter-modal relations exemplifies the complexity of what can be called a shared understanding and a joint social praxis. Joint action and interaction in the early years of childhood provide the scaffold for children’s growing ability to comprehend what is happening around them, and what is being said in the situation. They learn to understand language and action simultaneously, since these complement one another.
One didactic conclusion can be that the staging of reading aloud situations should include multimodal activities to set a shared focus and constitute a domain of scrutiny. This might be especially important for adapting the inclusion model for Literary Education where theatrical elements can play an important part in creating literary events that allow experiences and a shared activity for all.

Keywords:
literary learning, read-aloud interactions, emotions, multimodality, performativity

References:
Bruner, J. 2002. Wie das Kind sprechen lernt. 2nd ed. Bern et al.: Huber.
Kroon, S./Sturm, J. 2002. „Key Incident Analyse“ und „internationale Triangulierung“ als Verfahren in der empirischen Unterrichtsforschung. – C. Kammler & W. Knapp, eds., Empirische Unterrichtsforschung und Deutschdidaktik. Baltmannsweiler: Schneider Verlag Hohengehren, 96–114.
Whitehurst, G. J., et al. 1988. Accelerating Language Development Through Picture Book Reading. – Developmental Psychology, 24 (4), 552–559.
Wieler, P. 1997. Vorlesen in der Familie. Fallstudien zur literarisch-kulturellen Sozialisation von Vierjährigen. Weinheim/München: Juventa.


Larissa McLean Davies & Wayne Sawyer & Lyn Yates & Brenton Doecke & Philip Mead (Australia)
WHAT ARE WE DEVELOPING?: PRIORITIES AND CHALLENGES FOR TEACHING LITERATURE IN SECONDARY SUBJECT ENGLISH IN AUSTRALIA

Paper session ARLE 2019 Friday, 14:00-15:30 Room T15 Chair: Pieper, Irene
Like in other Anglophone countries such as the United Kingdom and the United States, subject English exists in a contested space in Australia: it is at once responsible for both literacy and the moral and ethical education of students (Patterson, 2000), but at the same time, seen as having ‘no content’ (Dixon, 1975) and lacking a tangible body of knowledge (Doecke et al, 2018). The subject is also complicated by a high-stakes examination environment in many areas of the country, curriculum and policy pressures, and debates around literature versus literacy (Green, 2018). This multifaceted and contested environment raises questions about the knowledge English teachers have or need to have, how institutional and social contexts shape teacher experience and pedagogy, what constitutes ‘development’ in English and the role of the literary in this curriculum domain.
This paper arises from this context, and a four-year Australian Research Council project called Investigating Literary Knowledge in the Making of English Teachers (DP160101084). This project is undertaking a multi-faceted, integrated investigation of literature and its role in English that will enable a better understanding of the meanings, practices, relationships and influences currently at work in informing teachers’ practices with regard to developing knowledge in English. As part of this project, the presenters have undertaken a nation-wide survey of English teachers (740 respondents) which seeks to understand the social and institutional contexts which have informed, and are informing teachers’ perceptions of knowledge. In this paper, we report on two key questions from the survey which reveal teachers’ key priorities and challenges for teaching literature in their English classrooms. We ask ‘What do these challenges and priorities reveal about understandings of knowledge in English? Are some forms of knowledge more or less valued than others? And, what do these priorities reveal about teacher ‘development, and development in subject English? It also considers how teachers’ level of experience impacts on their priorities as a teacher of literature and on the challenges they face and how text selection impacts on these issues for English teachers.
This paper builds on previous publications arising from the project including those considering the role of knowledge in the Australian Curriculum: English (McLean Davies & Sawyer, 2018) and debates around knowledge and literature in secondary and tertiary contexts (Yates et al., forthcoming).

Keywords: literature, development, teacher education, knowledge, english

References
Dixon, J. (1975). Growth through English: Set in the Perspective of the Seventies. National Association for the Teaching of English.
Doecke, B., McLean Davies, L. Sawyer, W. (2018) Blowing and Blundering in Space: English in the Australian Curriculum. In Reid, A, Price, D. (Eds), The Australian Curriculum: Promises, Problems and Possibilities.
Green, B. (2018). Engaging Curriculum: Bridging the Curriculum Theory and English Education Divide. London: Routledge.
McLean Davies, L. & Sawyer, W. (2018). (K)now you see it, (k) now you don’t: literary knowledge in the Australian Curriculum: English. Journal of Curriculum Studies. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220272.2018.1499807
Patterson, A. (2000). English in Australia: its emergence and transformations. In Questions of English: Ethics, aesthetics, rhetoric, and the formation of the subject in English, Australia and the United States. Eds. Peel, R., Patterson, A. & Gerlach, J. London: Routledge.
Yates, L., McLean Davies, L., Buzacott., L., Doecke, B., Mead, P., Sawyer, W. (forthcoming). School English, Literature and the Knowledge-Base Question. The Curriculum Journal.


Larissa McLean Davies & Wayne Sawyer & andy goodwyn (Australia)
LITERATURE AND ‘DEVELOPMENT’

Symposium ARLE 2019 Thursday, 11:00-12:30 Room T6
The study of literature has never had an easy relationship with the idea of ‘development’ in education. The term ‘development’ in the past brought with it suggestions of the cognitive and psychological and connotations of linearity that sat uneasily with ‘the cultural praxis … in which arguments about the value of literature and a literary education have traditionally been played out’ (Doecke, 2016:9). This is despite the fact that literary criticism – especially of the reader response schools - has had an historical tradition of the psychological and the cognitive, seeing reading as a process which depends upon the psychological needs of readers, for example (Bleich, 1978; Holland, 1975), or relating cognition and evaluation as co-defining features of response (Harding, 1962; Bleich, 1980: 143). In the L1 educational arena, developmental models for literary response are not unknown historically (Protherough, 1983; Thomson, 1987; Witte et al 2012) and more recently, advocacy of scientific approaches to literary study in learning environments has pursued this work while continuing to ascribe to a literary education traditional humanising role around empathy and moral imagination (Burke et al, 2016). Moreover, developmental psychology itself today works with paradigms other than the linear. While none of this is unproblematic, it nevertheless raises a number of questions around literature and development in the 21st century that will be taken up in this symposium such as: what is interplay of cognitive and affective approaches to literary learning and development in contemporary classrooms? How are text focussed, and student focussed notions of development reconciled (Witte et al)? How does official curricula frame literary development, and how does this impact on teachers’ work with students? And what is the relationship between particular pedagogical strategies and approaches to students’ literary development? To this end, Paper 1 will draw on research undertaken in the Australian context to investigate the role of notions of literary development in contemporary literary curricula. It will consider specifically the place of taxonomies in curricula design, and the implications of this for practice. Paper 2 will explore the role of literature in the development of students’ affective responses to texts and draw on research undertaken with teachers in England to consider the impacts of official curricula and mandated texts lists on students’ affective development. Finally, Paper 3 will investigate principles and strategies through which teachers in Denmark might work out programs for ‘literary development’ in their classrooms, and what these interventions might mean for our understandings of the impacts of literature on students’ ontological development.

References
Bleich, D. (1978) Subjective Criticism, Baltimore & London: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Bleich, D. (1980) ‘Epistemological assumptions in the study of response’, in J.P. Tompkins, Reader-Response Criticism: From Formalism to Post-Structuralism, Baltimore & London: Johns Hopkins University Press: 134-163.
Burke, M., Fialho, O. & Zyngier, S. (eds) (2016), Scientific Approaches to Literature in Learning Environments. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Doecke, B. (2016) ‘Understanding literary reading: the need for a scientific approach? Review essay: Michael Burke, Olivia Fialho and Sonia Zyngier (eds) (2016), Scientific Approaches to Literature in Learning Environments’, L1-Educational Studies in Language and Literature, 16: 1-11 http://dx.doi.org/10.17239/L1ESLL-2016.16.01.07.
Harding, D. W. (1962) ‘Psychological processes in the reading of fiction’, British Journal of Aesthetics, 2 (2), April:133-147.
Holland, N. (1975) 5 Readers Reading, New Haven & London: Yale University Press.
Protherough, R. (1983) Developing Response to Fiction, Milton Keynes & Philadelphia: Open University Press.
Thomson, J. (1987) Understanding Teenagers’ Reading: Reading Processes and the Teaching of Literature, Ryde, New York & London: Methuen, Nichols Publishing & Croom Helm.
Witte, T., Rijlaarsdam, G., and Schram, D. (2012). An Empirically Grounded Theory of Literary Development. Teachers’ Pedagogical Content Knowledge on Literary Development in Upper Secondary Education. L1- Educational Studies in Language and Literature, Vol. 12, pp1-33. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED562547.

Keywords: literature, curriculum, English, development, knowledge




Alejandra Menti & María Paula Dutari & Sebastián Carignano & Celia R. Rosemberg (Argentina)
THE TEACHING OF WORDS AND INFORMATION JUXTAPOSITION. AN ANALYSIS OF KINDERGARTEN AND FIRST GRADE CLASSES

Short presentations (poster) and extended discussion ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 14:30-15:30 Room T10 Chair: Awramiuk, Elżbieta
The aim of the work is to carry out a comparative analysis of the different types of information that teachers provide when teaching “unfamiliar” and “highly unfamiliar” words to students. The corpus is made up of 8 teaching situations in which teachers developed in full the thematic unit “Types of Work”. The classes were videotaped in 8 groups: 4 five-year old kindergarten classes and 4 first-grade classes. For each level of schooling we selected 2 grades from schools in urban areas and 2 grades from schools in rural areas. All the situations amount to 19 teaching hours and were transcribed following the CHILDES project norms. We employed quantitative and qualitative methods of analysis. By means of the CLAN software, we selected the 15 most frequent words uttered by teachers, which made up the academic text of the class (Green, Weade & Graham, 1988). Then, a subjective assessment was carried out in order to categorize the selected words into “very familiar”, “unfamiliar” and “highly unfamiliar”. After that, we identified and quantified interactional sequences, considering whether or not the teacher taught the “unfamiliar” and “highly unfamiliar” words. Next, we carried out a qualitative analysis of the interactional sequences based on the different types of information given by teachers when they teach the selected words. The qualitative analysis combined the use of the constant comparative method (Glaser & Strauss, 1967), with the heuristic use of concepts developed by interactional sociolinguistics, conversation analysis and gesture studies. In the sample analyzed, results show that the teachers of both levels focused on the teaching of “unfamiliar” words and that they tended to juxtapose different kinds of information when teaching them. However, kindergarten teachers resorted more to the retrieval of previous knowledge than first grade teachers. Moreover, in this sample, teachers from urban schools used more gestural information than those from schools of rural areas.


Margaret Kristin Merga ()
SUPPORTING LITERACY AND LITERATURE LEARNING: THE ROLE OF LIBRARIANS IN SCHOOLS

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 11:30-13:00 Room T11 Chair: Viegas, Filomena B.
Young people must receive high-quality instruction and support in literacy and literature learning in order to meet their ongoing academic, social and vocational needs. While librarians in schools often face significant staffing and budgetary cuts, research supports the contention that they can play an important role in supporting this learning (e.g. Lance & Kachel, 2018). However, little is known about the practices that they may employ to this end. Of particular interest is the role of librarians in schools in supporting the increasing numbers of struggling readers (Spichtig, et al., 2016). Struggling readers have their disadvantage compounded as they move through the years of schooling by a Matthew Effect: capable students who read frequently get “richer” through continued exposure to reading, and the gap between them and struggling readers widens (Stanovich 2009). Interview data were collected from teacher librarians at 30 schools as part of the Teacher Librarians as Australian Literature Advocates in Schools project. These data were analysed to discern recurrent literacy and literature skill supportive practices exercised by teacher librarians using a cross-case analysis was employed using an inductive approach, which involved close reading of the data to derive key recurrent practices rather than themes (Thomas 2006). . Subsequently, ten practices that closely aligned with extant research around supporting struggling readers were identified. Teacher librarians may play multifaceted roles in providing targeted support for struggling readers by identifying struggling readers, providing them with age and skill-appropriate materials, undertaking skill scaffolding supporting choice, supporting students with special needs, providing one-to-one matching, promoting access to books, enhancing the social position of books and reading, reading aloud to students, facilitating silent reading, and preparing students for high-stakes literacy testing.

Lance, K. C., & Kachel, D. E. (2018). Why school librarians matter: What years of research tell us. Phi Delta Kappan, 99(7), 15-20.
Spichtig, A. N., Hiebert, E. H., Vorstius, C., Pascoe, J. P., David Pearson, P., & Radach, R. (2016). The decline of comprehension‐based silent reading efficiency in the United States: A comparison of current data with performance in 1960. Reading Research Quarterly, 51(2), 239-259.
Stanovich, K. E. (2009). Matthew effects in reading: Some consequences of individual differences in the acquisition of literacy. Journal of Education, 189(1-2), 23-55.
Thomas, D. R. (2006). A general inductive approach for analyzing qualitative evaluation data. American Journal of Evaluation, 27(2): 237–246.

Keywords: Reading; literacy pedagogy; struggling readers; teacher librarians; school librarians; qualitative



Per Arne Michelsen (Norway)
DIALOGIC ASPECTS IN SPEECHES

Paper session ARLE 2019 Thursday, 11:00-12:30 Room T14 Chair: Dera, Jeroen
Abstract

Key words:
Rhetoric, oracy, dialogic education

Background
This Project, Dialogic Aspects in Speeches, is a study of a number of speeches made by pupils in Norwegian lower secondary school. In a large school project all pupils in 8th and 10th grade at a school in Bergen were introduced to the art of speeches. The school project was designed in details by the teachers at the school, who were inspired by a larger project called “To talk like TED”. They also invited researchers from Western Norway University of Applied Sciences to teach the pupils about rhetoric and how to give a speech.

The pupils made one English and one Norwegian version of their speeches. All speeches were filmed. However, the main material in this study contains of written transcriptions of a selection of the speeches from the school project.

Research question
A speech whether it is juridical, political, epideictic or of another, more mixed kind, is often considered as a monologic genre. My research question is: Does a speech have dialogic qualities as well?

Theoretical framework
Rhetoric is one important theoretical premise for the study.

In Norwegian school oracy is crowned as one of five fundamental skills, together with reading, writing, numeracy and digital skills. However, oracy has not received the same attention among teachers and researchers as the other skills. This is a pity, since oral activities are dominant in all education.

I want to study the dialogic aspects and the conceptual understanding in the speeches. Dialogic education is therefore another important premise for the study. Dialogic education deals with how to learn and think through dialogue, to see things from different points of view and to be open for other ideas and think critically.

Methodology
My study is a literary close reading of the transcribed material using rhetorical-hermeneutic methods.

References
- Bakhtin, Mikhail. 1986. «Methodology for the Human Sciences» i Speech Genres & Other Late Essays, University of Texas Press.
- Kjeldsen, Jens E: 2004: Retorikk i vår tid. Oslo: Spartacus forlag.
- Phillipson, Neil and Rupert Wegerif (2016): Dialogic Education. Mastering Core Concepts Through Thinking Together. Routledge.


Louise Molbæk (Denmark)
SITUATION BASED (AUTHENTIC) WRITING

Authenticity has often been perceived as an ideal and challenge in education. Especially Resnick and Shaffer are known for their multiple perspective (real world-, personal- and disciplinary authenticity and, authentic assessment). In this presentation, which is based on my Design Based inspired Ph.D Project, this notion on authenticity is nuanced, in that authenticity in writing is defined as an emancipatory ideal linked to the concept of agency and approached as a dialogic performance (Hatab).

In order to support writing as a dialogic performance, an Educational Design was developed in which writing is approached as not merely form and content. The Design intended to initiate students into practices, where writing could appear and be enacted as a social action; a rhetorical response to a situation with the intention of changing that situation (Miller).

A focus in the Design has therefore been specific rhetorical situations. These situations were represented in three classrooms (5th grade) in form of a fictional short film and two different real world situations. Students have worked collaboratively on interpretations of the rhetorical situations using so-called writing maps (inspired by Bakhtin’s concept on voice and dialogism). The writing map encourage the students to discuss purpose, presentation of topic, positioning of reader and themselves as writers in order to achieve their defined goal in their written response to the specific situation.

The purpose of the project has been to explore, describe and comprehend primarily student participation during implementation and identify challenges and potentials in this Situation Based approach to writing as authentic practice. Using ethnografic approach; observation, voice recordings and interviews, I explored how students encountered, enacted and attached aspects of writing significance. In my analysis I am informed by Constructivistic Interactive Analysis especially focused on the use of voice and possibilities for selfhood (Ivanic).

In short my findings shows that this Situation Based Writing:

• is challenging for some students
• holds a potential of representing writing as dialogical social action
• indicates that real world rhetorical situation may be real and stimulate imagination but not necessarily authentic from the perspective of the students

References

Bakhtin, M.M. (1986) Speech Genres and Other Late Essays. Trans. Vern W. McGee. Austin, Tx: University of Texas Press
Hatab, L. J. (2015). Can We Drop the Subject? Heidegger, Selfhood, and the History of a Modern Word. In H. Pedersen & M. Altman (Eds.), Horizons of Authenticity in Phenomenology, Existentialism, and Moral Psychology: Essays in Honor of Charles Guignon (pp. 13-30). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
Ivanič, R. (1998). Writing and identity : the discoursal construction of identity in academic writing Studies in written language and literacy. Amsterdam. John Benjamin
Miller, C. R. (1984). Genre as social action. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 70(2), 151-167.


Miriam Morek & Anke A. Herder & Debra A Myhill (Germany)
TEACHERS’ AND STUDENTS’ METATALK ABOUT WRITTEN TEXT PRODUCTION AND NEGOTIATION OF CONCEPTS OF WRITING

Symposium ARLE 2019 Thursday, 11:00-12:30 Room T7
This symposium builds on recent research within writing pedagogy that focuses on the role of talk as a mediational tool for learning about writing” (Jesson et al. 2016:155). It takes a micro-analytic perspective on teachers’ and students’ interactions about written text production in primary and secondary classrooms. The aim is to uncover the interplay of different “discourses of writing” (Ivanič 2004) and the negotiation of concepts of writing (cf. Jesson et al. 2016) between teachers and learners.
Previous studies that have examined metatalk about written text production in (language) classrooms have enhanced our knowledge as to what aspects of writing are made relevant (e.g. lexical appropriateness, accuracy) for instance in peer interaction (Herder et al. 2018). Also, they point to the role of teachers’ professional knowledge and management of dialogic exchange (cf. Jesson et al. 2016; Myhill et al. 2016). Yet the question of how exactly teachers’ and learners’ understandings of writing are interactively brought about and individually appropriated by learners across learning situations, deserves further analysis.
Therefore, this symposium sets out to examine how children and teachers verbalize, negotiate and align underlying concepts and (tacit) norms of writing in actual sequences of metatalk on. In doing so, we assume that the “ways in which people talk about writing and learning to write, and the actions they take as learners, teachers and assessors” (Ivanič 2004:220) are instantiations of particular “discourses of writing and learning to write” (ibid.), and open up insights into processes of individual concept formation. The papers in the symposium will integrate (1) a longitudinal perspective on how teachers’ and students’ talk about linguistic decision-making in writing develops across time (Myhill), (2) a focus on reflective practices and instantiations of writing norms in collaborative writing among peers (Herder), and (3) a comparative analysis of concept formation in whole-class discussion with students’ group work (Morek). Our examinations on divergences and convergences in students’ and teachers’ talk about writing may contribute to a theory of the acquisition of writing skills that incorporates processes of negotiating and appropriating explicit and implicit learning offers in the language classroom.
Key words: metatalk, writing education, micro-analysis, classroom interaction, conceptual learning

References:
Herder, Anke; Berenst, Jan; Glopper, Kees de; Koole, Tom (2018): Reflective practices in collaborative writing of primary school students. In: International Journal of Educational Research 90, S. 160–174.
Ivanič, Roz (2004): Discourses of Writing and Learning to Write. In: Language and Education 18 (3), S. 220–245.
Jesson, Rebecca; Fontich, Xavier; Myhill, Debra (2016): Creating dialogic spaces. Talk as a mediational tool in becoming a writer. In: International Journal of Educational Research 80, S. 155–163.
Myhill, Debra; Jones, Susan; Wilson, Anthony (2016): Writing conversations. Fostering metalinguistic discussion about writing. In: Research Papers in Education 31 (1), S. 23–44.

Prof. Dr. Miriam Morek
University of Duisburg-Essen
Department of German Language and Literature
miriam.morek@uni-due.de

Anke Herder
University of Groningen
Center for Language und Cognition
anke.herder@nhl.nl

Prof. Debra Myhill
University of Exeter
Graduate School of Education
D.A.Myhill@exeter.ac.uk

Prof. Dr. Sören Ohlhus
University of Hildesheim
Department of German Language and Literature
ohlhus@uni-hildesheim.de


Natascha Naujok (Germany)
PARTICIPATION IN STORYTELLING SETTINGS – MULTIMODAL APPROACHES IN MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION

Paper session ARLE 2019 Thursday, 14:00-15:30 Room T15 Chair: Coutinho, Antónia
Keywords: Multilingual Education, Multimodality, Mimesis, Participation, Storytelling

The presentation focusses on the research project Erzählbrücken (Narrative Bridges) which reconstructs the chances of multimodal storytelling for multilingual education (Naujok 2018). Erzählbrücken convoyed an independently developed storytelling project which took place in four so-called welcome classes in a Berlin primary school. (In Berlin, shortly immigrated children usually start school in classes, which are installed only for them and have half as many pupils as regular classes.) From February until July 2017, once a week, each of these classes enjoyed a storytelling session with a certified storyteller. The stories were performed in German language, with intense modulation, accompanied by strong facial expression, by different kinds of gesture and move, using pictures and objects – briefly: multimodally. In each week following a storytelling event each pupil drew a picture in relation to the story they had heard and at the beginning of the following session everyone presented her/his picture in front of the group.
The research questions concerning this whole context are: How do the pupils participate in the storytelling phases and how do they cope with the picture presentations? How do they deal with the different modalities in these contexts? What are the chances in these settings? Crucial theoretical concepts of the study are those of multimodality, of participation, and of holistic, (syn)aesthetic, mimetic, and dialogic learning (e.g. Spinner 2008, Wulf 2014). The research project has an ethnographic and reconstructive focus. Field observations (recorded in writing), videographies (to be transcribed including multimodal aspects), and pupils’ works (copies) were collected and get analysed mainly leaning on interpretative, multimodal interaction analysis (e.g. Schmitt 2015).
The study reconstructs that the pupils experienced the storytelling not only listening, but watching, moving, and acting themselves. It reveals that they were able to present their pictures from the very beginning. And it shows, that and how multimodal storytelling in a second (third, forth, …) language allows pupils to enter a story, a language, and a culture which are new to them – all at the same time. In this complex context, it becomes obvious that and how multimodality allows participation.

References
Naujok, N. (2018). Erzählbrücken – Szenisches Erzählen für neu zugewanderte Kinder und das unterstützende Potenzial von Literalität. In: Leseforum Schweiz – Literalität in Forschung und Praxis, H. 2/2018, pp. 1-17. URL: www.leseforum.ch.
Schmitt, R. (2015). Positionspapier: Multimodale Interaktionsanalyse. In: Dausendschön-Gay, U./ Gülich, E./ Krafft, U. (Eds.), Ko-Konstruktionen in der Interaktion. Die gemeinsame Arbeit an Äußerungen und anderen sozialen Ereignissen. Bielefeld: transkript, pp. 43-51.
Spinner, K. (2008). Perspektiven ästhetischer Bildung. Zwölf Thesen. In: Vorst, C./ Grosser, S./ Eckhardt, J./ Burrichter, R. (Eds.), Ästhetisches Lernen. Frankfurt a.M. u.a.: Peter Lang, pp. 9-23.
Wulf, C. (2014). Mimesis. Kulturelles Lernen als mimetisches Lernen. In: Pantazis, V.E./ Stork, M. (Eds.), Ommasin alois. Festschrift für Professor Ioannis E. Theodoropoulos zum 65. Geburtstag. Essen: Oldib, pp. 391-406.


Bernadeta Niesporek-Szamburska (Poland)
LITERARY METAPHOR AWARENESS BY CHILDREN AGED 7 AND 9

Short presentations (poster) and extended discussion ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 14:30-15:30 Room T10 Chair: Awramiuk, Elżbieta
Key words: literary metaphor, metaphor awareness, levels of metaphors’ understanding, early school pupils

Research on the understanding of literary metaphors (understood as the use of language to describe one thing in terms of something else that is conceptually very different) by children (Siegler 1996) indicates that it appears quite late in children and increases with the child's cognitive and linguistic development. In studies on children's theories of the mind, cognitive strategies were analyzed, which are used by children in order to read the mental state of the other person. However, research into the understanding of literary metaphors by children in early school age has not been conducted in Poland. My research presents an attempt to examine at what age the level of children's understanding of literary metaphors starts to function efficiently – as they can provide a potent tool for teaching abstract concepts in terms of concrete models.
Investigative problems have been concentrated around following questions:
1. How does the ability to understand literary metaphors grow with age?
2. What is the nature of the interpretations made by early school pupils?
In two stages, 60 children (girls and boys) aged 7 and 9 were examined with the use of
six short poems for children with metaphors: perceptual and based on the analogy of relationship.
Stage I of non-verbal analysis: six children – 7 and 9 years old „drew” two metaphors from one poem, and then talked about the drawings. The results (non-literal reading of metaphors) opened the second stage of research.
Stage II: all children spoke about metaphors from five poems. After listening to each poem twice, they explained the meaning of metaphors (eg: ‘a white cat in white fluff wanders white steps’). The poems were presented at weekly intervals. Conversations were conducted individually and documented in recording forms.
Initial research results confirm that the ability to understand metaphors increases with age. For each of the 13 metaphors, the percentage of non-literal understanding is higher in 9-year-olds than in 7-year-olds (the increase in understanding is almost double, it is respectively: 3.8 metaphors and 6.6 metaphors).
A comparison of children's answers with the levels of metaphors’ understanding (according to Guttmejer 1982: factual, mythic, reflexive and symbolic interpretation) allows to conclude that most of the children’s responses are located in factual interpretation – without metaphor understanding (40,8%), or symbolical – with the metaphor comprehension (57,9%). Only 7 responses provides myth interpretations (1,3%). None of the children made a reflective interpretation.

Main references:
1. Baluch A. (1990), Poezja współczesna w szkole podstawowej [Contemporary poetry in elementary school], Kraków.
2. Białecka-Pikul M. (2002), Co dzieci wiedzą o umyśle i myśleniu? [What do children know about the mind and thinking?] Kraków.
3. Guttmejer E. (1982), Rozumienie treści symbolicznych przez dzieci z klas III-IV [Understanding the symbolic content by children from 3-4 grades], Kraków.
4. Siegler R.S. (1996), Emerging minds. The process of change in children’s thinking. New York: Oxford.



Arne Olav Nygard & Atle Skaftun & Åse Kari H. Wagner (Norway)
FRAMES FOR ORACY IN PRIMARY SCHOOL IN NORWAY

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 09:30-11:00 Room T12 Chair: Mata, Ana Isabel
Oral communication is one of three main areas in L1 Norwegian and the competence aims after the second grade emphasise core aspects of oracy and dialogue. Yet, oral communication has gained far less attention than reading and literacy in the Norwegian curriculum. This study is rooted in sociocultural theory about dialogic teaching (Alexander, 2008) and our aim is to investigate the frames for the pupils’ oracy in primary school, with a particular focus on L1 Norwegian.

The study is based on qualitative observations from 6 primary school classes, with field notes and pictures from one week in grade 1 in L1 Norwegian in addition to interviews with teachers and staff, and field notes from one week in grade 2 across all disciplines plus additional video recordings of the L1 Norwegian lessons. All 6 classes have two teachers in the 8 L1 Norwegian lessons per week.

In our analysis, we categorise events starting from Alexander’s (2008) categories to describe a repertoire of forms of organisation and speech. The field work from grade 1 gave an overall impression of silence in class, which we experienced as a paradoxical contrast with the oral culture in kindergarten. The class environment was largely characterised by silent individual work and the IRE structure, with small glimpses of discussion and dialogue (Skaftun & Wagner, submitted).

The material from grade 2 lays the groundwork for extensive analysis of both lesson organisation and oral interaction, especially in L1 Norwegian. We wish to investigate how the lessons are organised and narrow in on forms of speech within these organisational frames. The result is discussed with reference to Rupert Wegerif’s term dialogic space (Wegerif, 2007) and Segal and Lefstein’s (2016) model for understanding the realisation of the student's voice. Circle time is described and discussed as a particular productive activity with great dialogic potential.

Some may claim that there are necessary differences in the transition from kindergarten to the academic culture of school. The process of socialisation in primary school, however, seems to imply taking away the child’s voice and thus undermining important ideals. Herein lies a big challenge for both researchers and teachers.


Keywords: Oracy, primary school, repertoir of talk and organizational forms

References
Alexander, R. (2008). Towards Dialogic Teaching: Rethinking Classroom Talk (4th edition edition). Thirsk: Dialogos.

Segal, A., & Lefstein, A. (2016). Exuberant voiceless participation: An unintended consequence of dialogic sensibilities? L1-Educational Studies in Language and Literature,16, 1–19.
Skaftun, A., & Wagner, Å. K. H. (submitted to L1: Educational Studies in Language and Literature). Oracy in Year one: A Blind Spot in Norwegian Language and Literature education?

Wegerif, R. (2007). Dialogic Education and Technology: Expanding the Space of Learning. Springer Science & Business Media. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-71142-3


Eun ha Oh & Hyounjin Ok & Jangwon Moon & Jiyoun Kim & Sanghee Ryu & Soohyun Seo ()
DIGITAL LITERACY ATTITUDES OF KOREAN ELEMENTARY STUDENTS

Paper session ARLE 2019 Thursday, 15:45-17:15 Room T11 Chair: Erixon, Per-Olof
*Digital literacy, *affective aspects, *literacy attitude, *elementary student

Background and purpose: Changes in the literacy environment following recent digital and technological developments have prompted researchers to explore a new aspect of literacy, namely digital literacy. Although more research has been conducted on the cognitive aspects of digital literacy, there has been limited research on affective aspects of literacy. The purpose of this study was to explore implication for digital literacy research and education by analyzing Korean elementary students’ digital literacy attitudes (hereafter, DLA). This study is a follow-up to the theoretical exploration of a concept of digital literacy attitude and the development of a self-report instrument for assessing children’s digital literacy attitudes. A concept of digital literacy attitude was proposed as an individual’s psychological tendency practice in the digitalized environment. The DLA instrument consists of 33 items from five dimensions of the constructs of digital literacy attitude: value (7 items), self-efficacy (7 items), emotion (7 items), participation (7 items), and self-regulation (5 items).

Method: Considering the difficulties of first- and second-grade students in participating in the self-report DLA instrument, approximately 10,000 third- to sixth-grade elementary students in Korea were chosen as research participants. The large-scale survey data on the DLA instrument collected from a representative sample of third- to sixth-grade elementary students in Korea.

Results: With regard to grade, the DLA scores of the respondents increased in a statistically significant manner as they get older. In addition, a statistically meaningful difference was found depending on area. The DLA scores of the students in metropolitan and mid-sized areas showed higher scores as compared to students in rural areas. However, no statistically meaningful difference between the DLA scores of male and female students. The results of this study are noteworthy because the digital literacy attitude patterns of Korean elementary students may challenge common assumptions about students’ attitudes toward literacy practices, especially students’ attitudes toward print-based literacy practices. The implications for literacy education and the direction of further research were discussed.

Kim, J., Kim, J., Seo, S., & Ok, H. (2015). Exploring the direction for assessment tool development on affective domains of digital literacy. Korean Language Education Research, 50(2), 206-230.
Kim, J., Seo, S., & Ok, H. (2015). Toward a theoretical exploration of a concept of digital literacy attitude. The Education of Korean Language, 150, 263-294
Ok, H., Cho, B., Kim, J. Kim H., Koh, G., Oh, E., & Seo, S. (2016). A study of developing and validating an assessment of digital literacy attitudes. The Education of Korean Language, 152, 251-283.


Elisabeth Ohlsson (Sweden)
WHAT IMPACT CAN LANGUAGE HAVE ON LANGUAGE? AN INTERVENTION ON PRODUCTIVE WRITTEN VOCABULARY IN L1.

Paper session ARLE 2019 Friday, 14:00-15:30 Room T9 Chair: Feytor Pinto, Paulo
The importance of vocabulary skills, in reading, writing and in academic writing, but also as subject related and subject specific knowledge, is recognized in previous research (Nation 2013).
The aim of this paper is to present an ongoing study for a PhD which will be empirical with an intervention where two classes, one CLIL and one non-CLIL will receive explicit teaching and knowledge concerning academic writing in L1, learning the specific linguistic features characterizing academic texts whereas two other classes (same age, same programs), one CLIL and one non-CLIL, will continue their ordinary lessons. All four classes will write two essays as pre- and post-tests.
The students’ texts will be examined with the methods applied in my licentiate thesis where quantitative measures together with corpus linguistic methods were used to identify features in academic prose (McEnery et al. 2006). In addition, lexical profiling (Nation & Anthony 2016), was carried out to visualize the general vocabulary and to explore to what degree the students’ vocabulary encloses the most frequent and common words or if, and to what extent, they use low- frequency words. The results were analyzed using SPSS and reported as means of the two student groups, CLIL and non-CLIL and also gender. The findings show that the results vary in and between both groups. The boys in the CLIL group show the highest means regarding six of nine variables but strong individuals are found in all four groups, males and females, CLIL and non-CLIL. The results also show a minor usage of the features in academic prose (Halliday & Martin 1993). If and how vocabulary proficiency is enriched in students’ academic writing by content and language integrated learning (CLIL) has mostly been investigating the L2 proficiency (Dalton-Puffer 2011). The specific aspects used when writing academic texts in L1 needs to be focused on as well as to investigate what impact EMI and translanguaging (Garcia 2009, Garcia & Wei 2014) have on productive written academic vocabulary proficiency in L1.This is important for both students and for the teacher education so development in this field can be made and contribute to a variation in the tradition of writing.

Key words: vocabulary skills, writing, academic language proficiency, linguistic features, CLIL/non-CLIL

References:

Dalton-Puffer, C. (2011). Content-and-Language Integrated Learning: From Practice to Principles? Annual Review of Applied Linguistics. (2011) 31, (s. 182–204).
Garcia, O. (2009). Bilingual Education in the 21st Century: A global perspective. Malden: Blackwell Publishing.
Garcia, O. & Wei, L. (2014). Translanguaging: Language, Bilingualism and Education. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Halliday, M. A. K. & Martin, J. O. (1993). Writing Science. Literacy and Discursive Power. London/Washington D.C.: The Falmer Press.
McEnery, T., Xiao, Richard, X. Tono, Y. (2006). Corpus-based Language Studies. London & New York: Routledge Applied Linguistics.
Nation, P. (2013). Learning vocabulary in another language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Nation, P. & Anthony, L. (2016). Measuring vocabulary size. In Handbook of Research in Second Language Teaching and Learning, Volume III, E. Hinkel (Ed.) New York: Routledge.


Hyounjin Ok & Byeong-Young Cho & Jong-Yun Kim & INSUK KIM & Hee dong Kim ()
A WEB-BASED DIGITAL LITERACY ASSESSMENT FOR K-12 LEARNERS IN KOREA: ITS DESIGN AND RESULTS

Paper session ARLE 2019 Friday, 14:00-15:30 Room T9 Chair: Feytor Pinto, Paulo
The concept of digital literacy continues to change and education needs to actively reflect such changes for students’ life and their jobs in the future. Especially high-quality assessment of digital literacy is crucial to understanding students’ literacy skills and practices. Such assessment also provides critical information that could be used for developing appropriate teaching pedagogies to support students in developing important skills required for the 21st-century knowledge society. The focus of this presentation is on a project led by Korean literacy scholars, with the goal of developing and validating a web-based digital literacy assessment system for K-12 learners in Korea. The presenters first describe the design framework for digital literacy assessment (i.e., digital literacy as a configuration of the skills and knowledge involved in information searching, meaning making, critical evaluation, text design, representation, and communication) with the specific assessment materials and items developed within the framework. We also discuss findings from our validation study using learners’ verbal protocol data (e.g., think aloud) and human-computer interaction data (i.e., screen recordings, log files) generated during their performance on the digital literacy assessment. The third point of this presentation is to discuss hierarchical methods of the assessment for elementary, middle, and high school students based on middle school students' results. Finally, we discuss potential uses of the assessment for both research and pedagogical purposes (e.g., diagnostic, formative) as well as possible larger implications as the endeavor of making research-informed policies in literacy education.

Cho, B.(2014). Competent adolescent readers' use of Internet reading strategies: A think-aloud study. Cognition and Instruction, 32(3), pp. 253-289.
Cho, B. & Afflerbach, P.(2015). Reading on the Internet: Realizing and constructing potential texts. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 58(6), 504-517.
Coiro, J.(2017). Advancing reading engagement and achievement through personal digital inquiry, critical literacy, and skilful argumentation. In C. Ng & B. Bartlett(Eds.), Improving Reading and Reading Engagement in the 21st Century(pp. 49-76.). Singapore: Springer.


Fátima Olivares & Paula López & Maria lourdes Alvarez & María Arrimada & Olga Arias-Gundín (Spain)
REVISING STRATEGIES OF NARRATIVE WRITING IN PRIMARY GRADE STUDENTS

Short presentations (poster) and extended discussion ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 14:30-15:30 Room T11 Chair: Costa, Ana Luísa
Background. Textual revision is considered, from general theoretical writing models, as an important process which affects directly the quality of students’ texts. There are many factors that influence students’ revising skills as students’ development level and the nature of the revision (surface vs. deep) (Hayes, 2012). When children are asked to revise their text changes tend to be superficial rather than deep and typically result in minimal benefit to the text (Alamargot y Chanquoy, 2001).
Aim. In this study we investigated: i) students’ revising strategies (detection and correction), and ii) the relation between revising strategies and the quality of the final written product.
Sample. In this study took part 826 students from 4th to 6th grades of Primary Education in Spain, with age ranged between 9 and 13 years old.
Method. Students were asked to write a story and to revise another researcher-created story aimed to assess students’ revision skills (detection and correction of surface and deep errors). From the detection task we get two measures as total number of errors accurately located and accurately described. From the correction task we get several measures as total number of errors solve, number of accurately corrections and the strategy use by the students to solve the accurately corrected problems (edition, addition, deletion, transformation, replace, swap, distribution and consolidation). One point was given to students if they corrected the problem and one point more if the correction was effective. These measures were calculated separately for mechanical and substantive errors.
Results. We expect to find a growth tendency of the revising skills across schooling. In particular, as students growth they would perform more effective deep revisions, which will have a positive impact on text quality. We will present definitive findings in the conference.
Note: This work has been supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness through a project awarded to the author Raquel Fidalgo (EDU2015-67484-P).

Alamargot, D. & Chanquoy, L. (2001). Through the models of writing. Kluwer Academic Puvlishers: Dordrecht

Hayes, J. R. (2012). Modeling and remodeling writing. Written Communication, 29 (3), 369-388.


Luci Pangrazio & Anna-Lena Godhe & Alejo Ezequiel González López Ledesma (Australia)
IN SEARCH OF A TERM: DEFINING DIGITAL LITERACIES IN THE 21ST CENTURY

Paper session ARLE 2019 Thursday, 14:00-15:30 Room Auditorium 3 Chair: Pereira, Luísa A.
Keywords: digital literacies; digital competence; alfabetizacion digital; bildung; digital literacy pedagogy; school literacies

Many scholars across the world have studied the knowledge, skills and attitudes needed to access and use digital media. This field of study has become known as ‘digital literacy’ or ‘digital literacies’. Yet as digital texts have proliferated and evolved, there has been much conjecture over what it means to be ‘digitally literate’. Since its first use in the mid 1990s, the term ‘digital literacy’ has been contested and challenged. This paper analyses how the term digital literacy has been conceptualised and applied by scholars across the world.

To do this, we analyse the most referenced publications on digital literacy in three different contexts: the English-speaking context; the Spanish-speaking context; and the Scandinavian context. Searches were made in Google Scholar using the term ‘digital literacy’. The term digital competence was also used when searching for articles in the Spanish and Scandinavian contexts, since the term is widely used interchangeably with digital literacy. A critical discourse analysis (Fairclough,1995) of these articles was conducted, followed up by a thematic analysis across articles in all three contexts. The findings are presented in three categories within each context: digital literacy as concept; digital literacy as educational initiative; and issues and tensions.

Our findings begin with Gilster’s landmark text ‘Digital Literacy’ (1998), tracing how the term has been translated and applied across the world. Across all three contexts digital literacy refers to something broader than digital competence, digital skills or digital proficiency (Bawden, 2001; Area Moreira, 2008). We identify the key challenges and tensions emerging from the field and the implications this has had on digital literacy education. For example, two issues that emerged across all three contexts were the ‘vagueness’ of the term digital literacy (Buckingham, 2010; Säljö, 2012), as well as confusion over how it related to other relevant disciplines, such as media literacy, information literacy and computer literacy (Bawden, 2001; Erstad, 2010). The paper concludes with suggestions for a future agenda for digital literacy research.


References:

Area Moreira, M. (2008). La innovación pedagógica con TIC y el desarrollo de las competencias informacionales y digitales. Revista de Investigación en la Escuela, (64), pp. 5-17.

Bawden, D. (2001). Information and digital literacies: A review of concepts. Journal of Documentation, 57(2), 218-259.

Buckingham, D. (2010). Defining digital literacy. In B. Bachmair (Ed.), Medienbildung in neuen Kulturräumen (pp. 59-71). Switzerland: Springer VS.

Erstad, O. (2010). Educating the digital generation. Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, 5:1, pp. 56-72.

Fairclough, N. (1995). Critical discourse analysis: the critical study of language. London, Routledge

Gilster, P. (1998). Digital Literacy. New York: Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Säljö, R. (2012). Literacy, Digital Literacy and Epistemic Practices: The Co-Evolotion of Hybrid Minds and External Memory Systems. Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy 7/1, p. 5-19.


Iris Susana Pereira (Portugal)
ON LEARNING HOW TO BE A LANGUAGE AND LITERACY TEACHER AT UNIVERSITY. STUDENT TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS ABOUT A LEARNING STRATEGY

Paper session ARLE 2019 Thursday, 11:00-12:30 Room T12 Chair: Doecke, Brenton
Bridging the gap between theory and practice in literacy teacher education within the Bologna Process.

In this paper I present student teachers’ perspectives about a pedagogical strategy specially designed and enacted to overcome the theory and practice divide in language and literacy education as configured by the Bologna Process in Portugal.
According to what has been officially determined, student teachers only have access to practical experience during the last year of master education in Portugal. Being the teacher in the first of two years of a masters’ course, the researcher realised the existence of an erosion of knowledge as students were asked to begin to envision the construction of their practice by applying the theoretical knowledge acquired during the degree. Either their Pedagogical Content Knowledge regarding literacy education (Shulman, 1987) or their reflective epistemology (Shön, 1983) revealed to be quite limited.
In order to overcome this problem, the researcher designed and researched a formative strategy consisting in the construction of a pedagogical portfolio of language and literacy education. In a simulated practical context, students were lead to integrate theory and practice. They experienced collaborative action (doing) and individual reflection (thinking) about their learning throughout the process.
Students’ perspectives about the experienced learning strategy were collected through an individual questionnaire when the process finished. In this paper, such results are presented and discussed with reference to theoretical frameworks as provided by Carr and Kemmis (1986) and Russell (2013, 2018) and major implications for the education of these literacy teachers are identified.

References:
Carr, W. & Kemmis, S. (1996). Becoming Critical: Education, Knowledge and action research. London and Philadellphia: The Palmer Press.
Grossman, P., Hammerness, K. & McDonald, M. (2009). Redefing teaching, re-imagining teacher education. Teachers and Teaching, 15:2, 273-289.
Russell, T. (2018). A teacher educator’s lessons learned from reflective practice. European Journal of Teacher Education, 41(1), 4-14.
Russell, T. (2013). Inspirations and challenges for innovation in teacher education. In K. Goodnough, G. Galway, C. Badenhorst, & R. Kelly (Eds.), Inspiration and innovation in teaching and teacher education (pp. 171-184). Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.
Shön, D. A. 1983 (1983). The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. New York: Basic Books.
Shulman, Lee S. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: foundations of a new reform. Harvard Educational Review, v. 57, n. 1, p. 1-22.


Yael Poyas (Israel)
INQUIRY-BASED LEARNING IN LITERATURE - POSSIBILITIES AND CHALLENGES - A CASE STUDY

Paper session ARLE 2019 Friday, 14:00-15:30 Room T16 Chair: Levine, Sarah
Inquiry-based learning is a process where students formulate a research question in the domain of Literature, conduct research and hand in a document that includes the central components of a research-based text (Ministry of Education, 2016). This approach was used in 10th grade classes in a large high school serving a well-off rural population in Israel, as a part of a reform of learning assessment. The reform aims were to raise interest, integrate varied oral and written texts in the learning process, and encourage higher order thinking skills and dialogic discourse in Literature lessons. The Inquiry process was accompanied by guidance both in the classrooms and virtually, including formative assessment.
The present study used a qualitative-phenomenological approach to examine the instruction to students, the student outcomes and the staff's reactions at the end of the year. The data included written documents provided by the staff, an interview with the project head, and students' learning outcomes.
The findings demonstrated disappointment with the project at several levels: (a) student guidance demanded more time of the staff than anticipated; (b) staff expectations of the students were high, causing disappointment with student outcomes; (c) the teachers felt that the core of literary dialogue gave way to a technical dialogue regarding the research and writing of a literary study; (d) the students' initial excitement regarding alternative creative assessment gave way to indifference and moving away from the literature. As the project head said, "We lost them".
After examining student reactions at the end of the project the staff decided to give up inquiry-based learning and focus on providing the students with creative-experiential encounters with more literary works, including extensive use of cooperative learning networks used to create discourse and creativity spaces common to all learners.
This case study raises several questions. (a) Is there a contradiction between inquiry-based learning and experiential approaches to Literature teaching? (b) How can we 'translate' academic research rules to make them more suitable to Literature teaching to teenagers?
References
Ministry of Education (2016). Integration of inquiry-based learning in Literature teaching. Retrieved from http://cms.education.gov.il/EducationCMS/Units/Mazkirut_Pedagogit/Sifrut/haaracha/cheker.htm


Helin Puksand (Estonia)
USING TEXTBOOKS IN THE LESSONS OF L1 AND LITERATURE

Short presentations (poster) and extended discussion ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 14:30-15:30 Room T14 Chair: Fontich, Xavier
Textbooks are teaching materials that are written according to the content and objectives of the curriculum. These are drafted for a specific grade level, and are normally the primary teaching material. It is believed that the teacher usually teaches based on textbook and a textbook is the main learning aid for pupils. Although textbooks are necessary study aid for learning, teachers should not rely solely on textbooks in the modern school. This seems to be a common problem in Estonia that teachers use textbooks too much and do not use other learning aids or authentic texts. However, the previous problem is based on an opinion only and no studies have been carried out in Estonia. Therefore, we wanted to know what the situation really was at school. We used the focus group interview. There were two groups of teachers: one of them was an expert group, including curriculum developers, textbook authors, L1 society’s board members, testing specialists or otherwise active teachers. Second group was composed of in-service teachers. Both groups involved 4-5 teachers of the L1 and Literature. The interview was transcribed and encoded. The preliminary analysis shows that teachers use textbooks more for younger students, but they produce learning materials more frequently for upper secondary students.

Keywords: teaching, textbooks, authentic texts



Sofia Pulls (Sweden)
CONSTRUCTIONS OF (LITERARY) WRITING IN TEXTBOOKS. THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN WRITING IN 1989 AND WRITING IN 2011.

The aim of my thesis, Writing and becoming (2019) was to analyze how literary writing and writing subjects where constructed in handbooks and textbooks for writing, published in Sweden between 1979–2015. This presentation of the doctoral thesis is focused upon the analysis of the four different editions of a textbook for upper secondary school (Svenska timmar - språket) published between the years 1989 and 2011.
Using Roz Ivanič’s framework from “Discourses of Writing and Learning to Write” (2004) the presentation addresses constants and changes in the constructions of writing and writing subject, by analysing the textbook’s description of writing as either work or play, as well as the purpose of writing. Ivanič’s framework defines six different discourses, but since the textbooks partly construct writing in ways that do not fit into the existing framework, two more discourses - the support discourse and the market discourse - are added to the framework.
The presentation of the text analysis starts by showing that three of the four editions of the textbook – published 1989, 1995 and 2001 – are almost identical. Even if the curriculum has changed, and even if the first edition is directed mostly towards vocational programs, the content stays the same. After this is concluded, the rest of the analysis consist of a comparison between the first and the latest edition, from 2011, The results show that while literary writing, or writing as storytelling, is a central part of the textbook in 1989, it has almost disappeared in 2011 year’s edition. The changing focus of the content also have consequences for the constructions of the writing subjects. In 1989 the writer is someone who likes to write and to be creative and play with words, in 2011 the writer needs the ability to work hard and is aiming for being good at writing or being accurate. Ivanič’s creativity discourse and process discourse are strongly present in the first edition. The edition from 2011 rather expresses a skill or genre or t market discourse.

References:
Ivanič, Roz, ”Discourses of Writing and Learning to Write”, Language and Education, vol 18, nr. 3, 2004.
Waje, Lennart & Skoglund, Svante, Svenska timmar – språket, Malmö: Gleerups, 1989, 1995,
2001 & 2011.

Keywords: literary writing, discourses of writing, subject positions


SARA REAL CASTELAO & Patricia Robledo-Ramón & Vanesa López & Raquel Fidalgo & Olga Arias-Gundín (Spain)
WRITING STRATEGIES AND TEXTUAL QUALITY: HOW DO THEY RELATE IN UPPER PRIMARY EDUCATION STUDENTS?

Short presentations (poster) and extended discussion ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 14:30-15:30 Room T11 Chair: Costa, Ana Luísa
Background. Traditional writing models have shown that writing is a cognitively demanding activity in which writers should manage different complex writing processes. Writers should plan what to say, translate it into a written text and revise both the already created text and their plans (Hayes, 2012). Two writing strategies can be identified according to these processes named as planning and revising.
Aims. In this study we explored students’ planning and revising writing strategies of upper-primary students by means of two complementary measures. First, a self-report of the students’ strategy preference or specific planning and revising tasks. Thus the present study aimed to determine the students’ writing profile, and to analyze whether writing strategies predict writing performance.
Sample. The sample comprised 826 Spanish students from 4th to 6th grades (aged 9-13) distributed in eleven elementary schools in León (Spain): 270 fourth-graders (126 girls and 144 boys), 273 fifth-graders (144 girls and 129 boys) and 283 sixth-graders (154 girls and 129 boys).
Method. Students completed a Spanish adaptation of the writing strategies questionnaire validated in previous studies (Kieft, Rijlaarsdam, & Van den Bergh, 2008). Additionally, they were asked to write a story with a mandatory pre-planning phase. Text quality was scored using a method based on anchor texts (see Van den Bergh & Rijlaarsdam, 1986). Planning skills were assessed using a scale ranging between 1 (no preplanning) to 6 (high planning) which was adapted from Limpo, Alves and Fidalgo (2014). A specific revision task of a story was implemented in order to assess students’ detection and correction skills.
Results. Preliminary results about the structure of the questionnaire allowed us to identify a four-factor model: i) students’ revision changes, ii) students’ monitoring, iii) students’ pre-planning, and iv) prior knowledge. We will also analyse the contribution of high-level cognitive writing processes and students’ strategy preference to writing quality. We will present definitive findings in the conference.
Note: This work has been supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness through a project awarded to the author Raquel Fidalgo (EDU2015-67484-P).

Hayes, J. R. (2012). Modeling and remodeling writing. Written Communication, 29 (3), 369-388.

Kieft, M., Rijlaarsdam, G. y van den Bergh, H. (2008). An aptitude-treatment interaction approach to writing-to-lear. Learning and Instruction, 18, 379-390.

Limpo, T., Alves, R. A., & Fidalgo, R. (2014). Children’s high-level writing skills: development of planning and revising and their contribution to writing quality. British Journal of Education Psychology, 84, 177-193.

Van den Bergh, H., & Rijlaarsdam, G. (1986). Problemen met opstelbeoordeling? Een recept. [Problems with drafting assessment? A recipe]. Levende Talen, 413, 448-454.


SARA REAL CASTELAO & Mark Torrance & Gert Rijlaarsdam & Raquel Fidalgo (Spain)
EXPLORING EFFECTIVENESS AND TRANSFERRING OF THE COMPONENTS OF A COGNITIVE SELF-REGULATED INSTRUCTION IN WRITING

Short presentations (poster) and extended discussion ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 14:30-15:30 Room T10 Chair: Awramiuk, Elżbieta
Cognitive Self-Regulation Instruction (CSRI) is a strategy-focused approach to developing composition writing skills. It comprises three main components: (a) direct instruction supported by mnemonics aimed ad developing explicit, strategic knowledge of planning and drafting strategies rules, (b) teacher modelling of these strategies and (c) writing practice in which students think aloud while emulating the teacher model. Several studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of CSRI programs in upper-primary students (see for a review Fidalgo & Torrance, 2018). What is less clear is which of the three main components is or are responsible for this positive effect. This was explored in the present study.
202 8 4th grade classes (8-9 year old, N = 202), in 8 classes across 4 elementary schools. were randomly allocated to either a control condition or one of two CSRI conditions in which order of the first two components was varied: Direct Instruction followed by Modelling, or Modelling followed by Direct Instruction. In both cases the program ended with emulative practice. Performance on written composition tasks both in the genre taught in the program and in a different but related genre (a transfer measure) was assessed at the start of the program and after each component. We rated coherence, structure and overall quality of the final product. We also recorded real-time writing process data using Livescribe pens. These provide digitized handwriting traces which can then be coded to identify when and where writers pause when they write. At time of writing data collection is complete and analysis is underway. Our paper will present complete findings.
Key Words: Strategy-Instruction; Writing; Componential analyses; Modelling; Direct Instruction; Peer practice
References:
Fidalgo, R., & Torrance, M. (2018). Developing Writing Skills through Cognitive Self-Regulation Instruction. In R. Fidalgo & T. Olive (Series Eds.) & R. Fidalgo, K. R. Harris, & M. Braaksma (Vol. Eds.), Studies in Writing Series: Vol. 34. Design Principles for Teaching Effective Writing (pp. 89-118). Leiden: Brill.


Susanne Riegler & Maja Wiprächtiger-Geppert (Germany)
PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS’ BELIEFS ABOUT SPELLING AND SPELLING ACQUISITION

Paper session ARLE 2019 Friday, 11:00-12:30 Room T12 Chair: Pereira, Iris Susana
In recent years, teachers’ professional competence has increasingly become the focus of German didactic research. The research interest encompasses not only their professional knowledge, but more and more also teachers’ beliefs, which form the basis for their actions in German lessons. This growing interest is due to the assumption that the subject-related beliefs of teachers play a significant role in the planning of lessons and the quality of teaching.
Beliefs can be described as “ideas about the essence and nature of teaching and learning processes, learning contents, the identity and role of learners and teachers […] as well as the institutional and societal context of education” (Reusser et al. 2011, 478). In contrast to knowledge bases, beliefs are subjectively and collectively held true, without satisfying “criteria of consistency or the requirements of argumentative reasoning or discursive validation” (Baumert, Kunter 2006, 497).
The few (mostly qualitatively oriented) studies that exist on the domain-specific beliefs of teachers of German are related to the teaching of reading and literature. The exploration of beliefs concerning language-related aspects of the subject, however, still constitutes a major research gap (see Lessing-Sattari/Wieser 2018, 50). In particular, there exist no empirical findings concerning teachers’ beliefs about spelling and spelling acquisition up to now.
As part of our video study “Profess-R”, we developed a questionnaire, which allows us to identify teachers’ beliefs concerning the domain of spelling in four areas (see Woolfolk Hoy et al. 2006): beliefs concerning the teacher’s own self-efficacy, beliefs about the subject-matter spelling, beliefs about teaching and learning in spelling lessons and beliefs about learning and learning conditions of pupils. The questionnaire consists of 70 items which are to be answered on a four-level Likert scale. It has been piloted several times. With this instrument, the domain-specific beliefs as part of teachers’ professional competency are to be collected in “Profess-R” and subsequently analysed with respect to their relation to the planning of lessons.
In our talk, we will present the design of the questionnaire as well as results of the proof of reliability und report on the descriptive findings with the participants of our video study (N = 40).

Keywords:
teachers‘ beliefs, primary school, spelling acquisition, questionnaire

References:
Baumert, Jürgen; Kunter, Mareike (2006): Stichwort: Professionelle Kompetenz von Lehrkräften. Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft, 9 (4). 469–520.
Lessing-Sattari; Wieser, Dorothee (2018): Lehrkräfte. Systematisierung aktueller empirischer Studien, ihrer Gegenstandsbereiche und Forschungsansätze. In: Boelmann, Jan (Ed.): Empirische Forschung in der Deutschdidaktik. Vol. 3: Forschungsfelder. Baltmannsweiler: Schneider Verlag Hohengehren. 41-51.
Reusser, Kurt; Pauli, Christine (2014): Berufsbezogene Überzeugungen von Lehrerinnen und Lehrern. In: Terhart, Ewald et al. (Ed.): Handbuch der Forschung zum Lehrerberuf. 2nd ed. Münster: Waxmann. 642–661.
Woolfolk Hoy, Anita; Davis, Heather; Pape, Stephen (2006): Teacher Knowledge and Beliefs. In: Alexander, Patricia A.; Winne, Philip H. (Ed.): Handbook of educational psychology. 2nd ed. Mahwah, N.J.: Erlbaum. 715–737.



Gert Rijlaarsdam (Netherlands (the))
L1-EDUCATION RESEARCH THAT INFORMS PRACTICE. THREE RESEARCH MODELS APPLIED FOR WRITING RESEARCH

Keynote Wednesday, 18:00-19:00 Room Auditório Municipal de Lisboa Chair: Coutinho, Antónia
In this presentation I plan to present three nested models for L1-education research, which we applied and apply and further develop in our research team. The models focus respectively on task processes (and their contexts), learning processes (and their contexts) and professional development. I will demonstrate these models for writing with some bits of literary text reading processes. The three models relate to three assumptions (more about the models: http://www.rtle.nl/how.html)
1. We need to know what happens cognitively and emotionally in learners when they read and write: L1-education focus on supporting learners to improve these processes: knowledge about processes. Since 1980 we know quite a lot about writing processes, I will provide a condensed overview.
2. We need to know how we can support learners to improve these processes: knowledge about effective learning and instruction. Since Hillocks meta-analysis (1986) and the more recent reviews by Graham and colleagues, we know quite a lot about what works. I will provide five instructional design principles from the literature and our studies.
3. We need to know under what conditions effective instruction works in practice. In this respect we study the relation between teachers practices, their knowledge, beliefs and skills from a study in which we implemented a new comprehensive writing instruction program in the upper grades of primary education.

References

Graham, S., & Perin, D. (2007). A meta-analysis of writing instruction for adolescent students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(3), 445-476. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.99.3.445
Hillocks, G. (1986). Research on written composition: New directions for teaching. National Conference on Research in English.; ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.
Koster, M.P.; Tribushinina, E.; De Jong, Peter; van den Bergh, H.H. (2015). Journal of Writing Research, 7(2), pp. 299 – 324.
Rietdijk, S., Janssen, T., Van Weijen, D., Van den Bergh, H. & Rijlaarsdam, G. (2017). Improving writing in primary schools through a comprehensive writing program. Journal of Writing Research, 9(2), 173-225. doi: 10.17239/jowr-2017.09.02.04
Rietdijk, S., van Weijen, D., Janssen, T., van den Bergh, H., & Rijlaarsdam, G. (2018). Teaching writing in primary education: Classroom practice, time, teachers’ beliefs and skills. Journal of Educational Psychology, 110(5), 640-663. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/edu0000237
Rijlaarsdam, G. Braaksma, M., Couzijn, M., Janssen, T., Kieft, M., Broekkamp, H. & van den Bergh, H. ( 2005). Psychology and The teaching of writing in 8000 and some words. In Pedagogy – Learning for Teaching. BJEP Monograph series II(3), 127-153.
Rijlaarsdam, G., & Van den Bergh, H. (2006). Writing process theory: A functional dynamic approach. In C.A. MacArthur, S. Graham, & J. Fitzgerald (Eds.), Handbook of writing research. [41-53]. New York/London: The Guilford Press.
Rijlaarsdam, G., Braaksma, M., Couzijn, M., Janssen, T., Raedts, M., Van Steendam, E., Toorenaar, A., & Van den Bergh, H. (2008). Observation of peers in learning to write. Practise and research. Journal of Writing Research, 1(1), pp. 53-83.
Van den Bergh, H., Rijlaarsdam, G., & Van Steendam, E. (2015). Writing process theory: A functional dynamic approach. In C.A. MacArthur, S. Graham, & J. Fitzgerald (Eds.), Handbook of writing research. Second edition. [57-71]. New York/London: The Guilford Press.



Léonard P. Rivard (Canada)
USING A DISCUSSION STRATEGY FOR ENHANCING READING COMPREHENSION IN THE SCIENCE CLASSROOM

Paper session ARLE 2019 Friday, 14:00-15:30 Room T14 Chair: Lobo, Maria
Keywords: reading comprehension, science texts, discussion

Abstract

To fully participate in today’s society, citizens must possess skills for making sense of everyday texts (Alvermann & Wilson, 2011). Yet, many students have not acquired these by the time they complete their secondary studies. Teachers have an important role to play in preparing students to read authentic science texts, which are ubiquitous in print and digital media (Patterson, Roman, Friend, Osborne, & Donovan (2018). Teachers devote very little classroom time to reading texts, and still less in supporting struggling readers’ attempts to comprehend these. Moreover, teachers appear to have difficulty orchestrating instruction in which diverse strategies are effectively combined while also balancing individual, small-group, and whole-class activities. A three-level reading guide is one approach that teachers can use in the classroom to scaffold students’ reading of science texts while using different participatory structures to good effect. Furthermore, studies suggest that a text-processing approach, one which focuses on content while students build meaning through collaboration with peers and whole-class discussion with the teacher, may be more effective for enhancing comprehension skills than traditional approaches involving strategy instruction (McKeown, Beck, & Blake, 2009). We investigated the use of reading guides in three different schools: one English-language school in a rural setting; and two Francophone schools, one in an urban setting and the other rural. The analysis of data is based on three classroom discussions which were guided by each science teacher, respectively, and seven small peer-group discussions which preceded the whole-class discussion. The presentation will be framed by the following questions: (1) What kinds of reasoning operations underlying effective reading are enacted during both peer-group and whole-class discussions of texts in the middle-school science classroom? (2) How does teacher questioning during discussions relate to students’ talk about the text (Boyd, 2015)? (3) How do students make meaning from texts while talking in peer groups?

Alvermann, D. E., & Wilson, A. A. (2011). Comprehension strategy instruction for multimodal texts in science. Theory Into Practice, 50(2), 116–124.
Boyd, M. P. (2015). Relations between teacher questioning and student talk in one elementary ELL classroom. Journal of Literacy Research, 47(3), 370–404. https://doi.org/10.1177/1086296X16632451
McKeown, M. G., Beck, I. L., & Blake, R. G. K. (2009). Rethinking reading comprehension instruction: A comparison of instruction for strategies and content approaches. Reading Research Quarterly, 44(3), 218–253. doi.org/10.1598/RRQ.44.3.1
Patterson, A., Roman, D., Friend, M., Osborne, J., & Donovan, B. (2018). Reading for meaning: The foundational knowledge every teacher of science should have. International Journal of Science Education, 40(3), 291–307. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500693.2017.1416205


Joao M.S. Rosa (Portugal)
MORPHOLOGICAL AWARENESS DEVELOPMENT IN A NATURALISTIC PRESCHOOL SETTING

The study aims to provide evidence on the feasibility and effectiveness of performing oral language morphological awareness training of preschool children, when such training is conducted by their own preschool teachers. Evidence from naturalistic interventions within this format is scarse . Usualy, interventions have been conducted by researchers and not by educational professionals.
The participants were 162 Portuguese children, from 18 different classrooms, attending their last year in kindergarten. They were allocated as groups to experimental and control conditions. Preschool teachers whose children were allocated to the experimental group participated, previously, in a programme of training on metalinguistic development and designed all the materials and procedures for the intervention, cooperatively. Later, they conducted a six-weeks morphological awareness intervention with their children, anchored on explicit discussions about the morphological structure of words appearing in selected storybooks, involving word analogy, derivation, inflexion and interpretation of pseudowords. The control group received normal curriculum activities, which also included storybook reading.
Results showed strong to high effect sizes on morphological awareness post-test abilities of children in the experimental group after controlling for age, non-verbal intelligence, vocabulary, pre-test phonological awareness differences and pre-test morphological awareness differences. We concluded for the feasibility and effectiveness of this intervention and discuss the relevance of, in partnership with preschool teachers and by valuing their professional wisdom, developing tools that help preschool children to consciously manipulate morphemes as meaningful building blocks of words.
A subsample of children in the experimental group were assessed for reading comprehension when they reached the end of grade 1. Results are being analysed right now.

Keywords: Morphological awareness development; Naturalistic intervention; Preschool teachers; Preschool children.

Selected references:

Bowers, P. N., Kirby, J. R. and Deacon, S. H. (2010). The effects of morphological instruction on literacy skills: a systematic review of the literature. Review of Educational Research, 80 (2), 144 - 179.

Kirby, J., R. and Bowers, P., N. (2017). Morphological instruction and literacy: Binding phonological, orthographic and semantic features of words. In K. Cain, D. Compton and R. Parrila (Eds). Theories of reading development, 437 - 462, John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Lyster, S.A. (2002). The effect of morphological versus phonological awareness training in kindergarten on reading development. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 15 (3-4), 261 - 294.

Lyster, S. A., Lervåg, A.O. and Hulme, C (2016). Preschool morphological training produces long-term improvements in reading comprehension. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 29, 1269 - 1288.


Helle Rørbech (Denmark)
HETEROTOPIAS – A STUDY OF OTHER SPACES IN 10TH GRADE STUDENTS’ FILM PRODUCTION

Paper session ARLE 2019 Thursday, 15:45-17:15 Room T16 Chair: Ohlsson, Elisabeth
This paper explores data from an elective two-semester film course on a Danish continuation school for 10th grade students. The study followed students’ film production and participation in an annual film festival where film students from three continuation schools competed about a number of film prizes in documentary, animation and fiction. Place was the common theme of the festival in 2016, where observations were conducted.
The study is an ethnographic fieldwork and uses key methods in ethnographic research such as interviews, field observations, and collection of diverse artifacts and products. It is a qualitative single case study, that investigates students’ mutual meaning making with films in situ, that is in real time and space, and in its natural milieu and context (Flyvbjerg, 2006). Since the teaching of language and literature in L1 on Danish continuation schools is a quite underexposed research field, and as the learning design of the film course presumably is rare or unique it can be classified as an extreme case (Flyvbjerg 2006, 230, Ridder 2017, 287). The purpose of the case study was to explore students’ meaning making with film under the special conditions constituted by the continuation school context and a specific learning design, scenario-based learning (Bundsgaard, Misfeldt and Hetmar 2012). The two concepts will be explained in the paper presentation. Moreover, the case study was aiming at developing theory to understand the film production and its Bildung potentials under these conditions (Flyvbjerg 2006, Ridder 2017).
One of the research interests of the study was to understand, how students’ interpretations of the theme place, and their choice of locations and cultural spaces in their films are related to the development of their personal and cultural identities. In the paper Michel Foucault’s concept of other spaces ( heterotopias) (Foucault 1986) will be used to expound students’ fascination and aesthetic investigations of otherness as a focal point for their identity work, and as a catalyst of potential process of Bildung in their film production.
The empirical basis of the paper will be an analysis of the main locations in selected films along with excerpts from student group interviews.

Bundsgaard, Misfeldt og Hetmar (2012). Udvikling af literacy i scenariebaserede undervisningsforløb [The Development of Literacy in scenario-based courses], Viden om læsning, no 12, s.31-36.
Flyvbjerg, B. (2006). Five Misunderstandings about Case-Study Research in: Qualitative Inquiry, Vol. 12 (2) 219-245, Sage Publications DOI: 10.1177/1077800405284363
Foucault, M. (1986). Of Other Spaces. In Diacritics, vol.16, No 1, pp 22-27. Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press.
Ridder, H.-G. (2017). The theory contribution of case study research designs in: Business Research (2017) 10:281-305 Springer

keywords: film production, multimodality, scenario-based learning, other spaces, Bildung


Alexandra Ruivo (Portugal)
SLOW WRITING - IMPROVING WRITING SKILLS

Paper session ARLE 2019 Thursday, 15:45-17:15 Room T15 Chair: Santos, Ana Lúcia
Slow writing: Improving Writing Skills
Languages Didactics – Portuguese LI PhD student

Abstract
Keywords: languages didactics; writing; literature;

How can a personal journal contribute to the improvement of writing skills of elementary school students? This on going research focuses on the language teaching through comprehension of literary texts in the classroom, by means of a specific writing strategy carried out in a portuguese public school with students aged 12 to 14.

The practice of writing in a school context demands from the teacher an attitude at the same time decompromising as well as rigorous. As modern individuals, used to speed writing in social networks, where texting messages implies a new syntax, where visual icons contribute to text coherence and to intentionality in the communication, students tend to look at the task of writing in the classroom as a useless activity, with no practical or immediate purpose. It is of utmost importance that teachers create a clear objective for writing, and encourage students to take time trough the whole process, from planning to texting and proofreading.

A group of Portuguese students aged 12 to 14 have a specific practice of writing since they entered seventh grade. They have a little journal in which they write different textual typologies. This writing practice is perfected along the three years of basic education (from 7th to 9th grade) before secondary school. In this journal with a yellow cover they are asked to write letters, interviews, summaries, opinions, poems, invitations, descriptions, narratives, newspaper articles. Writing tasks are always contextualized, the objective of communication clear, and at the end of the proofreading task students share their production with the class, that has a moment to ask, comment and suggest improvements.

___________________________
Fonseca, Irene (1992). A urgência de uma pedagogia da escrita. Universidade Católica Portuguesa: Mathésis 1
Pereira, Maria Luísa Álvares (2013). Reflexão sobre a escrita – O ensino de diferentes géneros de textos. Aveiro: Universidade de Aveiro


Cristina Manuela Sá (Portugal)
TEACHING WITH COMICS TO DEVELOP COMPETENCES IN ORAL COMMUNICATION

Paper session ARLE 2019 Thursday, 14:00-15:30 Room T11 Chair: Silva, Paulo N
Abstract
Since the 90s, I have been studying the use of comics in teaching Portuguese as a mother tongue in compulsory education in Portugal (Sá, 1995). Taking into account the fact that nowadays the teaching process is centered in the development of competences, I sustained the use of comics to develop competences in reading and writing (see, e.g. Sá, 2012).
Lately, I am developing a study consisting in the analysis of the syllabus for the teaching of Portuguese as a mother tongue (Buescu, Morais, Rocha, & Magalhães, 2015) focused on: i) the presence of comics in that document and ii) the role comics may play in the development of competences in oral and written communication. I have in mind two research questions: How are comics present in the syllabus for the teaching of Portuguese as a mother tongue? How can the use of comics in the teaching of the mother tongue contribute to the development of competences in oral and written communication? Using document analysis, I gathered information from the sylllabus concerning the two aspects mentioned above: i) presence of comics and ii) their contribution to the development of competences in oral and written communication. Afterwards, data concerning the second aspect afore mentioned were submited to content analysis (Bardin, 2000).
In this text, I present part of the results of this study concerning the analysis of the presence of comics in the syllabus for primary school (the first four years in our educational system) and the role they may play in the development of competences in oral communication. The findings allowed me to conclude that, although comics are scarcely mentioned in the syllabus, they may in fact contribute to the development of competences in oral communication by 6-10 year old children.

Keywords: Comics; Oral communication; Competences; Primary school education; Syllabus.

References:
Bardin, L. (2000). Análise de conteúdo (reimpr.). Lisboa: Edições 70.
Buescu, M. H., Morais, J., Rocha, M. R. & Magalhães, V. F. (2015). Programas e metas curriculares de Português do Ensino Básico. Lisboa: Ministério da Educação e Ciência.
Sá, C. M. (1995). A banda desenhada: uma linguagem narrativa ao serviço do Ensino do Português (língua materna). Tese de doutoramento. Universidade de Aveiro, Aveiro.
Sá, C. M. (2012). Comics and teaching/learning the mother tongue. Indagatio Didactica. Vol. 4 (4), 85-96. Retrieved on the 29th October 2018 from: http://revistas.ua.pt/index.php/ID/article/view/1774


Tatjana Kielland Samoilow (Norway)
CHILDREN’S CULTURAL IMAGINATION OF THE REFUGEE CRISIS

Paper session ARLE 2019 Friday, 14:00-15:30 Room T12 Chair: Gonçalves, Matilde
How do children imagine being a refugee and which cultural tools do they use when shaping the imagination into a narrative? Since the intensification of the European migrant crisis in 2010, our societies have changed. In Norway as elsewhere, the crisis has effected demographics, politics, the school system and general everyday life. Furthermore, it has been a predominant factor in the media and has influenced the cultural imagination. Seen from a culture analytical perspective (e.g. Holm 2012), we make sense of catastrophic events through certain cognitive schemes, certain sets of interpretation, that exist prior to the crisis. Furthermore, use certain images, metaphors, narrative forms, genres etc. as tools in the sense making process. Such tools are also part of children’s culture. They present both at tool kit children can use when explaining and imagining events and they determine what sense making is possible. The paper presents the analysis of 43 fictional letters written by six graders (age ten and eleven) at a Norwegian school. The texts were produced during a writing workshop that was guided by a professional Norwegian author. They were then analyzed within a theoretical framework of cultural narratology (Nünning 2013) to see how the children’s texts participate in so called Erzählgemeinschaften (story telling communities). The analysis shows recurring patterns that are well known from media, as for example the description of the boat trip and the witnessing of small children in distress. Furthermore, the analysis shows that children use predominantly three ways of structuring the narratives that correspond to dominant narrative structures in children’s news media (e.g. the state tv-channel NRK Super) and in picturebooks on the refugee crisis. At the end of the presentation, the results will be discussed in light of theories on writing and Bildung (Aase 2012) in order to discuss implications for education.

Dyson, A.H. (1997). Writing Superheroes. Contemporary Childhood, Popular Culture and Classroom Literarcy. New York: Teachers College Press.
Holm, I. W. (2012). The Cultural Analysis of Disaster. In C. Meiner, & K. Veel (Eds.), The cultural life of catastrophes and crises. (pp. 15-32). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
Nünning, A. (2013). Wie Erzählungen Kulturen erzeugen. In Strohmair (ed.). Kultur – Wissen – Narration. Perspektiven transdisiplinärer Erzählforschung für die Kulturwissenschaften. Bielefeld: Transcript.
Aase, Laila (2012). Skriveprosesser som danning. In Matre, Kibsgaard & Solheim (ed.). Teorier om tekst I møte med skolens les- og skrivepraksiser. Universitetsforlaget.

Keywords: children's writing, refugee crisis, cultural imagination, cultural narratology, letters.


Joana V. Santos & Paulo N Silva (Portugal)
SHORTENING TEXTS AND WRITING ABSTRACTS IN HIGHER EDUCATION: FROM CLASSROOM EXERCISES TO KNOWLEDGE BUILDING STRATEGIES

Paper session ARLE 2019 Thursday, 11:00-12:30 Room T16 Chair: Torres Villamil, Maria Juddy
Text shortening is a common learning strategy in Portuguese universities. Since it helps students to develop reading comprehension and writing abilities, it is a popular academic task and a first step towards abstract writing. However, even if students have learned in high school how to shorten a text, this is not enough in more demanding academic environments.
Research on academic genres has focused not only on abstracts (Bdaiwi et alii 2016, Bondi & Lorès Sanz 2014, Nguyen & Pramoolsook 2014, Rodrigues 2009, Santos 1996), but also on text-shortening tasks (Swales & Feak 2012). Despite their differences, there is a continuum between both, which is probably why undergraduates blend two different genres: the “resumo” as the result of a reading and writing learning task and the “abstract” as written by researchers, which presents a published paper. Even if students show good skills at shortening source-texts, they do not necessarily write good abstracts. They usually fail to select relevant issues, such as main theme, objectives, and results.
In order to understand this disparity, the paper analyses 40 University of Coimbra undergraduates’ texts through scanning of textual features previously identified by the teacher as necessary to abstract writing (re-using main ideas from source-texts through key words, grammatical metaphors and itemization). Analysis follows the framework of the Interactionnisme Sociodiscoursif (Bronckart 1997) and links text features to sociodiscursive practices, in the sense that every text is influenced by the situation in which it occurs, such as its communicative goals. This assumption helps to understand the continuum and the disparity involved in text-shortening tasks and abstract writing.
Comparison of text and sentence structures shows that immediately after instruction students master the art of abstract writing. However, after a few weeks, they revert to high-school models for text-shortening, using personal opinions and metatextual comments. High-school models are thus pervasive. Evidence shows that instructions should clearly state the difference between both genres, even if they share linguistic devices. The main issue is that the situational features of each genre, especially of the abstract (social roles, pragmatic aims, disciplinary communities) must be understood beforehand.

Keywords: Academic genres, text writing, abstract, “resumo”

References
Bondi, Marina & Lorès Sanz, Rosa. (Eds.) 2014. Abstracts in Academic Discourse. Variation and Change. Berne: Peter Lang.
Bdaiwi, Y. et alii 2016. Role of moves, tenses, and metadiscourse in the Abstract of an acceptable Research Article. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences 7 (2), pp. 379-386.
Bronckart, J.-P. 1997. Activité langagière, textes et discours. Lausanne: Delachaux et Niestlé.
Nguyen, L. & Pramoolsook, I. 2014. TESOL Master’s Theses in Vietnam: Relationship between abstracts and introductions. Voices in Asia 2 (1), pp. 91-106.
Rodrigues, Leila C.S. (2009). Dificuldades de Síntese na escrita de alunos do ensino Superior Politécnico. Tese de Doutoramento em Didática apresentada à Universidade de Aveiro.
Santos, M.B. 1996. The textual organization of research paper abstracts in applied linguistics. Text Talk, 16, 481–499.
Swales, J. & Feak, Ch. (2012). Academic writing for graduate students. Essential tasks and skills. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press


Wayne Sawyer & Larissa McLean Davies (Australia)
EXPLORING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LITERATURE AND KNOWLEDGE IN L1 ENGLISH

Paper session ARLE 2019 Friday, 11:00-12:30 Room T14 Chair: Araújo, Teresa
Keywords
knowledge, literature, literary knowledge
Background
Literature holds a definite position of value in L1 curricula. In English, it is ‘identified as a measure of excellence …made an index of the health and strength of a people; credited with fostering modes of public reflection crucial to civil society; entrusted with values and forms of experience believed to be at risk in modern life; and held to play a special role in readers’ intellectual, moral, and emotional development’ (Glazener, 2015: 4-5). Knowledge, though, is not usually the default characteristic we associate with literature. Indeed, the Bullock Report went so far as to maintain that English in general, let alone literature ‘does not hold together as a body of knowledge which can be identified, quantified, then transmitted’ (DES, 1975: 5). The difficulty of ‘fitting’ English neatly within a particular epistemological framework means that it has often been ‘the deviant case’ among school subjects (Medway, 1990).
Research question
What characterises the kinds of relationships that exist between the concepts ‘knowledge’ and ‘Literature’?
Methodology
While it is not difficult to create a taxonomy of what might constitute the kind of knowledge appropriate to Literature, such as knowledge of characters, themes, etc (Marshall, 2014) and to what students might gain from reading Literature, it is impossible to produce an exhaustive list. Where do such taxonomies end? Rather than simply list further possible types of knowledge, we argue that it is more generative to characterise the kinds of relationships that are held to exist between the concepts ‘knowledge’ and ‘Literature’.
Data/ Theoretical framework
We draw on an Australian Research Council Project Investigating Literary Knowledge in the Making of English Teachers to explore the kinds of relationships between ‘knowledge’ and ‘Literature’ from two data sources : a) historical discussion of those relationships and b) the articulations of practice of early career English teachers. While the overarching theoretical framing of the Project is that of literary sociability, we here focus on language-sensitive analysis of the links between knowledge and its object(s).
Results
We suggest a framework for considering such relationships that has implications for practice in L1 teaching.
References
Department of Education and Science (DES) (1975) A Language for Life: Report of the Committee of Inquiry by the Secretary of State for Education and Science under the Chairmanship of Sir Alan Bullock FBA. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.
Glazener, N. (2015) Literature in the Making: A History of U.S. Literary Culture in the Long Nineteenth Century. New York: Oxford University Press.
Marshall, B. (2014) ‘What does it mean “to know” in English?’, in A. Goodwyn, L. Reid and C. Durrant (eds) International Perspectives on Teaching English in a Globalised World. London and New York: Routledge: 13-24.
Medway, P. (1990). ‘Into the sixties: English and English society at a time of change’, in I. F. Goodson and P. Medway (eds.), Bringing English to Order: The History and Politics of a School Subject. London, New York and Philadelphia : The Falmer Press: 1-46.


Catarina Schmidt (Sweden)
THE DANGER OF A SINGLE STORY: CLASSROOM TALK IN GRADE 6

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 09:30-11:00 Room T12 Chair: Mata, Ana Isabel
The Danger of a Single Story: Classroom Talk in Grade 6

Drawing on one Grade 6 classroom during 24 social science lessons over one year, I focus in this paper on classroom talk. The aim is to identify repertoires of classroom talk, and the discourses they form with regards to students’ diverse identities and critical approaches. The study was carried out in a linguistically rich classroom: at least one quarter of the students have another language background than Swedish. When relating students’ particular differences to subject specific content, it addresses one of the most crucial questions of ethics and democracy in society, namely how students in the same classroom can respect and learn from each other while having different backgrounds, values, beliefs and dreams. The universal concern is that citizens have obligations to each other, including a respect for legitimate differences (Benhabib, 2004). At the same time, Appiah (2007) argues that some values must be considered universal, which in my interpretation are such as those outlined by the Convention on the Children’s Rights. Research on critical literacies stresses the need for negotiation, repositioning and re-design of subject content (Janks, 2010).
The used methods were video recordings, and to some extent group interviews. In this paper, I focus on two curriculum tasks from this classroom: World Religions and Commericals, i.e. 6 lessons in total. The lessons occurred in different phases of the classroom teaching and learning, identified as the initial, the intermediate and the final phase. Drawing on Alexander (2008), I investigate what characterizes the repertoires of classroom talk during these lessons and discuss consequences and possibilities for students’ own learning talk with regard to diversity and participation, and in relation to critical approaches (Janks, 2010).
The analysis reveals that it is when students ask authentic questions or respond to their teachers’ or peers’ reflections, that critical approaches appear in relation to content, the surrounding world and themselves. Drawing on the results, I argue that these critical approaches can be deepened in relation to ethical issues, source criticism and redesign, and regardless of whether textual resources are online or offline. Since Swedish national curriculum standards have contributed towards a greater focus on knowledge outcomes, I am concerned that processes of meaning making and criticality might be downplayed. The result reveals an uncertainty of dealing with diversity, and highlights the need for critical perspectives to be integrated with subject content in responsive and explorative ways and where student’s diverse identities are taken into account.

Keywords: diversity; classroom talk; identities; critical approaches.

Alexander, R. (2008). Essays on pedagogy. London: Routledge.
Appiah, A. K. (2007). Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a world of strangers. London: Penguin Books.
Benhabib, S. (2004). The claims of culture: Equity and diversity in the global era. New York: Princetown University Press.
Doyle, W. (1992). Curriculum and pedagogy. In P. W. Jacksson (Ed.), Handbook of research on curriculum (p. 486-516). New York, NY: Macmillan.
Janks, H. (2010). Literacy and power. London: Routledge.


Frederike Schmidt (Germany)
TEACHERS’ PERSPECTIVES ON ASSESSING STUDENTS’ READING SKILLS. A DESIGN RESEARCH STUDY ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF A WEB-BASED INSTRUMENT FOR PRACTITIONERS

Short presentations (poster) and extended discussion ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 14:30-15:30 Room T15 Chair: Elf, Nikolaj
The assessment of reading skills is a basic dimension of teaching quality in the literature classroom to structure and modify teaching and learning activities (e.g. Afflerbach/Cho 2011). While existing literature and research suggests a need of assessments that “turn […] attention to informal assessment of reading comprehension” and take “the needs, knowledge and expertise of practitioners” (Leslie/Caldwell 2009, 419) into account, examples for this claim are scarce in German literature education. My aim was therefore the development of an informal web-based instrument for the assessment of students’ reading skills that is designed collaboratively with teachers: the theoretical conceptualization of the tool was empirically underlaid with data of a qualitative study. I conducted interviews to assess the perspectives of teachers on diagnosing students’ reading skills and their feedback on the tool “JuDiT-L” (Youth Diagnostic Tool in Reading Skills) after using the instrument in their teaching practice over half a year (n=10 secondary teachers, teaching German language and literature). The collected data were analysed by using the documentary method as method for investigation. Against this background, the outcome of the study is an assessment tool for reading comprehension, which was designed, proved and elaborated in an iterative process (Schmidt 2018).
The results and implications of the study will be presented on the poster, with respects to potential and challenges of Design Research (Plomp/Nieveen 2013) and ways of communication in the dialogue of research and practitioners.

References
- Afflerbach, P./Cho, B.-Y. (2011): Classroom assessment of reading. In: Kamil, M. L. (Ed.): Handbook of reading research. Volume 4. London: routledge, 487-514.
- Leslie, L./Caldwell, J. (2009): Formal and informal measures of reading comprehension. In: Israel, S. E./Duffy, G. G. (Eds.): Handbook of research on reading comprehension. New York, NY: Routledge, 403-427.
- Plomp, T./Nieveen, N. (Eds.) (2013): Educational Design Research: Illustrative Cases. Enschede: SLO.
- Schmidt, F. (2018): Diagnose von Lesekompetenz aus Sicht von Lehrpersonen im Fach Deutsch. Berlin et al.: Peter Lang.

Key words: assessment of reading, practices of teachers, beliefs of teachers, literature education, design research



Anke Schmitz & Fabiana Karstens & Joerg Jost (Germany)
STRATEGY-BASED READING INSTRUCTION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS: FINDINGS FROM CLASSROOM OBSERVATIONS AND TEACHERS’ SURVEYS

Paper session ARLE 2019 Thursday, 11:00-12:30 Room T11 Chair: Jusslin, Sofia
To foster higher-level reading processes in secondary schools, intervention studies provide evidence that the incorporation of self-regulated reading is a powerful approach (Dignath & Büttner, 2008). Self-regulated reading is based on using different strategies (Boekaerts, 1999) when dealing with expository texts: cognitive strategies of organization, elaboration or memorization; metacognitive strategies to plan, monitor and evaluate the reading process; resource management strategies to guide motivational, emotional and affective processes of reading comprehension (ibid).
As many students have severe difficulties with comprehending expository texts and usually don’t learn strategy use autonomously, teachers should provide rich opportunities for students to acquire self-regulated reading. Hereby, they should instruct strategies in an explicit way while clarifying when, what for and how to use strategies (Duke & Pearson, 2002; Hattie, 2009). Furthermore, all types of strategies have to be mutually instructed to promote comprehension (Dignath & Büttner, 2008).
As it is widely unknown, how teachers instruct reading strategies in German classes, the study analyzes teachers’ instructional routines in 5th grade by classroom observations and corresponding teacher questionnaires.
The criteria for the classroom observations (N = 42 classes and teachers) and teachers’ questionnaires (N = 135) are based on the model of self-regulated learning of Boekaerts (1999), and are adapted to reading comprehension. The dimensions of both instruments referred to the types and frequency of cognitive strategies, the way of strategy instruction, and the types and frequency of metacognitive strategies. Besides that, it was analyzed how the teachers supported the activation of resource management strategies (e.g. motivation, support, time management).
Descriptive results from classroom observations reveal that there is a low variance in strategy instruction, for instance teachers refer to prototypical cognitive strategies (e.g. underlining), they seldom instruct metacognitive strategies and mostly explain strategic reading in an implicit way. These findings contradict teachers’ own perspectives expressed in the questionnaire.
Despite the differences which are getting evident in the two studies, it can be discussed how the conjunction between research on self-regulated reading and school practice could be strengthened.

References
Boekaerts, M. (1999). Self-regulated learning: where we are today. International Journal of Educational Research, 31, 445-457.
Dignath, C. & Büttner, G. (2008). Components of fostering self-regulated learning among students. A meta-analysis on intervention studies at primary and secondary school level. Metacognition and Learning, 3, 231-264.
Duke, N. K. & Pearson, P. D. (2002). Effective practices for developing reading comprehension. In A. E. Farstrup & S. Jay Samuels (Eds.), What research has to say about reading instruction (pp. 205-242). Newark, NJ: International Reading Association.
Hattie, J. A. C. (2009): Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. London: Routledge.


Bernard Schneuwly & Glais Sales Cordeiro (Switzerland)
TEXT GENRES AND L1 EDUCATION

Symposium ARLE 2019 Thursday, 15:45-17:15 Room T12
Text genres are since ever a fundamental category for organizing L1 education: through classical school genres like, in French for instance, “narration, description, dissertation” or in German, “Bericht, Erzählung, Beschreibung, Schilderung, Abhandlung, Betrachung”, the teaching of writing was systematically organized in a pedagogical progressive order. In the context of deep changes in this matter towards what is often called a communicative approach since circa the 1970es and more systematically since the 1990s, other text genres entered school and the concept of text genre itself changed, referring to different linguistic, semiotic and literary theories (see, for instance, Rose and Martin, 2012, for Australia; Bunzen, 2004, for Brazil; Chartrand & Emery-Bruneau, 2015 for Québec). These changes happened more or less simultaneously in many countries all over the world and still go on in others. The symposium on text genres and L1 education aims at documenting these transformations in a comparative approach, with particular attention to teaching writing: researchers coming from different countries where text genres play a significant role in L1 curricula (Brazil, Portugal, Spain and French speaking Switzerland) will discuss about text genres perspectives in L1 education in their respective country, by following freely a common grid of presentation (see Schneuwly and Cordeiro, 2016):
- the place text genres occupy in syllabi (study plans) within a historical perspective;
- the main teaching methods, textbooks or teacher training projects developed for teaching text genres used to implement the study plans;
- the main theoretical references, be they linguistic, literary, pedagogical or, in European terminology, didactic.
The discussion will focus on common features and on differences concerning the concept of text genre, its place in school programs and the ways text genres are studied and taught in L1 education.
The general aim of the symposium is to lay the foundations for creating a Special Interest Group of ARLE on “Text genres and L1 education”.

References
Bunzen, C. (2004). O ensino de “gêneros” em três tradições: implicações para o ensino-aprendizagem de língua materna. In : Covre et al. (2004). Quimera e a peculiar atividade de formalizar a mistura do nosso café com o revigorante chá de Bakhtin (pp. 221-257). São Carlos: Grupos de Estudos dos Gêneros do Discurso.
Chartrand, S., Emery-Bruneau, J. & Sénéchal, K. (2015). Caractéristiques de 50 genres pour développer les compétences langagières. Québec : Didactica, c.é.f.. En ligne : http://www.enseignementdufrancais.fse.ulaval.ca.
Rose, D. & Martin, J. R. (2012). Learning to write, reading to learn. Genre, knowledge and pedagogy in the Sydney School. Sheffield: Equinox.
Schneuwly, B. & Cordeiro, G. S. (2016). Le genre de texte comme objet autonome d’enseignement : comparaison de deux approches didactiques. In G. S. Cordeiro & D. Vrydaghs (Ed.), Statuts des genres en didactique du français (pp. 83-108). Namur : Presses universitaires de Namur.

Keywords: Text genres – writing – L1 education – syllabus – teaching methods


Bernard Schneuwly (Switzerland)
GRAND TÉMOIN

Keynote Friday, 17:15-17:45 Room Auditorium 1 Chair: Costa, Ana Luísa



Marloes Schrijvers & Tanja Janssen & Olivia Fialho & Gert Rijlaarsdam (Netherlands (the))
TRANFORMATIVE DIALOGIC LITERATURE TEACHING FOSTERS STUDENTS’ INSIGHT INTO HUMAN NATURE

Paper session ARLE 2019 Thursday, 11:00-12:30 Room T14 Chair: Dera, Jeroen
Who are we, and how do we relate to others? Now that globalization, equality, tolerance, and polarization are prominent issues in society, such questions appear to be more relevant than ever. Education has often been considered an important place for young people to learn to reflect on what it means to be ‘human’ (e.g., Nussbaum, 2010). Simultaneously, empirical research has shown that reading literature can affect our insight into self and others (e.g., Fialho, 2018). The question that rises, then, is whether literature education may affect adolescents’ insight into human nature.

In 10th literature classrooms in the Netherlands, we assessed the effects of the newly developed Transformative Dialogic Literature Teaching (TDLT) intervention on 15-year-old students’ insight into human nature and the extent to which they considered this insight an important reason for reading (eudaimonic reasons). Six TDLT lessons centered around short literary stories about ‘justice and injustice’. Students were stimulated to engage in internal dialogues with stories and in external dialogues with peers about stories and reading experiences. Furthermore, as teachers in one of our previous studies indicated that students’ limited strategy use and a lack of motivation are prominent challenges in their literature classrooms, we aimed to alleviate these challenges. TDLT therefore attented to ‘incomprehension’ as a genuine response during internal dialogues with stories. Moreover, it was designed as a reader-oriented approach, for such approaches have been shown to have positive effects on motivation-related aspects (e.g., Henschel, Meier, & Roick, 2016; Janssen, Braaksma, & Couzijn, 2009).

In a quasi-experimental study with pretest, posttest and delayed posttest, TDLT students (n = 166) were compared to students who received regular literature lessons, focused on analysis of literary texts (n =166). Results of questionnaires and a written story task showed that TDLT fostered students’ insight into human nature, their support for eudaimonic reasons for reading, their reported use of strategies during reading, and their motivation for literature education. Four months after the intervention, effects on insight into human nature and eudaimonic reasons for reading were still statistically significant. We discuss the implications of our findings for future research and literature classroom practices.

Keywords: insight into human nature; literature education; intervention study; secondary school; motivation

References

Fialho, O. (2018). Deepening readers’ perceptions of self and others: The role of enactment-imagery, resonance and sympathy. Paper presented at the IGEL Conference, Stavanger, Norway, July 27, 2018.

Henschel, S., Meier, C., & Roick, T. (2016). Effects of two types of task instructions on literary text comprehension and motivational and affective factors. Learning and Instruction, 44, 11-21. doi:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2016.02.005

Janssen, T., Braaksma, M., & Couzijn, M. (2009). Self-questioning in the literature classroom: Effects on students’ interpretation and appreciation of short stories. L1 – Educational Studies in Language and Literature, 9, 91-116. doi:10.17239/l1esll-2009.09.01.05

Nussbaum, M. (2010). Not for profit: Why democracy needs the humanities. New Jersey, NJ: Princeton University Press.


Marloes Schrijvers & Sarah Levine & Iris Vansteelandt (Netherlands (the))
SYSTEMATIC DESIGN OF INTERVENTIONS FOR LITERARY AND READING INSTRUCTION (INVITED SIG ROLE SYMPOSIUM)

Symposium ARLE 2019 Thursday, 15:45-17:15 Room Auditorium 3
Proposal for Invited Symposium SIG ROLE

Intervention studies in L1 language arts and literature classrooms are pivotal to investigate the effects of instructional approaches that have been purposefully designed to achieve certain learning outcomes. Ideally, design principles, design procedures and the resulting interventions (i.e., lessons, projects, materials) are described comprehensively in research papers. A lack of explicit and detailed descriptions poses a threat to the validity and replicability of interventions, and hampers gaining insights in the domain-specific instructional activities that are designed to achieve particular aims (e.g., Nieveen, 1999; O’Donnell, 2008; Rijlaarsdam, Janssen, Rietdijk, & Van Weijen, 2017).

For a special issue that is currently being set up for L1 – Educational Studies in Language and Literature, we collect papers that comprehensively describe the design of interventions in L1 language arts and literature classrooms. In a symposium, we would like to present three of these papers, that focus on (literary) reading interventions. These papers address a variety of design contexts, including primary and secondary school, as well as professional development programs for teachers.

In this symposium, we focus in particular on 1) initial design principles based on theoretical-empirical models, 2) the (iterative) development process toward (several versions of) an intervention, and 3) the implementation of interventions in the classroom. The aims of these interventions vary: they address affect-based literary interpretation (see abstract 1), reading motivation (abstract 2), and insight into human nature as a result of literature education (abstract 3).

The aim of this symposium is to draw attention to the importance of systematic design of and reporting on interventions in the field of L1 studies. The paper presentations will yield ‘formats’ or ‘templates’ for how intervention design processes may be set up, monitored, evaluated, and described. In doing so, the papers will also shed light on contemporary objectives that are strived for in L1 language arts and literature classrooms and offer detailed insights in domain-specific teaching and learning activities have been designed and implemented to achieve these objectives.

Keywords: literature education, reading, intervention design, intervention studies

Discussant: Jochen Heins, University of Hamburg


Abstract 1

Sarah Levine* & Karoline Trepper*
* Stanford University, United States

This study examines the design and implementation of two iterations of a professional development workshop for high school teachers focused on affect-based approaches to literary interpretation. In two consecutive years, participating teachers lead affect-based discussions of literature in their own classrooms, where students showed gains in interpretive discussion compared to baseline discussions. However, the second iteration was significantly more successful than the first by several measures. This study describes and analyzes the effects of changes between iterations.
The workshops built on theories of transactional reading and the role of affect, emotion, and judgment, as well as small-scale studies showing that affect-based heuristics help move students from literal to interpretive readings. Workshop participants—all high-school language arts teachers from high-poverty schools across the United States—studied an affect-based interpretive approach called “up/down/both/why,” in which readers use a positive/negative scale to evaluate a text’s affective impact, and then explain their evaluations. Each cohort of 25 teachers spent five days practicing the heuristic, and some then taught the heuristic to their students. Both workshops led to gains in teacher understanding and student interpretation, as shown by analysis of instructional outlines and materials, teacher survey data and written reflections, and classroom video. However, teachers in the second iteration gave the workshop significantly higher ratings, and a significantly higher number of teachers regularly used the heuristic in their classes.This study analyzes the workshop changes that contributed to these improved gains.
Analysis will focus on three important changes from first to second iteration: First, teacher educators asked the first cohort of teachers not only to practice the affective heuristic, but also to find or create affectively ambiguous texts that would lend themselves to affective evaluation. Teachers struggled with this task. The second iteration provided such texts to the teachers. Second, teacher educators encouraged the first cohort of teachers to distinguish between textual content and authorial craft when applying the affective heuristic. Teachers struggled with this distinction. In the second iteration, teacher educators used a more flexible approach in teaching the heuristic, showing teachers how to use the heuristic to help students articulate personal responses, evaluate literary aesthetics, and build literary criticism. Finally, the second iteration offered significantly more time for teacher discussion and practice. This study explores the affordances and constraints of the changes in design and implementation and discusses implications for future teacher education in literary interpretation.

Abstract 2

Iris Vansteelandt*, Hilde van Keer* & Suzanne Mol**
* Ghent University, Belgium
** Leiden University, the Netherlands

Bringing continuous professional development in practice: Design principles for a professional development program for primary school teachers focusing on promoting students’ reading motivation

Studies show that teachers’ continuous professional development (CPD) is essential for educational quality, and moreover, when it comes to reading, key for students’ success in education and participation in our 21st century society. Most of the research investigating professional development programs on improving teachers’ self-efficacy for teaching reading and in particular on fostering students’ reading motivation, however, fails to include clear and detailed descriptions of the design principles underlying the programs. Therefore, the present study provides a comprehensive description and operationalization of the design principles of a CPD program for primary school teachers focusing on promoting students’ reading motivation combining Desimone’s (2009) framework for effective professional development with Self-Determination Theory (SDT) (Deci & Ryan, 2000). Consequently, the in the CPD included core features distinguished by Desimone (2009) (i.e., content focus, coherence, active learning, collective participation and duration) and the need for autonomy, competence and relatedness as put central in SDT (Deci & Ryan, 2000) are analytically described and elaborated on. In view of reporting on the implementation check of the CPD, we further provide insight into whether these operationalized design principles were also perceived as such by the teachers participating in a first iteration of the CPD intervention.

Abstract 3

Marloes Schrijvers*, Tanja Janssen*, Olivia Fialho** & Gert Rijlaarsdam*
* University of Amsterdam
** Utrecht University

This paper describes the design of literature classroom intervention for 15-year-old students in the Netherlands, which aimed to foster their learning about themselves and others. It was informed by a theoretical-empirical model of transformative reading (Fialho, 2012; 2018), an explorative study in Dutch literature classrooms (Schrijvers, Janssen, Fialho, & Rijlaarsdam, 2016) and three initial design principles identified in a review of previous empirical intervention studies (Schrijvers, Janssen, Fialho, & Rijlaarsdam, 2018). We aimed to investigate the effects of an iterative design process on both the validity and practicality of the intervention, which are important indicators of its quality (Nieveen, 1999), as well as on the initial design principles underlying the intervention, to contribute to theory and classroom practice.
A first version of the intervention was developed in collaboration with teachers, tested in pilot studies, and subsequently taught by 13 teachers to 22 classes. In four lessons, students focused on internal and external dialogues with and about short stories while attending to transformative reading aspects such as identification, experience-taking and sympathy for characters. We assessed validity and practicality by using implementation and evaluation measures, e.g., teacher logs, time on task observations, students’ evaluation forms and interviews with teachers. Suggestions for improvement were derived from the data (e.g., use more lesson time, make learning objectives more explicit) which led to redesigning the intervention; subsequently, six teachers taught it to six classes. Overall, teacher and student data supported the validity and practicality of the redesigned intervention. This study thus suggested that an iterative design process may result in valid and practical domain-specific interventions. In addition, it allowed for complementing the initial design principles with sub-principles for operationalization in the classroom.

References

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The ‘what’ and ‘why’ of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268. doi:10.1207/s15327965pli1104_01
Desimone, L. M. (2009). Improving impact studies of teachers’ professional development: Toward better conceptualizations and measures. Educational Researcher, 38, 181-199. doi:10.3102/0013189x08331140
Fialho, O. (2012). Self-modifying experiences in literary reading: A model for reader response (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://era.library.ualberta.ca
Fialho, O. (2018). Deepening readers’ perceptions of self and others: The role of enactment-imagery, resonance and sympathy. Paper presented at the IGEL Conference, Stavanger, Norway, July 27, 2018.
Nieveen, N. (1999). Prototyping to reach product quality. In: J. van den Akker, R. Branch, K. Gus-tafson, N. Nieveen, & T. Plomp (Eds.), Design approaches and tools in education and training (pp. 125-136). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer
O’Donnell, C. L. (2008). Defining, conceptualizing, and measuring fidelity of implementation and its relationship to outcomes in K-12 curriculum intervention research. Review of Educational Research, 78, 33–84. doi:10.3102/0034654307313793
Rijlaarsdam, G., Janssen, T., Rietdijk, S., & Van Weijen, D. (2017). Reporting design principles for effective instruction of writing: Interventions as constructs. In R. Fidalgo & T. Olive (Series Eds.), & R. Fidalgo, K. Harris, & M. Braaksma (Vol. Eds.), Studies in writing series: Vol. 34. Design principles for teaching effective writing (pp. 280–313). Leiden, Netherlands: Brill.
Schrijvers, M., Janssen, T., Fialho, O., & Rijlaarsdam, G. (2016). The impact of literature education on students’ perceptions of self and others: Exploring personal and social learning experiences in relation to teacher approach. L1 – Educational Studies in Language and Literature, 17, 1-37. doi:10.17239/L1ESLL-2016.16.04.01
Schrijvers, M., Janssen, T., Fialho, O., & Rijlaarsdam, G. (2018). Gaining insight into human nature: A review of literature classroom intervention studies. Review of Educational Research. Advance online publication. doi:10.3102/0034654318812914


Isabel Sebastião (Portugal)
THE ARGUMENTATIVE WRITING: THE CURRICULA, THE TEXTBOOK AND THE TEACHER – A CLASSROOM INTERACTION

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 09:30-11:00 Room Auditorium 3 Chair: Cardoso, Adriana
The argumentative writing: the curricula, the textbook and the teacher – a classroom interaction


Throughout their school career, in their profession of student, students relate to different genres. The genre system (Bazerman, 2006), which students deal with on a daily basis in school, is regulated by the curricular guidelines governing teaching and thus delimits a course of learning (PMCPEB, 2015) and transmits to the student by the teacher and by the textbook, the instrument of education that has more weight in the process of teaching and learning and in current societies (Sebastião, 2013): the textbook - as an instrument of action that constitutes an integral part of the Portuguese education system with the tools it provides the student.
This situation leads to the following question: does the elaboration of the textbooks, subjugated to the programmatic indications, take into account the textual and discursive theoretical characteristics necessary for the knowledge of the genres of the order of argumentation? As Costa (2016: 175) states, "students must have textual competences such as text-model awareness and linguistic resources as causal, conditional, and contrastive links" so that they can be proficient at the moment of mastery of writing. Therefore, beyond the linguistic aspects, the process of teaching and learning of the production of written texts must take into account the conditions of their production, emphasize their communicative linguistic purpose; take into account the specificities (textual and discursive) of the requested genre; identify the preferred places of circulation and define their interlocutor (van Dijk, 2008).
In this way, this presentation of a case study intends to perceive the relationship that exists between the theory expressed by the programmatic guidelines, for the domain of argumentative writing, and the practice to which the students of the 9th grade are submitted to through the Portuguese textbook. To understand better this relation, in this presentation we will also analyze the performance of the teacher, real interaction in the classroom, in the mediation between the student and the textbook. The analysis perspective assumes a qualitative method, compare the curricular guidelines, the textbook used in this specific context classroom and the teacher’s performance.
Among some of the results obtained up until now and which are intended to be presented for discussion, one can anticipate that the pragmatic-discursive questions underlying the textual typologies and the textual and discursive genres under study are incomplete.

Keywords: teaching and learning of writing, textbook, argumentative writing, argumentative genre.

References
Bazerman, C. (2006). Gêneros, agência e escrita. São Paulo: Cortez.
Costa, A. L. (2015). “No limiar da escrita argumentativa: um estudo exploratório”. Revista da Associação Portuguesa de Linguística, 2, pp. 173-203.
https://doi.org/10.21747/ 2183-9077/rapl2a8
DGE (2015). Programa e metas curriculares de Português do ensino básico. Lisboa: DGE/MEC.
Sebastião, I. (2013). Interactividade entre práticas e aprendizagens de estruturas discursivo textuais no ensino básico - o discurso epistolar. Tese de Doutoramento, Universidade Nova de Lisboa.
van Dijk, T. (2008). Discourse and Context. Cambridge: University Press Cambridge.


Isabel Sebastião (Portugal)
THE ROLE OF THE INSTRUCTIONAL STATEMENT IN THE WRITING PROCESS

Paper session ARLE 2019 Thursday, 11:00-12:30 Room T16 Chair: Torres Villamil, Maria Juddy
The instructional text is one of the most recurrent and less critically analyzed school practices. This approach contrasts with the little importance given to this type of pedagogical discourse (Duarte et al., 2016), when really the instructional statements are an important axis in the teaching and learning process of language and, of course, of any discipline.
Considering that the instructional statements are part of the instructional discourse, it is important to emphasize that its production has the objective of taking the interlocutor, the student, through the interaction, to perform a determined action. This is a discourse that intends to regulate the activity of the interlocutor, from the process to the action that is practical and mental (Kintsch & van Dijk, 1978; Koch, 2002).
This indicates that the instructional statement must be formulated with precision and clarity so that the requested task is performed consistently (Dolz, Gagnon, Decândio, 2011). In the case of writing, external pieces of information provided by the instructional statement become internal actions that result in the text product (Riestra, 2002).
This communication, which has as corpus the three best-selling Portuguese textbooks in Portugal for the 9th year, has as guiding principles i) verification of the use of linguistic terminology as a learning tool; ii) analysis of how these textbooks present the instructional discourse with regard to the tasks of written production; iii) importance of the role that the instructional statement plays in the planning of the text to be produced and in the construction of coherence.
The analysis of the mentioned data allowed (i) to identify that the instructional statements do not contribute to the comprehension of the writing tasks; ii) diagnose that writing design is not based on the communicative dimension.

Keywords: instructional statements, writing, textbooks.

References
Dolz, J.; Gagnon, R.; Decâncio, F. (2011). Produção Escrita e Dificuldades de Aprendizagem. Campinas: Mercado das Letras.
Duarte, I. M; Rodrigues, S. V.; Machado, A.; Guedes, Maria M.; Toriz, Helena (2016). A escrita escolar para expressão de conhecimentos e aprendizagens: um caso em estudo. In: José António Brandão Carvalho, Maria de Lourdes Dionísio, Elisete de Carvalho Mesquita, Juliana Cunha e Ana Arqueiro (orgs.), Atas do V Simpósio Internacional de Ensino de Língua Portuguesa e do V Fórum Ibero-Americano de Literacias (V SIELP-FIAL). Braga: CIEd/Universidade do Minho. (pp. 219-232). ISBN: 978-989-8525-49-9 [Suporte Eletrónico]. Disponível em http://repositorium.sdum.uminho.pt/handle/1822/44992
Riestra, D. (2002). Lectura y escritura en la universidad: las consignas de las tareas en la planificación de la reenseñanza de la lengua. In RIILL Revista del Instituto de Investigaciones Lingüísticas y Literarias Hispanoamericanas 15: 54-68.
Kintsch, W. and T. van Dijk (1978). Toward a Model of Text Comprehension and Production. In Psychological Review, 85, pp. 363-394.


Anna Seeber & Iris Winkler (Germany)
ONLINE-BASED PEER FEEDBACK IN TEACHING PRACTICUM. FACETS OF PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE OF GERMAN L1 TEACHER STUDENTS

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 09:30-11:00 Room T16 Chair: Aruvee, Merilin
Teacher education programs at German universities include field experiences in schools. Their goal is to provide an opportunity to observe and practice teaching. A crucial question of teacher education research is how the field experiences can be structured and guided so that the teacher students’ learning outcome is raised (e.g. increasing action ability and pedagogical content knowledge). The intervention project OVID-PRAX (Online-based video feedback in teaching practicum) focusses on this issue. It investigates characteristics and effects of feedback teacher students’ give to each other on the basis of videotaped lessons. The lessons were conducted during a six-month teaching practicum which is preceded by at least four semesters of university studies. The paper presents results on the question which aspects of teaching are addressed in the peer feedbacks and which quality the feedbacks have.

The formulation of feedback is regarded as one facet of professional competence that is relevant for teacher students’ future work with pupils (Hattie & Timperley 2007). Although this competence is considered to be essential for teaching, there is little research in teacher education (Lawson et al. 2015). Previous research suggests that the opportunity to exchange perspectives on teaching with fellow students supports the reflection of one’s own knowledge and action abilities (Lu 2010).

In one of the OVID-PRAX intervention groups, teacher students of German as L1 (N=38) videotaped one self-planned and self-conducted lesson and shared it with peers and educators via a digital learning environment. Using the learning platform, the teacher students gave written feedback on their lessons to each other. These written peer feedbacks are the data basis of the presentation. They are analyzed with qualitative methods. The underlying idea is to investigate to what extent students activate pedagogical content knowledge and use it for their argumentation. First results of the study are consistent with prior research on teacher feedbacks revealing that teachers mostly focus on visible structures and hardly on deep structures (e.g. mental activities) of learning (Sturm 2016). In-depth results and practical implications will be discussed in the presentation.

Keywords: peer feedback; German L1 teacher students; teaching practicum; professional competence, qualitative data analysis

Hattie, J. & Timperley, H. (2007). The Power of Feedback. Review of Educational Research 77(1), 81–112.

Lawson, T., Çakmak, M., Gündüz, M. & Busher, H. (2015). Research on teaching practicum – a systematic review. European Journal of Teacher Education, 38(3), 392–407.

Lu, H.-L. (2010). Research on peer coaching in preservice teacher education – A review of literature. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26, 748–753.

Sturm, A. (2016). Beurteilen und Kommentieren von Texten als fachdidaktisches Wissen. Leseräume, 3(3), 115-132.


Yael Segev & Sigal Hason (Israel)
CONSIDERATIONS IN RUNNING A VIRTUAL PROFESSIONAL COMMUNITY AS PART OF THE EFFORT TO ENCOURAGE READING IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.

Paper session ARLE 2019 Thursday, 14:00-15:30 Room Auditorium 3 Chair: Pereira, Luísa A.
In Israel, the engagement with promoting the love of reading is part of the ongoing activities of language classes in the primary school setting. For various reasons, language teachers are not trained to lead their students in discussions based on their reading as a tool to encourage reading (Burgess, Sargent & Smith, 2011; Hason, 2018).
This fact has propelled Israel’s Ministry of Education to prepare an intervention program and to present teachers with pedagogic practices for the classroom which promote the encouragement of reading books. As part of this program, it was decided to open a virtual professional knowledge community, with the goal of transforming language teachers into change agents with respect to promoting reading.
The expectation was that the advantages of the digital platform (Lev-On, 2015) would lead teachers to gain new knowledge and classroom-ready tools, and that the connection between the teacher, the book, and the student would be strengthened thereby.
At the end of the activity, the 28 teachers who participated in the community continually were asked to answer a Questionnaire which consisted of 19 questions: six open questions and 13 closed questions. The open questions provided qualitative answers on the issue of changing the perceptions and perspectives of the participants regarding the encouragement of reading following their participation in the community. Six of the closed questions were presented as multiple-choice questions which dealt with technical issues and operational aspects of the community and the other 13 questions required ranking according to the Likert scale and dealt with their learning experience. The results discovered that 43% of the teachers reported that the community activities had changed their perspectives on their role in encouraging reading. 65% were also able to respond with at least one classroom activity that they organized as a result of their participation in the community, and mentioned its clear influence on encouraging reading

Key words:virtual professional knowledge community, Elementary school


Bibliography
Burgess, S.R., Sargent, S., & Smith, M. (2011). Teachers' leisure reading habits and knowledge of children's books: do they relate teaching to school teachers? Reading Provement, 48(2), 8-84
Hason, S. (2018) The role of the reading book in the elementary religious school through the eyes of teachers, librarians, principals and policy makers. Doctoral dissertation, Bar-Ilan University.
Lev-On, A., (2015) online Communities Tel aviv: Resling Publishing


Hyunseok Seo (Korea (The Republic Of))
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS' PERCEPTION ON READING UNDERACHIEVERS AND TEACHING EXPERIENCES IN SOUTH KOREA

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 15:45-17:15 Room T16 Chair: Batalha, Joana
This study investigated the concept of reading underachievers perceived by elementary school teachers and their teaching status in South Korea. The inquiry questions of this study are as follows. 1)What are the characteristics of ‘poor reading’ and ‘reading underachiever’ perceived by teachers? 2)How are the actual conditions of teaching ‘reading underachievers’perceived by school teachers? 3)What are the challenges and needs faced by teachers with teaching reading underachievers? 4)What are the ways to support for reading teachers? The research was conducted in about 100 incumbent elementary school teachers to investigate the status and tendency of their perception of reading underachiever teaching in school. A mobile survey was performed for a week from July 20 to 25, 2018 by using Google Drive.
In this study elementary school teachers indicated that most important under-achievement of their students is basic reading and writing ability. They perceive reading poor children are those who cannot read loudly, those who have poor vocabulary, lack of reading ability to check facts, or who do not read to find meaning. And they have found that there are 1-2 poor readers in their class. More than 80% of the teachers volunteered to teach reading underachievers, who were detected in their classrooms. But, only 40(41.2%) respondents participated in vocational training. And the respondents teaching reading underachievers were less likely to participate in training than those teaching no reading underachiever: 27.1% and 55.1%, respectively (χ2=7.855, p<.01). And there was no statistically significant difference found in satisfaction with training related to reading underachiever teaching, the respondents teaching reading underachievers scored an average of 3.78 and those teaching no reading underachiever scored an average of 3.85 for training satisfaction. That is, the respondents teaching reading underachievers were less satisfied with the training than those teaching no reading underachiever. The results of this study indicate that the appropriate support is not provided to teachers who directly teach to reading underachievers. And Teachers were unable to spell out the exact names of reading diagnostic tools, it can be presumed that they have scant information or knowledge about teaching reading underachievers.

Keywords : elementary school teacher, reading underachiever, development of teachers' expertise, reading diagnostic tool, teacher training



Conceição Siopa & Luísa A. Pereira & Joaquim Dolz (Mozambique)
ACADEMIC WRITING AT THE UNIVERSITY IN MOZAMBIQUE

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 09:30-11:00 Room Auditorium 3 Chair: Cardoso, Adriana
This presentation intends to show preliminary results of a project on Academic Writing, developed at the Eduardo Mondlane University in Mozambique. Starting in 2016, its primary objective was to reformulate Portuguese language programs and teaching methods in Teaching Portuguese, Linguistics, Literature and Translation graduations at the university. The teachers involved in the teaching of these Portuguese language subjects were all involved in this project, in a line of action research in order to study and select teaching materials and methodologies able to lead students to build knowledge and to develop their competence of writing academic texts. They also intend to collect information that would obtain data on how this teaching and learning process took place and to what extent it was successful. Thus, after two years of this project implementation, this presentation will show, on one hand, how teachers-researchers have experienced this process, and even how it contributed to the development of their current research. On the other hand, we will show the effects of this didactic action, through the testimony of teachers-supervisors of final papers students have to do to culminate their studies, in order to understand if these teachers indicate differences and / or changes in the way students write and in which aspects and dimensions of writing is visible such a change. Methodologically, we will carry out a content analysis of the teachers' written statements about the didactic experience and its effect in its current research. We will also analyze the responses given to a questionnaire survey applied to the teachers who were not involved in the experience but are now (two years later) responsible for guiding these students through their final written work. It is expected that the conclusions will allow the evaluation of the impact that academic writing projects based on genre pedagogy have on the academic community, both in the academic development of students involved and in the process of teacher training. We will also try to unveil dimensions that could allow the discovery of a work area and a teaching field for the Production of Written Texts in Higher Education.
References
Dolz, J., & Schneuwly, B. (2004). Gêneros orais e escritos na escola. Campinas: Mercado das Letras.
Hyland, K. (2007). Genre pedagogy: Language, literacy and L2 writing instruction. Journal of Second Language Writing, 16(3), 148–164.
Pereira, L. Á., & Cardoso, I. (2013). A Sequência de ensino como dispositivo didático para a aprendizagem da escrita num contexto de formação de professores. In Reflexão sobre a escrita: O ensino de diferentes géneros de textos (pp. 33–65). Aveiro: UA Editora.
Siopa, C., & Pereira, L. Á. (2017). Escrever português como segunda língua: perceções e experiências de aprendizagem de estudantes universitários. Indagatio Didactica, 9(4), 351–366.


Dag Skarstein (Norway)
ONLINE COMMENTS SECTIONS AS INTERPRETIVE COMMUNITIES

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 11:30-13:00 Room T12 Chair: Cassany, Daniel
Movies and TV-series represent important narrative fields for young people, and comments sections associated with different TV- and online-series are relatively new venues where viewers/readers can exchange their experiences of dramaturgic unities. The comments sections can be understood as interpretive communities where literary experiences and interpretations are shared, and thus a possible arena for developing hermeneutic discourse. Comments sections also represent a new and interesting source for phenomenological studies (Bruner 1990, Lakoff and Johnson 1999) of fictional reading as the context differs from L1-classrooms. For example, the readings are not facilitated or monitored by a teacher and the participation is voluntary.

The presentation will focus on patterns that occur in the comments sections of a Norwegian high school drama called Skam. The TV-series generated a lot of activity in both national and international comments sections. The comments were categorized on the basis of syntagmatic and paradigmatic thinking (Bruner 1990) and primary and secondary discourse (Gee 2015). The analysis reveals two distinct patterns; one where the series is interpreted either in a primary emotional and intersubjective discourse or in a secondary hermeneutic discourse (Gee 1999, Penne 2007). The second pattern concerns the question of who is talking with whom. The talk will argue that the comment sections reveal two interpretive communities that do no communicate with each other, and furthermore, that these patterns may cast light over the differences in literary competence that occurs in L1-classrooms.

Key words: comments sections, hermeneutic interpretations, TV-series, fictional reading

Bruner, J. S. (1990). Acts of meaning. Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press.
Gee, J. P. (2015). An introduction to discourse analysis. New York: Routledge.
Lakoff, G. and M. Johnson (1999). Philosophy in the flesh : the embodied mind and its challenge to Western thought. New York, Basic Books.
Penne, S. (2007). Min mening og min verden: om kulturer, klasser og litteraturundervisning på ungdomstrinnet”. I “Eskilsson, Olle, Redfors, Andreas (red.), Ämnesdidaktik ur ett nationellt och internationellt perspektiv: rapport från Rikskonferensen i ämnesdidaktik 2006, Kristianstad: Kristianstad University Press , 2007, p. 231-244.



Sylvana Sofkova Hashemi (Sweden)
PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS EXPLORING EARLY WRITING INSTRUCTION – FOSTERING PROFESSIONAL DIGITAL COMPETENCE

The Swedish national curriculum for compulsory school has been recently revised with the aim to strengthen pupils’ digital competence. Previous curricular studies (Peterson, 2018) show a general focus on the development of basic skills (handwriting, spelling) and genre knowledge in early writing instruction in Sweden and scarce emphasis on process, functional or critical literacy approaches, the socio-political discourses emphasised to prepare pupils for citizenship in a digitalized society. The curricula emphasise work with interactive texts, collaboratively created texts, texts where words and images interact, responsible use of language when communicating in digital media (Skolverket, 2017; Godhe et al., in review).

This study analyses pre-service teachers’ field work and seminar dialogue exploring the teaching and learning discourses (Ivanic, 2004) in early writing instruction in regard to teachers’ professional digital competence. A total of 253 final year teacher students, participating between 2016 - 2018 in a Swedish subject course (40-60 students/course), the aim was to study:

1. What discourses of writing instruction the teacher students’ field studies and seminar dialogue reveal?
2. What professional competence the teacher students develop and wish for?

The objective of the field assignment was to use observation techniques and study how the early writing instruction is organized in relation to available digital resources, what learning goals are set, what literacy practices occur, which texts pupils read and create on screen or by hand and how. The group's individual observations were compiled in a digital presentation for seminal examination. The requirement was to link the findings to the course literature and reflect on the results by preparing at least one question for creating a seminar discussion.

The analysis of the pre-service teachers’ field work and seminar dialogue not only explores the current state of early writing instruction, it also raises questions among the students about their own professional competence and readiness to teach early writing in the digital age. The students discovered major contrasts in access and use of digital tools between schools, absence of learning goals, discussed pupils’ autonomy vs. teacher control, influence of arrangements on instruction and issues in regard to meaningful instruction, assessment and inclusion.

References:
Godhe, A-L., Sofkova Hashemi, S. & Magnusson, P. (in review) Adequate Digital Competence: Exploring changes in the Swedish national curriculum. Educare.

Ivanic, R. (2004). Discourses of writing and learning to write. Language and Education, 18(3), 220–245.

Peterson, S., Parr, J., Lindgren, E., & Kaufman, D. (2018). Conceptualizations of writing in early years curricula and standards documents: International perspectives. The Curriculum Journal, 1-23.

Skolverket (2017). Swedish curriculum for compulsory school, preschool classes and recreation centers 2011, revised 2017. Available at: https://www.skolverket.se/publikationer?id=3813


Margrethe Sonneland (Norway)
WORKING WITH LITERATURE IN LOWER SECONDARY SCHOOL. A STUDY OF THE INTERPLAY BETWEEN COMPLEX TEXTS AND READERS IN GROUP INTERACTIONS

Paper session ARLE 2019 Friday, 14:00-15:30 Room T15 Chair: Pieper, Irene
Problem-focused teaching and in-depth learning in education has been pointed to as central for developing skills needed for the 21st century. This study is a multiple case study (Yin, 2014) of literary classroom work at a Norwegian lower-secondary school where three classes are invited to discuss text presented to them as open problems. The purpose of the study is to understand what happens when lower-secondary students get to work on their own with complex texts. The problems that these students encounter and talk about, are three short stories that in various ways resist unequivocal answers. Primary data consists of classroom observations and audio recording of students’ literary conversations in small-groups. The analysis is conducted in three steps. First, the attention is drawn to the classroom and to all the conversations understood as a phenomenological whole. Secondly, through various forms of double-voiced discourse (Bakhtin, 1984) and the discursive building-task significance (Gee, 2014) the analysis aims to assess how the students are relating to the task. Thirdly, to ask what they respond to and how they do it, Bakhtin’s concept of addressivity (2013) is activated. The first case study carried out showed that the text and the task had the power to attract and the ability to generate student engagement. The second case study identified variation in student engagement based on a description of intensity and an analysis of students’ discursive valuation mechanisms. The third study found that various kinds of complexity where present in the interaction between each text and the students’ conversations, suggesting that what attracts attention are different forms of literary complexity, which can be seen as the basis for the engagement shown by students in conversations. Based on these findings, this study aims to contribute to the debate on problem-focused teaching and in-depth learning in L1 classrooms.

Keywords: problem-solving, literary conversations, literary text, problem-focused teaching

References:
Bakhtin, M. (1984). Problems of Dostoevsky’s Poetics. (C. Emerson, Red.). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Bakhtin, M. (2013). Speech Genres & Other Late Essays. (C. Emerson & M. Holquist, Red.) (13. utg.). Austin: University of Texas Press.
Gee, J. P. (2014). How To Do Discourse Analysis. A Toolkit (2. utg.). New York: Routledge.
Yin, R. K. (2014). Case study research: Design and methods. (5. utg.). Califorinia: Sage publications.


A. Fulya Soğuksu & Yonca Koçmar Demirci (Turkey)
GENDERED CONCEPT FORMATION IN EDUCATIONAL PROCESSES

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 11:30-13:00 Room T11 Chair: Viegas, Filomena B.
This research is an attempt to understand in what ways gendered concept formation practices are in interaction with learning and teaching processes in lower-secondary school settings.
The existing feminist work pertaining to gender issues in schools has revealed that gender is influential in educational processes while at the same time these processes have an important role to play in constructing gender identities and perpetuating gender stereotypes and inequalities in schools (Skelton & Francis, 2009). Similarly, we can talk about an interplay between concept formation, being an indispensable component of learning and teaching processes, and the dominant gender regimes in schools. Eckert and McConnell-Ginet (2003) have noted the centrality of gender schemas to sustain the gender order and the effect of gender categorisation on shaping individuals’ actions. With an effort to achieve an in-depth understanding of how educational processes affect and are shaped by gendered concept formation practices in schools, this research draws on an ethnographic approach (Hammersley & Atkinson, 2007). The relevant data required to perform a detailed analysis of students’ concept formation practices associated with gender is constructed through a cultural lens by using observations in lower-secondary school settings in two cities in Turkey. Data construction involves individual qualitative interviews with students, classroom observations in Turkish and English language lessons, and observations outside the formal learning and teaching atmosphere including intervals, lunchtimes, cultural activities, etc. We keep detailed field notes of all observations in and out-of classroom settings throughout the data construction process. We expect that the ethnographic data that we draw on in this research can potentially provide useful insights into how educational processes shape gendered concept formation practices and how this reflects in the gender order in schools. We also believe that there is still room in the relevant literature for research especially in the Turkish context concerning gendered concept formation and the role of language in shaping gender identity construction and sustaining the gender regimes in schools, which will also serve to broaden the gender debate and make a valuable contribution to better understand the role of teachers and teacher educators in this sense.

Keywords: Gendered concept formation, learning and teaching processes, ethnography.

References:
Eckert, P., & McConnell-Ginet, S. (2003). Language and gender. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hammersley, M., & P. Atkinson. (2007). Ethnography: Principles in practice. London: Routledge.
Skelton, C., & Francis, B. (2009). Feminism and ‘the schooling scandal’. Abingdon: Routledge.



Elin Strømman (Norway)
MULTIMODALITY IN WRITING

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 15:45-17:15 Room T11 Chair: Bulfin, Scott
Multimodality in Writing
Keywords: multimodality, agency, affinity spaces
The aim of this ethnographically oriented PhD-study is to describe and investigate the multimodal representations in elementary school students’ digital writing practices and texts. What characterizes the multimodal representations in texts written in L1 and Science? The purpose is to pursue findings that can be applied to a better understanding of disciplinary literacy practices in school. The data is analysed from different theoretical perspectives that align with one another: New Literacy Studies (Barton, 2007; Gee, 2005) and multimodality (Bezemer & Kress, 2008; van Leeuwen, 2005). The data sources are field notes, interviews, students’ texts and their “talk around texts”.
Combining the social semiotic multimodal analysis (SSMA) of the meaning potentials of multimodal representations with ethnographic accounts of their use in context, resulted in the following findings: Students are active creators of content and demonstrate an innovative use of semiotic resources in both subjects. When representing knowledge, students interpret, select, transform and combine the different modes and semiotic resources available to them, based on the social context and the specific aims they strive to achieve. The students’ multimodal representations are fusions between school literacy practices and the literacy practices of gaming and communicating in social media.
In this paper, I discuss the emergence of multimodal representations in students’ texts, review some of the theoretical perspectives on agency in SSMA, and examine the links between agency, multimodal translations (Bezemer & Kress, 2008) and affinity spaces (Gee, 2005). This take foregrounds the agency of students in that they make significant representational choices guided by certain interests and social conventions, and framed by the context of writing texts in school. As such, this paper aims to be of interest to a diverse audience comprising educators, teacher educators, student teachers, and fellow literacy researchers.
References:
Barton, D. (2007). Literacy: An Introduction to the Ecology of Written Language. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Bezemer, J., & Kress, G. (2008). Writing in multimodal texts: A social semiotic account of designs for learning. In Written communication, 25(2), 166-195.
Gee, J.P. (2005). Semiotic social spaces and affinity spaces: From the age of mythology to today's schools. In D. Barton & K. Tusting (Eds.). Beyond communities of practice: Language power and social context. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press
van Leeuwen, T. (2005). Introducing Social Semiotics. London, UK and New York, USA: Routledge.


Bianca Strutz & Irene Pieper (Germany)
LEARNERS’ APPROACHES TO POETIC METAPHOR

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 15:45-17:15 Room T14 Chair: goodwyn, andy
Understanding metaphor can be considered exemplary for specific procedures of interpretation: assigning a meaning to a literary text that needs to be developed beyond the literal is a process that calls on imagination and often also on abstraction. Besides, an aesthetic reading mode seems particularly apt (Rosenblatt, 1994). Poetic metaphor has specific potential for literary learning: It disturbs the reading process and can attract attention. Thus, it should stimulate imaginative elaborations as well as the construction of hypotheses (Steen, 1994; Zymner, 2003). Possibly, it supports the activation of an aesthetic reading mode. However, whether and how this potential is realised in students' understanding processes is largely unexplored.
In a think-aloud-study with students from lower secondary we focus on these processes, exploring students’ operations and aesthetic reading strategies when dealing with metaphor. The study was carried out with 69 students from Grade 6 and 9 in Germany who thought aloud on three different poems. For the analysis of data a coding system was developed and applied to the protocols. Also, for selected cases a sequential analysis was carried out. The data were analysed regarding levels of understanding and students’ strategies.
Results indicate that dealing with poetic metaphor is generally demanding with students in grade 6 and 9 and that both textual factors and the availability of aesthetic strategies have an impact on students’ understanding. We reconstructed eight aesthetic reading strategies which can be divided into the categories 1) an experience of tension being explored which can result in the unfolding of imaginations 2) the open handling of the process of interpretation and 3) the level of involvement (monitoring, emotional and evaluative responses etc.). Furthermore, poetological beliefs seem to have an impact and whether students can draw on verbal procedures of interpretation.
The paper presents levels of understanding metaphor and how they relate to textual features. Besides, the associated aesthetic reading strategies and operations of understanding that they are based on will be shown. In addition, the influence of poetological beliefs and the availability of verbal procedures is explored.

Keywords: literature education, understanding metaphor, aesthetic reading mode, reading strategies, thinking aloud

References
Steen, G. (1994). Understanding metaphor in literature: An empirical approach. London, UK: Longman.
Pieper, I. & Strutz, B. (2018). Learners’ approaches to poetic metaphor: A think aloud study with secondary school students in Grade 6 and 9. Contribution to a special issue in honor of Gert Rijlaarsdam Making Connections: Studies of Language and Literature Education. L1- Educational Studies in Language and Literature, 18, p. 1-35. https://doi.org/10.17239/L1ESLL- 2018.18.03.05
Rosenblatt, L. M. (1994). The reader, the text, the poem: The transactional theory of literary work. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
Zymner, R. (2003). Uneigentliche Bedeutung. [Non-actual meaning]. In F. Jannidis & G. Lauer & M. Martínez & S. Winko (Eds.), Regeln der Bedeutung (pp. 128-168). Berlin, Germany: de Gruyter.


Erika Sturk & Ann-Christin Randahl & Christina Olin-Scheller (Sweden)
DISCOURSES OF WRITING IN FACEBOOK GROUPS FOR TEACHERS

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 15:45-17:15 Room T12 Chair: Wijnands, Astrid
Keywords: writing education, discourses of writing, compulsory education, Sweden

Today, social media is an important arena for professional discussions between teachers (Liljekvist et. al. 2017). Here, experienced teachers, teacher students and stakeholders meet and together they develop a professional learning community. Earlier studies of Facebook groups for teachers have shown that the exchange and the interaction mostly concerns the teaching practice. This study aims to deepen that analysis through focusing the members ideas about writing education. How the teachers position themselves will be analysed through Ivanič’s framework of writing discourses (2004) as skill, creativity, process, genre, social practise or as socio-political. Recently, Ivanič (2017) added a a seventh discourse, thinking, which she describes as both a mental process and a writing event that helps writers to clarify their thoughts and learn across the curriculum.

The material consists of a stratified sample of interactions from three major Facebook groups for teachers in the school subject Swedish. Teachers’ discussions about education were selected for analysis along with attached documents, pictures, links and school books tips. An initial analysis of these interactions shows that discussions about reading and writing predominates. About 40 % of the threads in the FB groups focus on writing, the rest is divided between reading (more than 40 %), speaking (almost 10 %) and listening (other). When analyzing the threads about writing education using Ivanič’s framework, preliminary results reveals that all seven discourses are represented. The text-focused writing discourses (the skills and genre discourse) dominate. The creativity discourse is also prominent, in particular in relation to the earlier school years. Similarly to other studies context-focused writing (the social practical and sociopolitical discourse) is rare (Gillblad & Lindgren, in press). Furthermore, the material seems to explore the relationship between the two writing-educational models that are most prominent in Swedish schools: the methodology of the process writing and the genre writing. The study is an important contribution to the writing didactic field, and shows which writing discourses teachers make relevant in networks that they themselves initiate and maintain.

References
Gillblad, E. & Lindgren, E. (in press). Discourses in teachers’ talk about writing.
Ivanič, R. (2004). Discourses of writing and learning to write. Language and Education, 183(3), 220–245.
Ivanič, R. (2017). Round table on discourses of writing, and writer identity. Paper presented at the LITUM symposium, 4–5 June, Umeå Sweden.
Liljekvist, Y., van Bommel, J., Olin-Scheller, C. (2017). Professional learning communities in a web 2.0 world: Rethinking the conditions for professional development. I: I. H. Amzat, N.P. Valdes & B. Yusuf (red.). Teacher empowerment toward professional development and practices: perspectives across borders. NY: Springer.


Ingvill Krogstad Svanes & Dr. Tuva Bjørkvold & Dag Freddy Røed (Norway)
METALINGUISTIC TALK IN LITERACY EVENTS WITH TABLETS

Paper session ARLE 2019 Thursday, 15:45-17:15 Room T11 Chair: Erixon, Per-Olof
Keywords: tablet, writing to read, metalinguistic conversations

Background:
In Nordic classrooms, writing on digital tablets is getting more common. In Norway, the app STL+, building on the principle “writing to read” (Graham & Herbert 2010), is increasingly popular the first years of schooling. It includes speech synthesis, which means that the pupils can listen to what they write.

Many pupils learn to read through writing (Hagtvet, 2010). In this process the pupil’s metalinguistic awareness is decisive, often developed through metalinguistic conversations (Pressley 2006). In our study, this fact may be challenging since the writing on tablets is individual. In our pilot project, we nevertheless observed that the pupils were involved in conversations during writing. It is thus relevant to explore the following research question:
What characterizes the metalinguistic conversations during the literacy event?

Theory and methods:
We study the conversations within the literacy events, situations revolving around texts, including texts, context and participants, through New Literacy Studies (Barton, 2007) .

The data material will be collected in February 2019. The study is a case study of two writing sequences, one in 1st grade, and one in 2nd grade, including around 50 students and their literacy events. We will use a triangulation between screen recording of the pupils’ tablets, video observation and collection of the pupils’ texts. The data will be analyzed in light of knowledge about different kinds of metalinguistic awareness.

Preliminary findings:
In the pilot project we observed conversations involving orthography, reflecting the pupils’ orthographic awareness. We also found that the student texts produced with help of speech synthesis appeared surprisingly similar, and we wonder if the speech synthesis may limit the good writers’ creativity.

References:
Barton, D. (2007): Literacy: an introduction to the ecology of written language. Malden, Mass: Blackwell Publishing

Graham, S., & Hebert, M. (2010). Writing to read: Evidence for how writing can improve reading: A report from Carnegie Corporation of New York.

Hagtvet, Bente Eriksen (2010): Early writing. In: P.L.Pterson Baker & B. McGaw (red.): The International Encyclopedia of Education, Vol 5, Oxford: Elsevier, 367-374.

Pressley, M. (2006). Reading instruction that works: The case for balanced teaching. New York: Guilford Press.


Carla Teixeira & Adriana Cardoso (Portugal)
WRITING ABSTRACTS IN HIGHER EDUCATION: TYPES OF DISCOURSE

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 11:30-13:00 Room T16 Chair: Hansen, Jens Jørgen
Courses on academic writing have become more frequent in higher education to face the challenges of communication on a specific social domain with which students have little or no previous contact. This study analyses a corpus of abstracts produced by undergraduates attending a course on Portuguese Academic Writing in a higher education institution (Cardoso, Sebastião & Teixeira 2018).
We adopt the Socio-Discursive Interactionism (SDI) framework, which considers that there is an intrinsic dynamics to each social activity and each text genres has relevant linguistics markers (Bronckart 2008; Dolz, Noverraz, Schneuwly 2001). Special highlight will be given to types of discourse as packages of linguistics units based on mind operations: temporal disjunction or conjunction and enunciative implication or autonomy. Thus it is our aim to demonstrate how socio-discursive analysis tools describe student’s performance on Portuguese Academic Writing.
According to data, students progressively acquire some skills more easily than others, especially those related to macrostructure as text plan; however, acquiring the specificities of theoretical discourse, a type of discourse featured by the temporal conjunction in the present and the enunciative autonomy, demands a special effort.

Keywords: Portuguese Academic Writing; abstract; scientific article; Socio-Discursive Interactionism; textual architecture; types of discourse.

References
Bronckart, J.-P. (2008). Genre de textes, types de discours et “degrés” de langue. In Texto! Janeiro, vol. XIII (1). Disponível em: <http://www.revue-texto.net/index.php?id=86>. Acesso em 20 jun. 2013.

Cardoso, A.; Sebastião, I.; Teixeira, C. (2018). O resumo de artigo científico: exemplo de um percurso didático em escrita académica. In E. Leurquin, Osório, P. Coelho & M. C. Coelho, Lugar da gramática na aula de Português. Editora Dialogarts, pp. 126-147

Dolz, Joaquim; Noverraz, Michele; Schneuwly, Bernard (2001). S’exprimer en français: Séquences didactiques pour l’oral et l’écrit (vol. I- III). Bruxelles: De Boeck & Larcier.



Anouk ten Peze & Tanja Janssen & Gert Rijlaarsdam (Netherlands (the))
'SOMETHING DIFFERENT!' DOES CREATIVE WRITING INSTRUCTION INFLUENCE STUDENTS' WRITING PERFORMANCE?

Paper session ARLE 2019 Friday, 14:00-15:30 Room T10 Chair: Batalha, Joana
There are complaints in Dutch higher education that students' writing skills are insufficient and many teachers and students in secondary education are not satisfied with the writing curriculum (Bonset & Braaksma, 2008). Based on their meta-analysis, Graham et. al. (2012) conclude that the quality of texts can be improved via instruction in creativity, even if these instructions were not specifically tied to writing. Although creative writing is since 1998 no longer part of the Dutch secondary school curriculum, instruction in creative writing might be an effective way to improve students' writing skills in general.
In the present study, we compared the effects on text quality and writing processes of two courses: a creative writing course versus a regular text book adapted instruction in expository writing. Therefore, our research questions are:
• Does creative writing instruction based on divergent thinking enhancement improve the quality of students’ creative as well as expository texts?
• Does creative writing instruction influence students creative and expository writing processes?

A quasi-experiment was conducted in one secondary school in the Netherlands: 105 students of 4 classes participated (10th grade, 15-16 years). We used a switching replications design with three measurement occasions. Two classes received the experimental condition first, and then after the second measurement, the regular text book adapted instruction in expository writing, while the other classes received the conditions in the opposite order: the text book condition first, and then the experimental lessons.
The creative writing course consists of six creative writing lessons that are designed in collaboration with four participating teachers. During these lessons divergent thinking was stimulated, and students wrote short texts and received immediate peer-feedback.
During the pre- and post-test and the delayed post-test students completed two tasks: an expository and a creative writing task. During these tasks, their writing processes were recorded via key stroke logging and via screen recordings and questionnaires on students’ writing beliefs and creative ability were administered. The texts will be rated holistically. The data were collected in 2018 and the data analysis is in progress. The first results will be presented at ARLE 2019.

References
Bonset, H. & Braaksma, M. (2008). Het schoolvak Nederlands opnieuw onderzocht. Een inventarisatie van onderzoek van 1997 tot en met 2007 (A renewed investigation of the school subject Dutch. A stocktaking of research from 1997 till 2007). Enschede: SLO.
Graham, S., McKeown, D., Kiuhara, S., et. al. (2012). A meta-analysis of writing instruction for students in the elementary grades. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104(4), 879-896.

Keywords: creative writing, writing processes, keystroke logging, intervention study, experiment


Stina Thunberg (Sweden)
THE READING AVATAR: LITERACY AND GAMIFICATION

Pre-conference ARLE 2019 Tuesday, 14:30-16:00 Room T11 Chair: Coutinho, Antónia
Discussants: Coutinho (Portugal); Elf (Denmark)
Paper session ARLE 2019 Thursday, 11:00-12:30 Room T15 Chair: Skarstein, Dag
How can gaming and the digital avatar stimulate reading in literature education? This paper presents the findings of what characterizes explorative reading activities in a gamified design for the literature classroom. Although researchers have been pointing out the connection between reading fiction and playing a video game (Ryan & Thon, 2014), there is a lack of studies addressing the implementation of such game designs in the literature classrooms (Ortiz, Chiluiza, & Valcke, 2017)

The study is an educational design project with a qualitative, explorative approach doing research on the intervention (McKenney & Reeves, 2018). A design for gamification of the literature classroom is created. The target group is young people in the new media landscape. The game design legitimizes the students to act as characters in the classical novel Herr Arnes Penningar by Selma Lagerlöf by descending in the story in the form of a digital avatar. In the center of the study is the implementation with the focus on the students reading activities. The aim is to contribute to new knowledge about students reading activities in a gamified design for literature teaching, there the gaming elements avatars, quests and experience points are included. The design assumptions made there the gamified reading as a creative activity, an explorative activity and as a participatory activity. In focus in this paper is the explorative activity.

The design was implemented during spring 2018 in both the mother tongue and the second language classrooms in upper secondary school. The material is 167 avatar texts and 68 avatar films made by 48 students. Twenty-two students and four teachers were also interviewed, semi-structured. The material is analyzed by thematic coding (Mason, 1996). The preliminary results are the students explore the novel through their avatar by taking different positions in the original story and are moving around by the use of visualization, the narrative and an imitation of Lagerlöf's literary language. Through the different positions the students reinterpretate the original story and are exploring borders of gender and social class.

References
Mason, J. (1996). Qualitative researching. London: Sage.
McKenney, S., & Reeves, C., Thomas. (2018). Conducting educational design research (2nd ed.) Taylor and Francis.
Murray, J. (1997). Hamlet on the holodeck: The future of narrative in cyberspace. The Free Press New York
Ortiz, M., Chiluiza, K., & Valcke, M. (2017). Gamification and learning performance: A systematic review of the literature.


Keywords: gamification, literature, reading


Stina Thunberg & Caroline Graeske (Sweden)
BOYS AND GIRL-ISH AVATARS - PERFORMING GENDER IN LANGUAGE EDUCATION

Paper session ARLE 2019 Friday, 14:00-15:30 Room T12 Chair: Gonçalves, Matilde
Newly arrived often feels frustration in the Swedish school system experiencing a lack of agency in their second language education (Nilsson Folke, 2017). This paper presents findings from an educational design research project combining the reading of a classical text, in the picture book form, with gaming elements stimulate creativity and engagement (Gee 2007; Lazar 2015) in the second language classroom. In focus is students’ creation of an avatar to descend in the classical story of Thumbelina and the research question is: What characterizes the reading activity in the gamified design?

The target group for the design was newly arrived students with little or no formal schooling, preparing for upper secondary school, in the ages of 16-19 years old. The aim was to contribute with new knowledge about using gamification to support the second language learning in reading activities. The story of Thumbelina written by H.C Andersen illustrated by Elsa Beskow was considered to engage and challenge the students with classical themes and richness of nature descriptions in both text and pictures. The gaming elements used are avatars, quests and experience points. The students are instructed to descend in the story and be Thumbelinas friend through an avatar of their creation.

Seventeen students participated in the implementation; several male students choose to descend in the story through a female avatar. This paper analyses the students' artifacts, avatar text, and avatar films using theories of gaming (Gee 2007) and performativity (Butler 2004). Preliminary findings are that the students are highly engaged in the making of their avatar. The students either create an avatar very similar to their own person, or the opposite, quite different from themselves. Several boys create a female avatar. And shy students´ avatar becomes more talkative.

Keywords: gamification, reading, ICT, gender


References
Butler, J. (2004). Undoing gender. New York: Routledge.
Gee, James Paul. 2007. What Video Games have to Teach Us about Learning and Literacy. ReRevised and updated edition ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
McKenney, S., & Reeves, C., Thomas. (2018). Conducting educational design research (2nd ed.) Taylor and Francis.
Lazar, Gillian. 2015. "Playing with Words and Pictures: Using Post-Modernist Picture Books as a Resource with Teenage and Adult Language Learners." In Literature and Language Learning in the EFL Classroom, edited by Masayuki Teranishi, Yoshifumi Saito and Katie Wales, 94-111. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.


Maria Juddy Torres Villamil & Xavier Fontich (Colombia)
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WRITTEN GENRES AND ACADEMIC IDENTITY: ARGUMENTATIVE WRITING LEARNING IN HIGHER EDUCATION STUDENTS IN COLOMBIA

Paper session ARLE 2019 Thursday, 14:00-15:30 Room T9 Chair: Costa, Ana Luísa
Academic literacy is currently a focus of enormous interest for researching in higher education. Its main objective is the training of students to understand and write texts within academia, thus ensuring their academic success and coaching them to enter to the knowledge society. Though, academic literacy is not an easy issue, especially concerning writing skills (1). Some difficulties are placed in student’s concepts regarding two aspects: writing (seen as a mere instrument to communicate knowledge) and the very identity of apprentices (who perceive themselves as subjects who communicate ideas to be evaluated). Both ideas point out a double need (2): a) approaching academic writing as a tool to learn by communicating, and b) supporting the construction of learner's academic identity. Many works have explored points a) and b) by approaching academic genres. Our research matches with this perspective, but with a nuance: it emphasizes on “academic writing situation” and discursive genres (not all of them academic in nature) in it deployed. Works developed in Spain and Chile show the possibilities of this approach to improve writing skills and to construct an academic identity (3). Relying on a mixed quantitative-qualitative methodology (questionnaires, interviews, corpus analysis, classroom observation, etc.) we explore the writing of Colombian students in an academic situation, with special emphasis in argumentation. Some first results point out that both, students and institutions, operate on the concept of “type of text”, which enhances a dominant linguistic vision in teaching writing and a focus on the final texts. This suggests the need of a shift in approaching academic literacy and the relevance and potentiality of drawing on academic writing situations. Keywords: Academic literacy, academic identity, discursive genres, argumentative writing, academic writing situation


1.Olave et al 2013 Deserción universitaria y alfabetización académica (The College Dropout Problem and Academic Literacy). Educación y Educadores, 16(3), 455-471.
2.Camps & Castelló, 2013 La escritura académica en la Universidad (Academic writing at University). Revista de Docencia Universitaria, 11(1), 17- 36
3.Uribe, 2016 Los géneros discursivos en situación de escritura académica (Discursive genres in academic writing situation). Barcelona: UAB


Solveig Troelsen (Denmark)
HANDLING AMBIGUITY UNDER PRESSURE: WRITING PROMPT AND STUDENT RESPONSES AT THE DANISH FINAL EXAM IN WRITTEN COMPOSITION

Paper session ARLE 2019 Thursday, 15:45-17:15 Room T15 Chair: Santos, Ana Lúcia
The writing prompt has a significant impact on students’ opportunities to position themselves as writers. To move on to youth education, Danish students must pass their lower secondary school exams in Danish and Mathematics. Findings from a case study on the final exam in written composition (Troelsen, 2018) indicate that, implicitly, the prompt compels students to act in a complex and elaborated communicational interaction, ambiguously oriented towards double addressees and genre expectations. This is a challenge, especially to less skilled students.

Danish ninth graders use computers and have access to the internet during the exam, and the writing prompt is a multimodal html file. I will present an analysis of this prompt as a text and, hence, in the sense of Bakhtin (1986), an “utterance”, dialogically related to other utterances in a constellation characteristic of the school context. Deriving from this, students’ texts are looked upon as answers to the prompt. This relation will be illustrated by a brief preliminary analysis of one student text.

Research questions: What characterises the writing prompt at the FP9 exam in written composition? And how does the writing prompt position it’s implied reader as a writing self?

The theoretical framework for the study is sociocultural and inspired by New Literacy Studies (Barton et al., 2000) and anthropological text semiotics. Hence, writing is understood as a social practice, always taking place in specific situations and embedded in its communicational and cultural context. This is captured by the notion of constellations of writing (Krogh, 2015) consisting of writing prompts, student papers and assessment.

Keywords: written composition, assessment, writing prompt, positioning, Danish Lower Secondary Schools.

References
Bakhtin, M. M. (1986). The Problem of Speech Genres. In C. Emerson & M. Holquist (Eds.), Speech genres and other late essays Austin: University of Texas Press.
Barton, D., Hamilton, M., & Ivanič, R. (2000). Situated literacies: Reading and writing in context: Psychology Press.
Krogh, E. (2015). Faglighed og skriftlighed - teori, metode og analyseramme [Writing to Learn. Learning to Write : Theoretical, methodological and Analytical Framework]. In E. Krogh, T. S. Christensen, & K. S. Jakobsen (Eds.), Elevskrivere i gymnasiefag. Odense: Syddansk Universitetsforlag.
Troelsen, S. (2018). En invitation man ikke kan afslå – analyse af afgangsprøven i skriftlig fremstilling med særligt fokus på skriveordren [An Invitation You Can’t Refuse: An Analysis of the Writing Prompt for the Final Exams in Written Composition]. Nordic Journal of Literacy Research, 4(1), 142-166. doi:10.23865/njlr.v4.1267



Andrea Trueba & Ruth Villalon (Spain)
ANALYSIS OF THE WRITTEN PRODUCTS OF SIXTH GRADE STUDENTS: SUMMARY AND SYNTHESIS

Short presentations (poster) and extended discussion ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 14:30-15:30 Room T10 Chair: Awramiuk, Elżbieta
Reading and writing are two tools that allow people to access information and, therefore, to learn. The tasks that combine specific cognitive processes of reading and writing are the so-called hybrid tasks. Examples of these tasks are summaries, informative synthesis, argumentative essays from sources, etc. Several investigations have shown the relevance of hybrid tasks for reflection and content learning and how students follow several processes when faced with these tasks (Mateos et al., 2008, Segev-Miller, 2004). However, most of the studies of this field are carried out with participants of Secondary Education and university. Furthermore, few studies with younger pupils have dealt with the Social Sciences field (Martínez et al., 2015; Montesano et al., 2014). This paper addresses how sixth-grade Primary Education students perform two tasks with different levels of complexity: summary and synthesis. The objective was to explore how they carry out the two tasks and analyze if the level of performance differs between both. In order to assess the product quality, a series of criteria, based on the cognitive processes demanded, were used. Thus, we employed items such as: selection of the relevant information (both explicit and implicit), number or irrelevant ideas, addition of own information, and properly integration of all the elements, giving shape to a coherent final product. Forty students of the last year of Primary Education participated in the study, who elaborated the two hybrid tasks within the framework of their Natural Sciences subject. After coding the quality of the two written texts using a rubric, the results show that participants perform the summary task with greater success, although there is space for improvement. Furthermore, the level of quality of both tasks is not correlated, since synthesis task seem to be very difficult to participants. Based on its results, we point out to the need to train students in different hybrid tasks from Primary Education.

References
Mateos, M., Martín, E., Villalón, R., & Luna, M. (2008). Reading and writing to learn in secondary education: Online processing activity and written products in summarizing and synthesizing tasks. Reading and Writing, 21(7), 675-697.
Martínez, I., Mateos, M, Martín, E. & Rijlaarsdam, G. (2015). Learning history by composing synthesis texts. Effects of an instructional programme on learning, reading and writing processes and text quality. Journal of Writing Research, 7(2), 275-302.
Monte-Sano, C., De La Paz, S., & Felton, M. (2014.) Reading, thinking, and writing about history: Teaching argument writing to diverse learners in the common core classroom, grades 6-12. New York: Teachers College Press.
Segev-Miller, R. (2004). Writing from sources: The effect of explicit instruction on college students’ processes and products. L1-Educational Studies in Language and Literature, 4(1), 5–33


Keywords:
Reading, Writing, Summary, Synthesis, Primary Education


Stavroula Tsiplakou (Cyprus)
CRITICAL LITERACY DESPITE DIGLOSSIA: DATA FROM CYPRIOT SCHOOLS

The Greek Cypriot speech community is diglossic, Cypriot Greek being the naturally acquired variety and Standard Greek the superposed ‘H’ variety. Past education policies dictated strict adherence to the language curricula of Greece, with no reference to linguistic variation, which resulted both in further stigmatization of Cypriot Greek, the students’ native variety, and in the promotion of linguistic prescriptivism and an autonomous model of literacy (Street, 1995) where proficiency in the ‘H’ code was treated as the principal goal of language teaching and learning (Hadjioannou et al., 2011). In contrast, the short-lived curriculum of 2010 proposed capitalizing on variation as a means of fostering metalinguistic and sociolinguistic awareness with regard to the two varieties of Greek spoken on the island within a radical critical literacy perspective. Through the presentation of two pedagogical interventions, which followed that curriculum (Tsiplakou et al., 2018), we show how nonstandard varieties can become a useful tool for fostering metalinguistic awareness and critical literacy. In these interventions, contrastive analysis between Cypriot and Standard Greek was deployed in order to foster metalinguistic awareness not only of grammatical structure and lexis but, crucially, of sociolinguistic / register / stylistic variation. The two interventions took place in a Grade 4 and a Grade 5 elementary school class, one in an urban and one in a rural school, with typical populations of 30 students each; each intervention lasted 2 teaching periods, and authentic teaching materials were used. The analysis of classroom interaction showed not only increased awareness of the extent of the students’ linguistic repertoires but also of notions of appropriateness of use depending on register, genre, tenor, etc.; crucially, standard and dialect features in different genres were consistently commented on by students in terms of their indexicalities. The interventions were therefore instrumental in honing awareness of the social-semiotic dimension of language, which is central to fostering critical literacy skills in the face of diglossia and a linguistically prescriptive educational context.

Keywords: critical literacy, Cypriot Greek, diglossia, language variation

References
Hadjioannou, X., S. Tsiplakou & M. Kappler (2011). Language Policy and Language Planning in Cyprus. Current Issues in Language Planning, 12 (4), 1-67.
Street, B. (1995) Social literacies : critical approaches to literacy in development, ethnography, and education. London / New York: Longman.
Tsiplakou, S., E. Ioannidou & X. Hadjioannou (2018). Capitalizing on language variation in Greek Cypriot Education. Linguistics and Education 45, 62-71.



Anne Uusen & Jane Pugi (Estonia)
THE COMPARISON OF TEXTS WRITTEN BY 5TH GRADERS ON COMPUTER AND BY HAND

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 09:30-11:00 Room T7 Chair: Elkad-Lehman, Ilana
Estonia is known as highly developed e-country. Estonian Statistical Office claims that in 2012 95% of families had computers and in 2013 100% of all educational institutions had computers and Internet connection. Over the years it has also increased everyday computer use among children.
There is written in national curriculum that school must guarantee the skill of using computer for writing different texts and as tool of communication.
Different authors have found that using computers for writing has certain advantages: less errors, longer text, more positive attitudes etc.
Despite of this most of the texts written in mother tongue lessons are still written by hand.
That’s way the study was carried out in four schools in Estonia. The aim of the study was to find out the effect that writing on computer has on a text in comparison with writing by hand.
In two of the schools the students wrote the texts on computer and in two by hand. The students were given a writing assignment according to which they had to write a text of (about) 150 words during one Estonian lesson on a given topic. Altogether 73 texts were produced and compared.
According to the aim of the study several research tasks were raised: 1) to analyse texts in terms of quality parameters (the length of the text and expert’s opinion, vocabulary indicators, word order in sentences, the usage of different words etc.), 2) to compare the texts written on computer and by hand.
The study showed that overall the students are well capable of writing on computer. The texts written on computer had higher scores in terms of text length, expert’s opinion and the number of sentences. Similar results were achieved with both ways of writing in terms of lexical diversity indicators and sentence length. The texts written on computer were poorer in terms of lexical richness and density.
It can be said that students coped well with writing on computer however, the use of it should be practiced continuously in order to increase the result of some indicators and to develop typing skills in general.

DiMatteo, A. (1990). Under erasure: A theory for interactive writing in real time. Computers and Composition, 7(S.I.), 71–84.
Eesti Statistikaamet. Arvuti ja koduse internetiühendusega leibkonnad tüübi järgi [Estonian office of Statistics. Households with computers and Internet connection by type] . [2013, november 15]. http://www.stat.ee/infotehnoloogia.
Hawisher, G., & LeBland, P. (1992). Re-imagining computers and composition: Teaching and research in the virtual age. Portsmouth, N.H .: Heinemann.
Hyler, J. & Hicks, T. (2014). Create, Compose, Connect!: Reading, Writing, and Learning with Digital Tools. New York: Routledge.


Liselore van Ockenburg & Daphne van Weijen & Gert Rijlaarsdam (Netherlands (the))
A LITTLE GLIMPSE INTO SYNTHESIS WRITING INTERVENTIONS FROM DIFFERENT NATIONS: SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES

Symposium ARLE 2019 Friday, 11:00-12:30 Room T6
Thanks to modern media, information sources are numerous and readily available. One of the greatest challenges educators currently face is teaching students how to find, analyze and process information from reliable sources. These cognitively demanding, but essential, skills come together in writing a synthesis: a text that is a representative and at the same time well-integrated reflection of the information from sources. A synthesis task enables students to acquire and practice the aforementioned skills.
A considerable amount of empirical research has been conducted over the past two decades to understand the cognitive processes necessary to produce synthesis texts (Mateos, Martín, Villalón, & Luna, 2018, Spivey & King, 1989) and to find effective instructional and learning activities for synthesis writing (Barzilai, Zohar, & Mor-Hagani, 2018). Overall, earlier research has shown that there are multiple possible ways to compose a good synthesis, as well as multiple effective approaches to teach students how to write better synthesis texts.
This symposium aims to provide a picture of this broad spectrum of possible teaching approaches by exploring different types of synthesis writing interventions. Attention will also be paid to how differences in national contexts may entail specific requirements for synthesis writing interventions.
The symposium’s different papers describe intervention studies that focus on: (1) participation in oral discussions (Lidia Casado, UAM, Spain), (2) feedback on the writing process (Nina Vandermeulen, Belgium, UA), (3) modelling the synthesizing processes (Liselore van Ockenburg, The Netherlands, UvA), and (4) an aspect of teaching writing synthesis, a case from Vietnam (Thảo Trần Nguyên Hương, Vietnam).
Despite their varying approaches, the common goal of all these studies is to improve students’ ability to write synthesis texts. This symposium therefore offers participants a unique opportunity to discover what we can learn from each other.

References
Mateos, M., Martín, E., Villalón, R., & Luna, M. (2008). Reading and writing to learn in secondary education: Online processing activity and written products in summarizing and synthesizing tasks. Reading and Writing, 21(7), 675-697.
Spivey, N. N., & King, J. R. (1989). Readers as writers composing from sources. Reading Research Quarterly, 7-26.
Barzilai, S., Zohar, A. R., & Mor-Hagani, S. (2018). Promoting Integration of Multiple Texts: a Review of Instructional Approaches and Practices. Educational Psychology Review, 1-27.

Keywords: synthesis writing, intervention studies, teaching and learning of writing


Jimmy H.M. van Rijt & Peter-Arno JM Coppen (Netherlands (the))
WHEN STUDENTS TACKLE GRAMMATICAL PROBLEMS. EXPLORING LINGUISTIC REASONING WITH LINGUISTIC METACONCEPTS IN GRAMMAR EDUCATION

Paper session ARLE 2019 Thursday, 14:00-15:30 Room T12 Chair: Madeira, Ana
When teaching grammar, one of the biggest challenges teachers face is how to achieve conceptual understanding. Some scholars have argued that (meta)concepts from theoretical linguistics should be used to pedagogically and conceptually enrich traditional grammar teaching, generating more opportunities for conceptual understanding (Van Rijt & Coppen, 2017; Van Rijt, De Swart & Coppen, 2018). However, no empirical evidence exists to support this theoretical position. The current mixed-methods study is the first to explore the role of linguistic metaconcepts in the grammatical analyses of first-year university students of Dutch Language and Literature. Its goal was to gain a better understanding of the characteristics of students’ grammatical conceptual knowledge, and strategies to use such knowledge in linguistic reasoning. It also investigated whether students’ analyses benefit from an intervention that related linguistic metaconcepts to concepts from traditional grammar. To this end, students (n=24) were asked to reason about a set of unseen grammatical problems both prior to and after the intervention, which yielded 180 grammatical analyses. These analyses were coded inductively, following a grounded theory approach, to gain insights into students’ concept use and their linguistic reasoning strategies.
The quality of reasoning was evaluated by an independent panel of linguistics experts on a five point Likert scale. To determine which types of concepts and reasoning strategies contribute most to the quality of linguistic reasoning, multiple regression analyses were carried out in a multilevel design. The intervention was evaluated using T-tests. Results indicate that using explicit linguistic metaconcepts and explicit concepts from traditional grammar are powerful contributors to the quality of students’ grammatical analyses. The most effective reasoning strategy consists of using linguistic manipulations. Moreover, the intervention significantly improved students’ use of linguistic metaconcepts and decreased the use of rules of thumb. Educational implications will be discussed, as well as future research directions.

Keywords: grammar, metaconcepts, linguistic reasoning

References
Van Rijt, J. & Coppen, P.-A. (2017). Bridging the gap between Linguistic Theory and L1 Grammar Education – experts’ views on essential linguistic concepts. Language Awareness 26(4), 360-380.
Van Rijt, J., De Swart, P. & Coppen, P.-A. (2018). Linguistic concepts in L1 grammar education: a systematic literature review. Research Papers in Education.


Filomena B. Viegas & Laura Rodrigues Pinheiro Guimarães & Luís Ramos (Portugal)
THE INTERDISCIPLINARY GLOSSARY IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF LEXICAL COMPETENCE

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 15:45-17:15 Room T7 Chair: van Rijt, Jimmy H.M.
Keywords: lexical competence; linguistic awareness; dictionary; language teaching; interdisciplinarity

The Interdisciplinary Glossary project, under development in Portuguese classes of two groups of 6th grade Basic School, in the Grouping of Schools of Paredes, has a support of Associação de Professores de Português (APP). In 2018-2019, the two groups participating in the project, with a total of 48 pupils, were randomly chosen at school.
The project is based on the theoretical framework of Language teaching and educational linguistics, it follows an action-research methodology (Cohen et al., 2000) and is contextualized in the current official framework for basic and secondary education in Portugal, referenced to "Profile of students out of compulsory schooling "and" Essentials learnings ", which involves autonomy and flexibility in curriculum, namely concerning interdisciplinarity.
Interdisciplinarity promotes the development of concepts associated to disciplinary contents anchored in the learning of the different disciplines of the curriculum (Cosme, 2018).
In this context, the interdisciplinary glossary aims to develop the lexical knowledge (Duarte, 2011) and the linguistic awareness of the pupils, facilitating the understanding of the discourse proper to each discipline. In its construction, the focus is placed on the terms common to the contents of two or more disciplines.
The project also aims to study the impact of the construction of the interdisciplinary glossary in the reflection of the teachers of the class councils on disciplinary and interdisciplinary contents. Almost all teachers in each class council have provided terms at the start of the project and regularly validate the terms chosen by pupils.
The words scrutinized are studied by all the pupils, before integrating the individual glossary, in paper, and the glossary of each class, in digital format, regarding its later divulgation.
The evaluation of the project is based on the application of quantitative and qualitative instruments, designed around the actors, the process and the results and products.
In this communication, we present pupils procedures and outcomes in the construction of the glossary, data of the planning and evaluation instruments of pupils work, and comparative data of evaluation of the pupils in the project and the remaining pupils of the school in the same grade.


Caroline Viriot-Goeldel & TOTEREAU Corinne & Jacques Crinon (France)
TEACHING SPELLING WITH TWITTER?

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 11:30-13:00 Room T12 Chair: Cassany, Daniel
Several studies agree on the decline of spelling performances of French students in the last decades (DEPP, 1996, 2016 ; Manesse et Cogis, 2007). To foster motivation of both students and teachers, primary school teachers designed a digitally collaborative spelling program named “Twictée” which rapidly widespread through French-speaking countries. The word “Twictée” is the contraction of « Twitter » and the French word « dictée » meaning “dictation”, a traditional spelling exercise in French classrooms. The Twictée process includes 5 steps:
1) Teachers collaborate online to create a 140 characters sentence.
2) They dictate the sentence to their students, who write it down individually, collaborate to agree on the sentence’s spelling and send their productions to a partner class.
3) Observing the other class’s productions, students elaborate 140 characters justifications for the different spelling choices one have to make. They choose appropriate hashtags to categorize these choices (ex: # subject verb agreement). The two classes exchange their justifications (“twoutils”) through Twitter.
4) Students correct their own productions using justifications from other class’s students.
5) A final individual dictation of the sentence enables the teacher to assess students’ progress.
Despite the growing interest for this program (more than 600 hundreds teacher registered so far), few studies have examined it any closer. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the influence of Twictée on students’ spelling’s performances. 40 classes from 4th to 6th grade take part to the investigation, 19 of them implementing “Twictée”. Students’ performances have been assessed at the beginning and the end of academic year 2017/18. This study tests the hypothesis that the practice of Twictée, through the practice of repeated spelling, collaborative spelling and the redaction of justification, supports the development of spelling. We’ll compare students’ progress (Twictee vs. control group), using data from pre- and post-tests. We are expecting the former to show larger progress in specific spelling tasks such as writing under dictation and setting a text to plural form. However, we wonder if these benefits transfer in a writing situation. Our statistical analysis are currently being processed.

Key words: Written langage, spelling, spelling acquisition, collaborative teaching practices
References:
Direction de l’évaluation et de la prospective (1996). Connaissances en français et en calcul des élèves des années 20 et d’aujourd’hui, Note 96.19.
Direction de l’évaluation, de la prospective et de la performance (2016). Les performances en orthographe des élèves en fin d’école primaire (1987-2007-2015). Note d’information n°28.
Manesse, D. et Cogis, D. (2007). Orthographe: à qui la faute ? Paris : ESF.


Karolina Wawer (Poland)
TEACHING THE “CHALLENGING TEXTS” BY MEANS OF PLAY AND CREATIVE WRITING. FROM AVANT-GARDE LITERATURE TO DIGITAL VERSE

Paper session ARLE 2019 Thursday, 14:00-15:30 Room Auditorium 3 Chair: Pereira, Luísa A.
Teaching the reading and interpretation of poetry may be a challenge for L1 teacher on every level of education as poetry is often seen by children and teenagers as dull and incomprehensible. Different ways and methods to engage the students and to overcome that common attitude towards poetry are presented in the subject matter literature (Dymoke 2014, Janus-Sitarz 2016). Still there is a question left to pose – what to do with the literature which is opaque and puzzling by definition – the avant-garde literature? The question also arises in the case of Polish digital poetry (cyber poetry genre), which cultivates (by deconstruction, reinterpretation, remixes and remediation) the tradition of avant-garde writing.

In this paper I summarize the ongoing study on understanding and interpretation of digital poetry, conducted among the Polish philology students enrolled for the teacher’s programme. The aim of the study has been to describe the poetics of the digital verse, which takes into account the cybertext, code, algorithm, cooperation of man and machine (Bolter and Grusin 1999, Pawlicka 2017) and to prepare methods of reading and discovering it (we used visual collages and screenplays of the text-based game). The results so far has shown the increase of understanding and acceptance of hermetic and/or oblique poetics of the digital text if the reader was engaged into the process of interpretation by using the methods of multimodal rewriting: paraphrasing and transforming the original text. The goal of the presentation is to share good practices on working with the “challenging” poetry at school.

References:
J. D. Bolter, R. Grusin, Remediation. Understanding New Media, MIT Press, Cambridge 1999.
S. Dymoke, ed., Making Poetry Happen. Transforming the Poetry Classroom, Bloomsbury Academic, London 2014.
A. Janus-Sitarz, ed., Twórcze praktyki polonistyczne, Universitas, Kraków 2016.
U. Pawlicka, Literatura cyfrowa. W stronę podejścia procesualnego, Katedra. Wydawnictwo Naukowe, Gdańsk 2017.

Keywords: teaching poetry, teaching challenging text, digital literature, creative writing


Astrid Wijnands & Peter-Arno JM Coppen (Netherlands (the))
A NEW GRAMMAR PEDAGOGY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF COGNITIVE AND REFLECTIVE THINKING IN SECONDARY EDUCATION

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 09:30-11:00 Room T6 Chair: Batalha, Joana
Traditional L1 grammar teaching suggests that language consists of well-formed sentences only, which can be analyzed indisputably. However, the analysis of spoken or written language rather shows that most sentences are not so well-formed or easy to analyze (Coppen, 2010). Teaching students this language reality may stimulate them to adopt a more critical and reflective attitude towards (prescriptive) grammar, enhancing their engagement with and proficiency in grammatical analysis. To achieve this, a more reflective pedagogical approach of language is necessary (Camps, 2014). Such an approach can trigger students by confronting them with grammatical problems without a clear solution (so-called ill-structured problems, cf. King & Kitchener, 1994). By analyzing those problems from the perspectives of language reality, the standard language rules and their own language intuitions, students will discover the complexity of language and the tensions between the three perspectives. Language advices or reference grammars are particularly useful to create this awareness of linguistic complexity, because they do not only describe the standard language rules, but they also contain a wide variety of language use examples.
In traditional education students are not taught how to develop this more critical and reflective attitude to tackle ill-structured problems, nor to examine language from the aforementioned perspectives, or even how to consult a language advice or reference grammar. On the basis of a literature study we designed a new model for grammar pedagogy, in which we intend to stimulate and facilitate students’ linguistic awareness by using language advices and reference grammars to confront them with ill-structured grammatical problems. The model is based on Moseley et al. (2005) concerning learning cognitive thinking and on the Reflective Judgment Model of King and Kitchener (1994). It enables students not only to develop their thinking skills in investigating language by examining language step by step from the three aforementioned perspectives, but also to develop their epistemological attitude toward linguistic resources.
To study the implementation of this pedagogy, lesson studies were carried out in secondary education in the Netherlands and in Belgium (Flanders). In this presentation we will present this model and the first results of its implementation.
Key words: linguistic awareness, grammar education, reflective thinking, syntax, grammar research

References
Camps, A. (2014). Metalinguistic activity in language learning. In: T. Ribas, X. Fontich & O. Guasch (Eds.), Grammar at School. Research on Metalinguistic Activity in Language Education. Brussels: Peter Lang. 25-41.
Coppen, P.A. (2010). “De taal is een rommeltje”. In: H. Hulshof & T. Hendrix (red..), Taalkunde en het schoolvak Nederlands. Amsterdam: VLLT, p. 26-28.
King, P.M. & Kitchener, K.S. (1994). Developing Reflective Judgement: Understanding and promoting intellectual growth and critical thinking in adolescents and adults. San Francisco: Jossey-Bas Publishers.
Moseley, D., Baumfield, V., Elliott, J., Gregson, M., Higgins, S., Miller, J., & Newton, D.P. (2005). Frameworks for thinking: A handbook for teaching and learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Anna Wileczek & Agnieszka Szplit (Poland)
LINGUISTIC PROBLEMS IN BILINGUAL EDUCATION AND TEACHERS’ INDIVIDUAL STRATEGIES USED TO SOLVE THEM (RESEARCH IN POLISH SCHOOLS)

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 09:30-11:00 Room T16 Chair: Aruvee, Merilin
Background of the study

In the Polish system of education, there are some bilingual schools and classes. They support the linguistic development of children simultaneously in their mother tongue (Polish) and a foreign language (English) which is also used as a medium of instruction during several courses. Bilingual education in Poland has a form of enrichment programs and an elite education (de Mejia, 2002). It is a novelty in the Polish system of education and has not been widely researched and its effectiveness is still questioned.
The significant role of bilingual education in primary schools is emphasized in literature, as the languages are tools for knowledge transfer and means of discovering the world. Many researchers show language and cognition benefits of bilingual education (Kurcz, 2007; Grabowska 2008; Baker, 2011) and consistent achievement advantages found for students in bilingual programs (McField & McField, 2014; Jaskulska & Łockiewicz, 2017) as well as show the potential of “translanguaging” (Lin, 2013).
The research is conducted among teachers in bilingual primary schools in Poland in which selected content is taught simultaneously in Polish and English. It focuses on their experiences in providing simultaneous two-language input to young learners (aged 7-10). The research presents also some difficulties that teachers providing bilingual education (Błasiak – Tytuła, 2015) face and their individual, productive instructional strategies in bilingual teaching.

Research question

The authors diagnose difficulties seen in bilingual education in Polish schools and define their levels and types. They also discover and describe teachers’ problem-solving strategies developed in their practice.
Hence, the authors suggest the following research questions:
• What language problems do teachers diagnose and see most often in bilingual classes in primary education (age 7-10) in Polish schools?
• What teaching strategies and remedies do teachers of Polish and teachers of English apply in these situations?

Theoretical framework

Methodology

The tools to collect data are narrative interviews (Creswell, 2013) conducted among primary teachers providing bilingual education to Polish children aged 7-10 in primary schools. The sample size is determined on the basis of informational needs.
The interviews cover two main areas of the research: diagnosis of the most common (typical) language problems that appear in the process of bilingual education, and the teachers’ strategies of solving them. The data is subject to content analysis (qualitative analysis). The identified problems will be described in specific language categories derived from the interviews. The analysis is to be a manifest analysis and a latent analysis (extended to an interpretative level) (Berg, 2001).

Data and results

The paper makes the educational efficacy of bilingual education clearer to a wider audience of teachers and linguists.
The research result is a catalogue of the most common language problems and examples of strategies (ways, means, tools) used by the teachers to solve them in bilingual classes. The authors also provide some practical implications for language teaching and educational policy.


References
Baker, C. (2011). Foundations of bilingual education and bilingualism. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Berg, B. L. (2001). Qualitative research methods for social sciences. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Błasiak-Tytuła, M. (2015). Nowe kompetencje zawodowe nauczycieli w pracy z uczniami dwujęzycznymi (New professional teacher competences fo bilingual teaching). In: A. Kwatera, S. Kowal, E. Zawisza. (eds.) Nauczyciel - między etosem a presją rzeczywistości (Teacher – between an ethos and reality pressure), volume 1: Wielowymiarowość kompetencji współczesnego nauczyciela (Multidimensional competences of a contemporary teacher), Będzin: Wydawnictwo Internetowe e-bookowo, pp. 157-166.
Creswell, J. W. (2013). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
de Mejia, A. (2002). Power, prestige and biligualism: International perspectives on elite bilingual education. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Grabowska, M. (2008). Bilingwalizm „naturalny” a „sztuczny”. Rozwój funkcji językowych i umysłowych u dzieci dwujęzycznych („Natural” and „artificial” bilingualism. Development of language and mental functioning of bilingual children) . www.publik.cku.bytom.pl, Access: 15.11.2018.
Jaskulska, M., Łockiewicz, M. (2017). Polish as L1, English as L2: the linguistic transfer impact of Second Language Acquisition stemming from the interlingual differences: implications for young learners education. Issues of Early Education, 2 (37), pp.68-76.
Kurcz, I. (2007). Psychologiczne aspekty dwujęzyczności (Psychological aspects of bilingualism). Gdańsk: Gdańskie Wydawnictwo Psychologiczne.
McField, G.; McField, D. (2014). The consistent outcome of bilingual education programs: A meta-analysis of meta-analyses, in: G. McField (ed.), The Miseducation of English Learners, Charlotte: Information Age Publishing.

Key words:
bilingual education, language learning difficulties, teaching strategies


Anna Wileczek & Agnieszka Szplit (Poland)
EDUCATIONAL APPLICATIONS USED FOR DEVELOPING LANGUAGE COMPETENCE IN THE MOTHER TONGUE AND THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN POLAND

Paper session ARLE 2019 Thursday, 15:45-17:15 Room T11 Chair: Erixon, Per-Olof
Background of the study

Considering the issue of developing language competences of contemporary children, it is necessary to refer to digital tools used for learning about reality. Mobiles (smartphones and tablets) and stationary computers have the potential to transform the way the mother tongue and a foreign language are learnt. For this reason, basic communication skills, such as reading and writing, based on active participation in the written form of social communication (having huge socio-cultural significance) are also crucial skills for using “new communication systems". In this respect, one can observe a significant tendency to "self-educate" among children, from their early childhood. The reason is the easy access to apps given to young children by adults.

Research question

The study refers to a few research questions:
1. What applications for children are currently the most common at primary schools to learn Polish?
2. What applications to learn English are the most popular at schools?
3. What are the motives of the choices?
4. What kind of contribution to learning languages are the applications expected to have?

Theoretical framework

The theoretical basis for the study is given by the findings on the effects of use of high technologies by children. There is an evidence of early initiation in the use of devices and mobile applications by children (Kim & Smith, 2017; Bąk 2016). The integration of technology into learning (e.g. Mobile Assisted Language Learning – MALL) brings positive outcome (Liu et al., 2014) and helps language skills develop (Zou & Li, 2015). On the other hand, some studies (Wileczek, 2016) raise the problem of unknown consequences of acquisition of a mother tongue stimulated by the technology and simultaneously – a process of weakening interactions in the society. An important drawback of using technology for language learning is the lack of a social contact: the child interacts with the technological device with the voice of the speaker. Initial insight into the problem indicates a large number of apps available, which often use the same methods for learning several languages by children. The researchers look at the various apps and evaluate their support for Polish and English languages development. The processes are different; however, all apps provide the same methods of scaffolding children’s language learning, referring to their learning styles, and adding the context to their learning. The apps develop several linguistic skills and language strategies, and what differs is only the content and the language itself.


Methodology

Sampling is done by analysing the offer of language applications (for Android / IOS and Windows / Mac system) for children, available on Polish market for last 5 years, and a selection of the most popular apps. The authors do the Internet website search and study also parents' opinions and comments on these apps that are described in the blogs and parents’ websites.
The researchers do the content analysis (qualitative analysis) of the data collected. The sample size is determined on the basis of informational needs.
The most popular applications are subjects to substantive analysis due to the following criteria:
a. the attractiveness of the app
b. instructional value
c. possible adaptation for using at school
d. language skills and competence supported

Data and results

The analysis of the results of the research on applications are primarily didactic. It is to be a useful source of information for parents as well as for the creators of such applications.
The results of the research provide the evaluation of language educational apps and give some guidelines for the designers of the new ones.

References
Bąk A. (2016), Korzystanie z urządzeń mobilnych przez małe dzieci w Polsce. Wyniki badania ilościowego (The use of mobile devices by children. The quantitative research), http://fdn.pl/badania-fdn, access: 12.01.2016
Działalność bibliotek publicznych (Performance of the public libraries): wytyczne (guidelines) IFLA/UNESCO, http://docplayer.pl/6008020-Wplyw-czytania-na-rozwoj-dzieci-i-mlodziezy.html, access: 14.01.2016.
Kim Y., Smith, D., (2017). Pedagogical and technological augmentation of mobile learning for young children interactive learning environment, Interactive Learning Environment, 25 (1), pp. 4-16.
Liu, M.; Scordino, R., Geurtz, R.; Navarrete, C., Ko, Y., Lim, M. (2014). A Look at Research on Mobile Learning in K-12 education from 2007 to the present, Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 46(4), pp. 325-372.
Wileczek A. (2016), Czytanie i pisanie na ekranie. (Samo)kształcenie kompetencji komunikacyjnych młodszych dzieci (Reading and writing on the screen. (Self)development of communicative competence of young children), in: Edukacja polonistyczna jako zobowiązanie. Powszechność i elitarność polonistyki (Polish education as a duty. Popularity and elitism of Polish studies), red. Ewa Jaskółowa, Danuta Krzyżyk, Bernadeta Niesporek-Szamburska, Małgorzata Wójcik-Dudek, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiego w Katowicach, Katowice, pp. 253-26.
Zou B., Li, J. (2015). Exploring Mobile Apps for English Language Teaching and Learning, Research – publishing net.

Key words:
language learning applications, language competence,


Angela Wiseman & Kevin Oliver ()
PROMOTING L1 AND INTERDISCIPLINARY CONNECTIONS THROUGH LOCATIVE NARRATIVE APPROACHES

Short presentations (poster) and extended discussion ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 14:30-15:30 Room T15 Chair: Elf, Nikolaj
Technology is changing the world we live in and has greatly impacted education. In classrooms, the concept of “text” and “literacy” are expanding to include various modes of representation, including print, visual images, and design (Kulju et. al., 2018). Technology provides considerable options for learning and communication which foster global understandings; however, there are many perspectives that could contribute to how and why we support expansive knowledge of culture and language diversity. One important advancement is the use of digital tools to make sense of spaces and locations that are significant to learners; an example of these tools is locative narratives. Locative narratives are defined as platforms for site-specific storytelling and have the potential to build empathy and capture the voices of people’s place-based stories (Levine, 2014). As Farman (2014) states, “...the place will always impact the meaning and experience of the story, and the story will always impact the experience of the place” (p. 533).
The purpose of this roundtable session is to conceptualize and understand the ways that locative narratives could be used in educational spaces through collaborative conversations with participants. Using qualitative interviews with 30 educators, we explored the pedagogical potential of locative narratives. Data analysis using thematic coding revealed the following themes related to how locative narratives could and should support classroom learning:
Providing support for writing processes and writing across the curricula
Connections to local communities
Support of problem-based learning using community resources
Contextualizing abstract classroom concepts geographically/spatially
Reading support using multiple contextual clues
Layered textual interactivity and impacts on literacy/motivation

Findings and additional feedback from this roundtable will inform software design to bring locative narrative approaches to educational contexts. While we support the idea that technological advances should influence shifts in classroom learning, we also believe that classroom learning and students’ needs can drive the development of technological design. This roundtable session, which will engage participants in providing feedback about research, pedagogy and conceptualization of locative narratives, is a starting point for understanding the educational potential and also considering design elements for app development.

References

Brock, C. H., Pennington, J. L., & Ndura, E. (2012). Using multimodality as a conceptual lens: Examining two teachers' learning in the Multiliteracies Teacher Institute Project. Pedagogies: An International Journal, 7(4), 275-294.
Farman, J. (2014). Storytelling with mobile media: Exploring the intersection of site-specificity, content, and materiality. The Routledge companion to mobile media, 528-537.
Kervin, L., & Mantei, J. (2017). Children creating multimodal stories about a familiar environment. The Reading Teacher, 70(6), 721-728.


Angela Wiseman ()
CHILDREN’S DIGITAL AND VISUAL RESPONSES TO PICTUREBOOKS IN A PRIMARY SCHOOL CLASSROOM

Paper session ARLE 2019 Friday, 14:00-15:30 Room T9 Chair: Feytor Pinto, Paulo
The purpose of this presentation is to explore what happens when primary students in a culturally and linguistically diverse classroom (i.e., transcultural space; see Zaidi & Rowsell, 2017) use digital and visual tools in response to children’s picturebooks. Examining reader response from a culturally and linguistically responsive perspective allows educators to “theorize and examine the possibilities of leveraging students’ linguistic repertoires as pedagogical resources” (Zapata & Laman, 2016, p. 366). These perspectives are fostered as readers experience and relate to others, their cultures, and their languages. In addition, the synergistic relationship between images and text encourage readers to articulate insightful interpretations (Sipe, 2008). This study focuses on children’s expressive engagement with stories (Sipe, 2008) as they respond through classroom discussions, visual sketches and digital tools.
The primary question of this research study is: In a third-grade classroom, how do children use multimodal responses and digital tools to respond to social justice picturebooks? Using qualitative methods of participant-observation and descriptive analysis, we documented children’s visual and digital responses to interactive readalouds. Data were generated from classroom sessions that incorporated interactive readalouds as well as students’ annotated visual images, sketches, and digital responses which included videos, photos, annotated images, and comments using the web-based tool Seesaw. Findings from this study include the following:
-Children demonstrated deep engagement using multimodal and visual tools, drawing on their linguistic resources to respond to literature.
-Family and community experiences were an important component of their responses and became central to the curriculum as a result of open-ended responses and digital tools.
-Children used restorying to question cultural norms and make sense of gaps in the story.
-The classroom community incorporated diverse cultural and linguistic perspectives to create an inclusive space.
Encouraging responses in the classroom, particularly combining visual, digital, and linguistic modes, is one way educators have utilized more expansive approaches for learning, thus creating more inclusive classroom contexts (Author 1 and colleagues, under review). Also, as literacy researchers, it is important to consider how we might theorize visual responses and how research can provide answers to encourages diverse and creative ways of knowing.

Author 1 and colleagues. (under review).
Sipe, L. R. (2008). Storytime: Young children's literary understanding in the classroom. Teachers College Press.
Zaidi, R., & Rowsell, J. (2017). Literacy lives in transcultural times. New York, NY: Routledge.
Zapata, A., & Laman, T. T. (2016). “I write to show how beautiful my languages are”: Translingual Writing Instruction in English-Dominant Classrooms. Language Arts,93(5),
366.


Robert P Yagelski & Winnie-Karen Giera & Astrid Neumann (United States)
ON THE BOARDERS BETWEEN – WRITTEN WITH ORAL COMMUNICATION

Symposium ARLE 2019 Friday, 11:00-12:30 Room T7
Writing on language skill´s boarder
Language is a multimodal construct which has to be taught in all skills simultaneously. Teachers have to teach in reading, writing and oracy with a huge amount of linguistical and pedagogical awareness. Most of the time they concentrate on one aspect in particular. In international studies however, we assume that a percentage of students is more or less lost without additional support.
How can we find good student’s support systems, which take several forms of language use into account? One opportunity would be to search down communicative practises which will solve central communicative problems (Fiehler et al. 2016). Thereby we would support students in using competencies they already have. Moreover, the school communication would be rather oriented towards a multimodal world (Kress 2016) where students are so-called experts. And we can focus on special central skills attending different tasks to solve in our society (Berge et al. 2016). Which contributions especially well fit in language education, above that we want to discuss.
Therefore, our symposium presents three different papers on the boarder of language use in writing.

Firstly, Robert Yagelsky presents a theoretical paper on the correlation of writing and wellbeing. He will start with common ideas, as how writing works in developing wellbeing for adults and kids?
Especially in this area we can find assumptions that will give teachers instructions for a positive handling of diversity in texts, which is also connected to school’s educational work.

The second paper of Winnie-Karen Giera presents a project combining teaching methods and writing research in vocational education. In this context meaning a group of learners who have already finished their regular school education will be prepared.

And in third paper Astrid Neumann discusses results from a project, with systematically changed linguistic levels of tasks for argumentative texts. She shows traces of that level-tasks in student´s products with profounder insights in their texts.
In the help of these three symposium papers we will draw a picture of theory in practice. Outlaying the process of building hypothesis and proofing this hypothesis as well as depicting theory via quantitative and qualitative methods.

references:
Fiehler, R., Barden, B., Elstermann, M. & Kraft B. (2004). Eigenschaften gesprochener Sprache. Tübingen: Gunter Narr Verlag.
Kress, G. (2010). Multimodality. A Social semiotic approach to contemporary communication. London/NY: Routledge.
Berge, K. L., Evensen, L. S. & Thygesen, R. (2016). The Wheel of Writing: a mnodel of the writing domain for the teaching and assessing of writing as a key competency. The Curriculum Journal. 27(2), 172-189.

Key words: writing, well beeing, SRSD, modelling, lingustic variation


Robert P Yagelski (United States)
WRITING, BEING, AND KNOWING: A WORKING THEORY OF WRITING AS AN ONTOLOGICAL ACT

Paper session ARLE 2019 Thursday, 11:00-12:30 Room T15 Chair: Skarstein, Dag
According to the Call for Papers for the 2019 ARLE Conference, “It is through the mediating function of language that identity is built, that action and relationship abilities are consolidated, that knowledge is developed and communicated.” These connections among language, identity, and knowing are well established in philosophy (Newen and van Riel, 2012) and have influenced thinking in education. Less well explored is the role of writing, as a technology for language, in identity formation, knowing, and being. In formal education, writing is understood primarily as a cognitive process or a social activity. But writing can also be understood as epistemic (Berlin, 1987) and ontological (Yagelski, 2011). It is a form of knowledge-making as well as an ontological process whereby we express our very being in the world and thus plays a uniquely powerful role in identity formation.
This theoretical paper will explore the ontological dimensions of writing and examine the implications for educators of a perspective that accounts for the relationships among writing, identity, and being. Drawing on philosophy, discourse theory (Ivanic, 1999), and studies of writing self-efficacy (Pajares, 2003), the presenter will show how writing is an orchestration of language skills encompassing oracy and literacy and involving both body and intellect that shapes the writer’s sense of self in relation to the world. Because writing pedagogies in formal schooling rest on narrower cognitive or social theories of writing, they exclude the transformative possibilities of writing as a means of identity formation. The working theory presented in this paper thus represents a necessary alternative to the way writing is understood and practiced in mainstream schooling.

References

Berlin, J. (1987). Rhetoric and reality. Urbana, IL: NCTE.

Ivanic, R. (1998): Writing and identity. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing

Newen, A., and van Riel, R. (Eds.). (2012). Identity, language, & mind: An introduction to the philosophy of John Perry. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.

Pajares, F. (2003). Self-efficacy beliefs, motivation, and achievement in writing. Reading & Writing Quarterly 19(2), 139-158.

Yagelski, R. P. (2011). Writing as a way of being. New York: Hampton Press.

Keywords: Writing theory, identity, writing pedagogy, self-efficacy.


Sooyeon Yang & Byeonggon Min ()
THE EFFECT OF DISCUSSION PARTICIPANTS’ GENRE PERCEPTION AND EXPECTATION ON THE DISCUSSION PROCESS-FOCUSING ON SMALL-GROUP DISCUSSION AMONG KOREAN MIDDLE SCHOOL THIRD GRADERS-

Paper session ARLE 2019 Friday, 14:00-15:30 Room T11 Chair: Coppen, Peter-Arno JM
1.Introduction
The present study aims to analyze the pattern of small-group “discussion,” a type of discourse, by focusing on learners’ perception and expectation of the genre, and to develop teaching-learning contents for listening and communication based on the analysis results.
Specifically, this study is interested in discussion as a “problem-solving” method, because previous studies on the general characteristics of discussion (e.g., Gulley, 1960; Keltner, 1957; Dillon, 1994; Brilhart et al., 2001) have essentially considered it as a problem-solving process.
Additionally, the study specifically focuses on the genre specificity of “discussion,” which is characterized by being “task-oriented” for problem solving and “consensus-oriented” via cooperation among members, unlike everyday conversation (which is notably relationship-oriented). The premises are that due to the specificity of the “discussion” genre, learners have different genre perception and expectation when participating in discussion than when engaging in conversation, and that their perception and expectation influence the manner and attitude in learners’ discussion participation, which ultimately causes a change in the pattern of small-group discussion.
Genre perception can be defined as the type of knowledge that is required to communicate within a discourse community (Uzun, 2017). The study aims to investigate the patterns of small-group discussion by focusing on learners’ genre perception and expectation—which were isolated thus far in terms of historic context for teaching discussion—among many diverse factors affecting small-group discussion (e.g., the number of participants, degree of familiarity among participants, goal and atmosphere of the small group, learning environment, difference in academic performance level, and discussion topic).


2.Research Questions
1) What are Korean middle school third graders’ genre perception and expectation of discourse with respect to small-group discussion? How are learners’ perceptions of small-group discussion typified and categorized?
2) How does the pattern of small-group discussion for problem-solving differ specifically according to learners’ genre perception and expectation of small-group discussion?

3.Methodology
The present study is planned as a case study. A holistic analysis will be conducted on various data collected from classes, including video recordings of small-group discussion, audio recordings and transcribed data, researchers’ field notes, and tasks assigned to learners (Yin, 2009). To perform the holistic analysis, discussion will be examined from the perspective of interactional sociolinguistics, and a carefully thought-out interpretive analysis will be conducted. Additionally, learners’ genre perception and expectation of small-group discussion will be investigated both qualitatively and quantitatively by conducting semi-structured in-depth interviews and administering a survey, respectively, and learners’ perceptions will be typified based on the findings.


4.Findings
The (anticipated) conclusions of the study are as follows.
First, it is expected to provide meaningful implications for teaching discussion, based on the typification of learners’ perceptions of small-group discussion and the analysis of discussion pattern based on the typification. For instance, even those learners who rarely speak and are passive during a discussion may have much higher genre perception and expectation of small-group discussion than others. Such discovery would suggest that to teach small-group discussion, teachers should pay careful attention to learners’ intrinsic rules as well as their genre perception.
Second, educational content should be re-constructed to match with individual learners’ genre perception and expectation of discourse, rather than to teach listening and communication using the existing genre-centered approach.
Third, it is thought that the perception and expectation of small-group discussion need to be changed in some learners. Accordingly, an ideal educational model of discussion should be developed through a specific educational intervention to help change learners’ perception.

Key words: genre perception and expectation, small-group discussion, listening and communication

References

Brilhart, J. K., Galanes, G. J., & Adams K. (2001). Effective group discussion: Theory and practice (10th Ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Dillon, J. T. (1994). Using Discussion in Classrooms. New York: Open University Press.
Kim, S. (2014). A Study on the contents constructing of ‘talk for learning’ education (doctoral dissertation), Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.
Uzun, K. (2017). The Relationship Between Genre knowledge and Writing Performance. The Journal of Teaching English for Specific and Academic Purposes, 5(2). 153-162.


Minae Yu & Ko Eun Hong & Bon Gwan Koo (Korea (The Republic Of))
A STUDY ON MODAL EXPRESSIONS IN ARGUMENTATIVE TEXTS OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

Paper session ARLE 2019 Thursday, 14:00-15:30 Room T9 Chair: Costa, Ana Luísa
The objective of a university writing class is to cultivate the writing skills required of a student as a member of an academic discourse community. From the perspective of university academic writing, argumentative writing that provides a logical basis to persuade the reader has to be at the core of the education. Argumentative text employs a variety of strategies to convince the reader by verifying the validity and objectivity of the argument. These characteristics are expressed through a linguistic device. A representative linguistic device is modality. Modality is a method of expressing basic human emotions (Bybee, 1985), and is used to express an opinion or attitude towards a situation detailed by a proposition, or a proposition expressed in a sentence (Lyons, 1977). In the Korean language, hedging expressions at the end of a sentence are one of the ways to indicate modality, and they play a key role in academic writing (Hyland, 1996). In this study, the use of hedging expressions at the end of a sentence used in argumentative texts of university students was analyzed using quantitative methods.
We analyzed 49 argumentative texts written by S university’s undergraduate students taking the “Basics of Writing” course to show that the use of hedging expressions such as ‘-(u)l swu issta’ and ‘-(u)l geosida’ in Korean is an effective strategy to convince potential readers. The collected argumentative texts were holistically graded by three people who majored in Korean language education. Also, this study hypothesized that the frequency of hedging expressions used in the collected texts will have a positive correlation with the grades of the students. In order to investigate this hypothesis, the frequencies of sentence endings with Korean hedging expressions were investigated and a regression analysis was conducted. The result showed that the use of hedging expressions was slightly more in the upper group than the lower group. Therefore, this study concluded that the upper group preferred to use hedging expressions to control the strength of their claims. In addition, the study emphasized the importance of hedging expressions in university writing for inexperienced writers.
Key words: Korean modal expressions; argumentative texts; hedging expressions; Korean language education
References:
Bybee, J. L. (1985). Morphology: A study of the relation between meaning and form. John Benjamin Publishing.
Hinkel, E. (1995). The use of modal verbs as a reflection of cultural values. TESOL Quarterly, 29(2), 325-341.
Hyland, K. (1996). Writing Without Conviction? Hedging in Science Research Articles. Applied Linguistic 17(4). 433-454.
Lyons, J. (1977). Semantics. Cambridge University Press.
Palmer, F. R. (2001). Mood and modality, Cambridge University Press.


Chang Yuan & Jessica L. Eagle & Lili Wang ()
EMPOWERING ELL STUDENTS THROUGH DIGITAL LITERACIES: RESEARCH, COMPLEXITIES, AND IMPLICATIONS

Short presentations (poster) and extended discussion ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 14:30-15:30 Room T15 Chair: Elf, Nikolaj
In the context of an increasingly global society and rapidly changing technology, English language learners (ELLs) need support developing digital literacies to prepare for a future in which learning and using new technology is an intuitive process. In the past few decades, technological advances have been altering the way in which information is produced, communicated, and interpreted. The Internet and digital environments have afforded a broader range of opportunities for literacy practices to take place. The International Society for Technology in Education considers a 21st-century learner an “empowered learner, digital citizen, knowledge constructor, innovative designer, computational thinker, creative communicator, and global collaborator.” Technology has transformed the social practices and definitions of literacy, which leads to implications for the teaching and learning environments facing ELLs. Using the sociocultural perspective of second language acquisition (Lantolf & Thorne, 2007) and an asset lens (Hakuta & Garcia, 1989), we argue that practicing digital literacies (Ferrari, 2012) in the classroom engages ELL students to develop as active participants who gain ownership of learning and the command of English. This innovative teaching pedagogy is promising in addressing tensions between an English, often monolingual, public school system in the United States and an increasing population of K-12 ELL students the system has been facing with by closing the achievement gaps between ELLs and their counterparts. Drawing upon a combined framework of educational empowerment and categorization (Spires & Bartlett, 2012) of digital literacies, we examine how practices of digital literacy empower ELL students to become active participants in the co-creation of knowledge alongside their native English speaking peers. To ensure all students are able to take advantage of this learning, we suggest that teachers must also possess the knowledge and skills of digital literacy. Accordingly, educational researchers should examine factors that support teachers’ utilization of digital literacies. At the school level, it is critical that leadership and administration can offer a digital supportive environment for both teachers and students.

Keywords: English language learners, digital literacy, empowerment, critical theory, digital divide

References:
Ferrari, A. (2012). Digital competence in practice: An analysis of frameworks. Seville, Spain: Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, European Commission. Retrieved from http://www.ifap.ru/ library/book522.pdf
Hakuta, K., & Garcia, E. E. (1989). Bilingualism and education. American Psychologist, 44(2), 374-379.
Lantolf, J., & Thorne, S. L. (2007). Sociocultural theory and second language learning. Theories in second language acquisition (pp. 201-224). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Spires, H., & Bartlett, M. (2012). Digital literacies and learning: Designing a path forward. Friday Institute White Paper Series. NC State University.





Haoran Zheng & Anne T Keary & Sharryn Clarke & Julie Faulkner (Australia)
‘HOW DO NORMAL PEOPLE SPEAK?’: LANGUAGE AND ANXIETY IN INTERNATIONAL PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS’ PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 15:45-17:15 Room T16 Chair: Batalha, Joana
This research incorporates two related projects that explore the lack of confidence that international preservice teachers feel prior to and throughout their first Professional Experience (PE) in an Australian Early Childhood Education degree. Although international students need to satisfy a range of high stakes language requirements, research (Lo Bianco, 2010; Zheng, Keary & Faulkner, 2018) suggests that they feel inhibited in their use of English in professional experience settings. The lack of familiarity with Early Childhood pedagogical and play-based language leaves these students feeling anxious. Increasing numbers of international preservice teachers in Early Childhood undergraduate and postgraduate degrees require support to understand the language demands of EC settings. Project 1, the catalyst for Project 2, aimed to explore international undergraduate preservice teachers’ language challenges before and during their initial professional experience. A qualitative case study design was employed to collect pre and post PE data including interviews, focus group discussions and PE reflective journals.
The purpose of the second project was to provide postgraduate international preservice teachers with a better understanding of oral language expectations when interacting with young children. Before their first professional experience they engaged with video and simulation-based activities. Both projects used qualitative methods where participants were interviewed about their perceptions of their language capabilities for professional experience. A Bourdieusian framework was used to analyse data. Preliminary findings from both projects support second language theory (Lo Bianco, 2010). In both projects pre-service teachers encountered challenges interacting with children in English and lacked confidence fostering children’s literacy development. On the other hand, their own cultural and linguistic capital was yet to be recognised during the PE context. This reinforces the concept that multilingualism is a linguistic and cognitive resource that could be more effectively mobilised by both teacher educators and staff in Early Childhood settings.

Key words: teacher education, multilingualism, international pre-service teachers, international students, professional experience.  

References
Lo Bianco, J. (2010). The importance of language policies and multilingualism for cultural diversity. International Social Science Journal, 61(199), 37-67

Zheng, H., Keary, A., & Faulkner, J. (2018). “What is finger knitting?” Chinese pre-service teachers' initial professional experience in Australian Early Childhood Education. In A. Fitzgerald, J. Williams, & G. Parr (Eds.), Re-imagining Professional experience in initial teacher education. Singapore: Springer.


keyi ZHOU & Rainbow Rung CHAN & Wai Ming Cheung & Eva Lindgren (Hong Kong)
LESSON STUDY ON THE COMBINATION OF READING AND WRITING IN PRIMARY ONE

Paper session ARLE 2019 Wednesday, 15:45-17:15 Room T10 Chair: Pereira, Luísa A.
(Fitzgerald & Shanahan, 2000) pointed out that the ability of reading and writing should be combined organically. However, the writing courses in Primary One in the past were not effective and separated from reading courses, students relied on recitation to make sentences with low writing motivation. Besides, teachers also need to develop professional theory and courses teaching. So this research question was to improve students' writing ability and motivation by combining reading and writing.
 
This study adopted the method of lesson research(Fernandez & Yoshida, 2012), which systematically carried out professional learning and collaboration in order to improve students' learning experience and teachers' teaching effect. The team consisted of five Chinese teachers, vice-principals, curriculum directors, researcher from the Bureau of Education and HKU. This study used the tools of homework paper, courses observation videos, common lesson preparation logs, interviews and questionnaires. Lesson research was in a circular manner, consisting of five steps: 1. Choosing Research Topics. The objective was to require students to read and imitate texts, write sentences about feelings on specific situations, and improve students' motivation. 2. Jointing Courses Planning. The team discussed teaching difficulties and learning strategies to make teaching plan. Teachers found that students lacked experience in life, psychological vocabulary and literacy, failed to write sentences about feelings for a particular situation. Strategies were pointed out like extending word library, flash card, role playing, memory extraction, peer review. 3. Teachers' Practice and Peer View Courses. 4. Viewer gave assessment and reflection Courses. 5. Revising Courses Teaching in order to enter the next cycle of teaching.
 
This lesson study finally found that the combination of reading and writing can improve students' writing ability, especially the accuracy and creativity. Students wrote the correct sentences according to the requirements of topic and different situations. They could use new psychological vocabulary and adverbs to express their unique feelings. It also enhanced students’ writing motivation, students actively participated in the courses, willing to learn writing. In addition, both of the instructor and the observer teachers reflected and grow from the courses teaching, personal specialty and curriculum development.
 
 
Key Words:the combination of reading and writing, lesson research, writing motivation
 
Fernandez, C., & Yoshida, M. (2012). Lesson study: A Japanese approach to improving mathematics teaching and learning. Routledge.
Fitzgerald, J., & Shanahan, T. (2000). Reading and Writing Relations and Their Development. Educational Psychologist, 35(1), 39–50. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15326985EP3501_5


Junling Zhu ()
PROMOTING CONCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE SECOND CONDITIONAL IN THE CLASSROOM ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT

Paper session ARLE 2019 Thursday, 14:00-15:30 Room T12 Chair: Madeira, Ana
This study explores the development of learners’ understanding of the second conditional in English during an instructional conversation (IC). This study is informed by Russian psychologist Vygotsky’s Social Cultural Theory (SCT) and the theory of Instructional Conversation (IC), as well as the work of scholars who have used SCT or IC to design research (Vygotsky 1978; Lantolf & Poehner 2008a; Lantolf & Thorne 2006; and Goldenberg 1991).

The data analyzed in this study came from a lesson observation made by Macmillan Learning Teaching Education of a lower intermediate English class. During the IC, the instructor leads students toward a conceptual understanding of the second conditional in English by providing appropriate mediation that is sensitive to the class’ zone of proximal development (ZPD). The transcript of the IC is analyzed with regard to the amount and type(s) of instructional mediation and the development opportunities created in this type of collaborative interaction.

The findings indicate the conceptual and linguistic development among the students in terms of the second conditional in English during the IC. This is demonstrated by contrasting the analyses of Excerpt 1 and Excerpt 2. Excerpt 1 displays the instructor as the primary resource of mediation, while Excerpt 2 demonstrates an increase in student agency and more self-regulation, where students are able to re-contextualize the second conditional to express ideas in various imaginary situations.

The implications of this study center on the value of IC in creating a ZPD to promote L2 conceptual and linguistic development. It is clear that IC can create a ZPD within which learners have the potential to develop their understanding of L2 grammar concepts and enhance their L2 linguistic performance. The limitation of this study is that it only investigates a one-time class intervention. Future research could conduct a longitudinal study on more L2 grammar concepts to check the effects of IC within the classroom zone of proximal development.

Keywords

Instructional Conversation (IC)
Second conditional in English
Zone of proximal development (ZPD)
Social Cultural Theory (SCT)

Reference

Aljaafreh, A., & Lantolf, J. P. (1994). Negative feedback as regulation and second language learning in the zone of proximal development. The Modern Language Journal, 78, 465–483.

Donato, R. (1994). Collective scaffolding in second language learning. In J. P. Lantolf & G. Appel (Eds.), Vygotskian approaches to second language research (pp. 33–56). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Goldenberg, C. (1991). Instructional conversations and their classroom applications. Educational Practice Report 2. Paper EPR02. Santa Cruz, CA: National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning. Retrieved from: http://escholarship.org/uc/item/6q72k3k9 (October 2011).

Lantolf, J.P. (Ed.). (2000a). Sociocultural theory and second language learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Lantolf, J.P. (2000b). Introducing sociocultural theory. In J.P. Lantolf (Ed.), Sociocultural theory and second language learning (pp. 1–26). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Lantolf, J.P. & Poehner, M.E. (Eds.) (2008a). Sociocultural theory and the teaching of second languages. London: Equinox.

Lantolf, J.P. & Thorne, S.L. (2006). Sociocultural theory and the genesis of second language development. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ratner, C. (2002). Cultural psychology: Theory and method. New York: Kluwer/Plenum.

Resnick, L. (1984). Comprehending and learning: Implications for a cognitive theory of instruction. In H. Mandl, N. Stein, & T. Trabasso (Eds.), Learning and comprehension of text (pp. 431-433). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Van Compernolle, R. A. (2012). Promoting sociolinguistic competence in the classroom zone of proximal development. Language Teaching Research, 16 (1), 39-60.

Vygotsky, L.S. (1978) Mind in society: The development of higher mental processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
--------. (1981). The genesis of higher mental functions. In J. Wertsch (Ed.). The concept of activity in Soviet psychology. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.
--------. (1986). Thought and language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
--------. (1987). The collected works of L. S. Vygotsky, volume 1: Problems of general psychology. R. Reiber & A. Carton (Eds.), New York: Plenum Press.